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Jarra de esmalte de três cores Tang

Jarra de esmalte de três cores Tang


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Uma breve história da cerâmica chinesa

Uma breve história da cerâmica chinesa

Na China, a louça de barro com 7000-10000 anos da era neolítica foi descoberta nas províncias de Henan, Hebei, Jiangxi, Zhejiang e Guangdong, bem como na região autônoma de Guangxi Zhuang. Por exemplo, cacos de barro estimados em 9700-10500 anos foram escavados em Nanzhuangtou, Xushui, província de Hebei. Fragmentos estimados em 7600-10000 anos foram encontrados em Xianrendong. Wannian, província de Jiangxi, e fragmentos de aproximadamente 7600-9000 anos foram descobertos em Guilin, na região autônoma de Guangxi Zhuang. Peças restauráveis ​​de 6000 a.C.-5200 a.C. foram descobertos em locais em Cishan, Wuan, província de Hebei e Peiligang, Xilizheng, província de Henan.

Depois disso, estilos individuais de cerâmica desenvolveram-se em aproximadamente três áreas: a região ao longo do médio e superior Rio Amarelo, a região ao longo da parte inferior do Rio Amarelo e a região de Jiannan, que fica ao sul de Changjiang. Restos de fornos usados ​​para cozer cerâmica foram descobertos nessas regiões.


Na área ao longo do médio e superior Rio Amarelo, a cultura Laoguantai (província de Shaanxi) foi estabelecida em 4.500 a.C., e louças cinzentas foram desenterradas das ruínas de Beishouling. A cultura Yangshao floresceu mais tarde, estabelecendo-se em Banpo por volta de 4000 a.C. e em Miaodigou por volta de 3300 a.C. Por volta dessa época, começaram a aparecer louças de barro pintadas com padrões pintados de preto na superfície do barro. Por volta de 3300 a.C. a louça ficou mais colorida com a adição de pigmento vermelho. Cerâmica pintada também foi queimada nas províncias ocidentais de Gansu e Qinghai, produtos do que é conhecido como cultura Gansu Yangshao ou Majiayao. Mais tarde, a cultura Banshan (ca. 2600 AC-) e a cultura Machang (ca. 2200 AC-) evoluíram, e na Província de Gansu a cultura da cerâmica pintada continuou por um longo período de tempo, através das culturas Qijia e Xindian até o Período dos Reinos Combatentes.

Ao longo da parte inferior do Rio Amarelo, da província de Shandong à província de Jiangsu, a cultura Dawenkou (4.500 a.C.-2.400 a.C.) se desenvolveu. Durante o início do período Dawenkou, a maior parte da louça vermelha foi produzida, mudando para a louça pintada no meio do período. Durante a cultura Dawenkou posterior, louças cinzentas, pretas e brancas foram produzidas usando rodas de oleiro e fornos capazes de queima de redução. A cultura seguinte de Longshan (2.400 a.C.-2.000 a.C.) é conhecida por porcelana preta habilmente trabalhada com paredes finas como cascas de ovos.

Por volta de 5000 a.C. a cultura Hemudu se desenvolveu na província de Zhejiang e, do norte de Zhejiang à província de Jiangsu, a cultura Majiabin (3600 a.C.-2700 a.C.) produziu principalmente louças vermelhas e cinzas, e a cultura Liangzhu (cerca de 2750 a.C.-1890 a.C.) produziu louças pretas. Da província de Sichuan à província de Hubei, influenciada pela cultura Hemudu, a louça vermelha foi produzida na cultura Daxi e a louça preta foi produzida na cultura Qujialing (província de Hubei & # 8211 província de Henan).
As dinastias Xia & # 8211 Shang & # 8211 Zhou & # 8211 Qin & # 8211 Han

Durante a dinastia Shang, que se acredita ter começado por volta de 1600 a.C., foram produzidas peças de bronze de alta qualidade, e também há exemplos de cerâmica branca modelada em vasos de bronze. A técnica de queima de glost foi desenvolvida, e louças vidradas com cinzas baseadas em formas de porcelana cinza foram queimadas. Esta louça é também conhecida como & # 8216 porcelana de proto. & # 8217 Do final do período da Primavera e Outono (772 aC-481 aC) até o período dos Reinos Combatentes (403 aC-221 aC), foi produzida cerâmica vitrificada com decoração impressa , e também há muitos exemplos de louças vitrificadas com cinzas padronizadas com vasos de bronze.

Os elaborados costumes funerários, como podem ser vistos nas figuras de tropas e cavalos enterrados na tumba do Imperador Qin Shihuangdi, começaram no período dos Estados Combatentes e aumentaram em popularidade a partir da dinastia Qin (259 aC-210 aC) até o Han ocidental e oriental dinastia (202 AC-8 DC / 25 DC-220 DC). Grandes quantidades de louças cinzentas e cinzentas coloridas para fins mortuários foram queimadas durante este período. Além da cerâmica vitrificada com cinza de alta queima, a cerâmica vitrificada com chumbo de baixa queima (800-900 graus) também foi desenvolvida. As louças vidradas com chumbo, também usadas como vasos mortuários, incluem as vidradas verdes, que usam o cobre como corante, e as vidradas castanhas, que usam o ferro. A louça esmaltada verde era feita em uma variedade de formas, como pavilhões com torres, cachorros, poços e jarros.

Na dinastia Han oriental, o celadon de qualidade substancial apareceu, e fornos onde o celadon era queimado foram descobertos em Shangyu, Ningbo e Yongjia, na província de Zhejiang do norte. Há exemplos de potes com quatro alças e bordas retas, representando o início do celadon da louça Yue.
Os Três Reinos, Jin Ocidental e Oriental e Dinastias do Sul e do Norte

Do período dos Três Reinos até a dinastia Jin Ocidental, Yue celadon desenvolveu suas próprias formas individuais. Os exemplos incluem potes de enterro com pavilhões fixados na parte superior e figuras humanas e animais aplicadas, ou jarras com bocas em forma de prato, alças e bicas em forma de cabeças de galinha ou ovelha. Urnas funerárias desenvolveram-se a partir dos jarros com quatro pequenos jarros anexados, produzidos na dinastia Han Oriental e foram feitos entre a segunda metade do século III e o século IV. As jarras com bico de frango foram feitas pela primeira vez no período Jin Oriental, no século IV. Também vemos muitos navios em formas animais, incluindo ovelhas, leões, cães, galinhas e sapos. Um vaso celadon com decoração pintada de ferro foi escavado de uma tumba do período dos Três Reinos em Yuhuatai, Nanjing, província de Jiangsu. As mercadorias com decoração manchada de ferro e jarras de vidro preto com bico de frango foram produzidas na dinastia Jin Oriental. Nas dinastias do sul, influenciadas pela arte budista, os desenhos de pétalas de lótus se tornaram populares. As primeiras formas de mercadoria Yue das dinastias do sul, como os jarros com bocas em forma de prato, podem ser vistas através do Sui e na dinastia Tang.

Ao mesmo tempo, o norte da China estava entrando no período de Dezesseis Reinos. Porcelana branca, feita de argila branca, vitrificada com esmalte transparente e cozida em alta temperatura, foi produzida durante a dinastia Qi do norte (550-577). Também foram produzidas louças vidradas com chumbo de baixa queima, e peças com esmalte verde derramado sobre esmalte amarelo foram escavadas de uma tumba de Qi do norte. Acredita-se que essa técnica tenha se desenvolvido mais tarde no Tang sancai ou porcelana esmaltada em três cores. As peças desse período revelam influência da cultura da Ásia Ocidental, como padrões de uvas, palmito e padrão de anel de conexão. Essa tendência continuou durante a dinastia Sui (581-618). Porcelana branca foi queimada nos fornos Gongxian na província de Henan e nos fornos Xing nos condados de Lincheng e Neiqiu na província de Hebei.
Dinastia Tang

A cultura chinesa na dinastia Tang (618-986) começou a conter mais elementos multiculturais e, assim, novas formas surgiram. Os fornos Yue do século 7 aparentemente continuaram a produzir trabalhos com as formas e esmaltes da louça Yue Antiga, como vasos com bocas em forma de prato. Essas mercadorias eram queimadas não apenas nos fornos Yue, no norte da província de Zhejiang, mas também no sul da província de Zhejiang, através das províncias de Fujian e Jiangxi. No norte da China, a produção de louças como a porcelana preta Yaozhou, a porcelana branca Xing e a porcelana branca Xing aumentou. No final da dinastia Tang, os fornos Ding em Quyang, província de Hebei, queimavam porcelana branca. Louças revestidas com pasta branca e depois cobertas com esmalte transparente eram produzidas nos fornos Hebi, Mixian e Dengfeng na província de Henan, e também espalhadas para outros fornos nas províncias de Henan, Hebei, Shandong, Anhui, Shanxi e Shaanxi. Nestes fornos, durante as Cinco Dinastias, desenvolveram-se louças esmaltadas brancas decoradas com pigmento verde, bem como um tipo de louça decorada com ferro sob o vidrado. A técnica decorativa do sgraffito também foi usada em utensílios feitos de argila branca, um método que continuou a se desenvolver na dinastia Song do Norte.

As figuras coloridas de yong como objetos mortuários continuaram a ser produzidas em grandes quantidades, muitas das quais com belas formas artísticas. Sancai ou decoração de três cores era popular entre as peças de vidro com chumbo. A maioria das peças de decoração de três cores Tang eram feitas como vasos mortuários. Essas peças foram descobertas nos fornos Xingzhou (Neiqiu, província de Hebei), fornos Yaozhou (Tongchuan, província de Shaanxi) e nos fornos Gongxian (Gongxian, província de Henan). A cultura da corte imperial, que floresceu desde o início da dinastia Tang até seu período de pico, entrou em declínio após as rebeliões (755-763) de An Lushan e Shi Siming. Os fornos Yue começaram a desenvolver um novo tipo de celadon, diferente da louça Yue Velha. Da segunda metade do século VIII até a segunda metade do século IX, eram produzidas tigelas com pé biforme. Este estilo também pode ser visto em outros fornos, como Xingzhou.

Em Chajing (cerca de 761), Lu Yu discute sobre os utensílios Yue (Cixi, província de Zhejiang), os utensílios Dingzhou (Yaozhou yao, província de Shaanxi), os artigos Wuzhou (Jinhua, província de Zhejiang), os artigos Yuezhou (Xiangyin, província de Hunan), Ware Shouzhou (Huainan, província de Anhui) e Ware Hongzhou (Fengcheng, província de Jiangxi), e entre a porcelana branca, ele menciona as tigelas de Ware Xingzhou. Depois disso, os fornos Yue queimaram & # 8220secret color & # 8221 mise celadon, como pode ser visto nas peças escavadas do palácio subterrâneo no templo de Famensi (874). O principal celadon da cor secreta de queima do forno estava em Shanglin, em Cixi, na província de Zhejiang, e Qianshi, governante de Wuyue, o havia produzido em grandes quantidades.

Uma grande quantidade de cerâmica com decoração de cobre e ferro sob o vidrado foi queimada em Changsha, na província de Hunan. Um esmalte azul usando cobalto era freqüentemente usado em louças Tang de três cores, e há vários exemplos conhecidos de louças Tang azul e branco. Exemplos dos primeiros utensílios azuis e brancos foram escavados no local da fortaleza Tang em Yangzhou, na província de Jiangsu e em Luoyang, na província de Henan. A verdadeira mercadoria azul e branca não apareceu, entretanto, até a dinastia Yuan.
Dinastia Song

Um dos fornos mais conhecidos da dinastia Song é o forno Ding (Quyang, província de Hebei), que esteve ativo desde o final da dinastia Tang até a dinastia Jin. Os restos dos fornos estão espalhados por Jianci cun, Quyang, província de Hebei. Durante a dinastia Song, os fornos Ding queimavam principalmente porcelana cor de marfim com decoração entalhada e impressa, bem como peças esmaltadas em verde, esmaltado em preto e marrom. Também há exemplares de peças com elegantes desenhos de dragões e fênix feitas para a corte imperial. A argila de porcelana usada nos fornos Ding era fina, dura e de cor branca. As peças têm paredes finas e as formas são sofisticadas, dando uma sensação de estabilidade. Os oleiros Ding desenvolveram a técnica fu shao de queimar as panelas de cabeça para baixo nas bordas para evitar empenamento, aumentando a produtividade. Esse método, no entanto, impede a aplicação de esmalte no aro, e muitas peças Ding têm faixas de metal cobrindo seus aros.

Durante as Cinco Dinastias, celadon, assim como porcelana branca pura, foi queimada em Yangmeiting, Huangnitou e Hutian em Jingdezhen (província de Jiangxi). O celadon era no estilo Yuezhou. A porcelana branca queimada por volta do século 11 era principalmente porcelana azul e branca, da qual uma grande quantidade foi produzida. Aqui, também, as panelas foram queimadas de cabeça para baixo nas bordas da boca por volta do século XII. Além de Jingdezhen, os utensílios qingbai foram produzidos em Jizhou e Nanfeng na província de Jiangxi, Dehua, Jian e Pucheng na província de Fujian, bem como fornos na província de Guangdong, província de Anhui e província de Zhejiang, estabelecendo uma rede de fornos qingbai.

Os fornos Yaozhou queimavam porcelana branca e porcelana preta esmaltada como parte da rede Cizhou desde a dinastia Tang, mas celadon que se pensava ter sido influenciado pela porcelana Yue também era produzida lá. O celadon queimado nos fornos Yaozhou nas Cinco Dinastias era superior na cor e na forma do vidrado, também conhecido como Dong yao. Na dinastia Song do Norte, os fornos produziam louças com esmalte verde oliva e decoração esculpida em uma técnica de entalhe distinta chamada katagiribori em japonês, em que o entalhe era feito com uma faca em ângulo, transformando o esmalte no entalhado área para renderizar um efeito tridimensional. O centro de produção dos utensílios de Yaozhou era Huangpuzhen, cidade de Tongchuan, província de Shaanxi, onde eram produzidas grandes quantidades de tigelas e pratos de alta qualidade com padrões esculpidos ou impressos. Na dinastia Song, o combustível para fornos mudou de madeira para carvão, e fornos provinciais, como os de Linru e Baofeng, começaram a produzir obras no estilo Yaozhou, estabelecendo uma rede de fornos que produziam artigos do tipo Yaozhou. Os fornos Yaozhou das Cinco Dinastias, influenciados pelo celadon de cor secreta dos fornos Yue, perseguiram a cor celadon ideal, que acabou levando a Ru yao. Acredita-se que a louça Ru tenha sido produzida em fornos em Qingliangsi, Baofengxian, província de Henan. Esses fornos queimavam não apenas artigos Ru, mas também artigos estilo Jun e Yaozhou. A louça Ru é delicadamente trabalhada, com finos crazing no esmalte, e foi queimada com o suporte de pequenas esporas em forma de agulha. Os exemplos existentes de produtos Ru são extremamente raros. Em 1127, sob o ataque de Jin (Jurchen), a corte Song mudou sua capital para Lin & # 8217an (Hangzhou), onde os fornos oficiais Song do Sul foram estabelecidos. Registros mostram que fornos como os de Xiuneisi e Jiaotanxia eram operados como fornos oficiais do Southern Song. No momento, a escavação dos fornos de Jiaotanxia (Wuguishan, cidade de Hangzhou) foi relatada, e fornos que se pensava serem os fornos de Xiuneisi foram escavados em Fenghuang shan e Laohudong. Uma característica das peças oficiais Song do Sul é que o corpo de argila contém uma grande quantidade de ferro, resultando em um corpo escuro, e o esmalte é aplicado em camadas grossas. Peças semelhantes à louça oficial Southern Song também foram escavadas em Longquan e Yuezhou (fornos Pengdong).

Até meados da dinastia Song, os fornos Longquan produziam artigos cujas formas e esmaltes foram influenciados por outros fornos na mesma província, nomeadamente Ou yao e Wuzhou yao na província de Zhejiang. Acredita-se que os fornos Longquan tenham sido estabelecidos durante a dinastia Jin Ocidental e faziam parte da rede de armazéns Yuezhou. A louça Longquan evoluiu dramaticamente durante a dinastia Song do Sul, o número de fornos crescendo para centenas espalhados por toda a área, incluindo Dayao, Jincun, Xikou, Anfu, Shantou, Dabaian, Shangyaner e Anrenkou. Fornos como o Xikou queimavam celadon de corpo escuro com técnicas aprendidas nos fornos oficiais Song do Sul. Muitos exemplos de celadon Longquan das dinastias Song do Sul e Yuan foram escavados, e um grande número também existe no Japão. Mais de 10.000 peças de celadon Longquan foram recuperadas de um navio que naufragou na costa de Sinan, na Coréia, em 1323. Além disso, em 1991, uma grande quantidade de celadon Longquan, junto com mercadorias qingbai, foi escavada de um depósito em Suining xian, Sichuan Província, o que chamou a atenção dos estudiosos. Longquan celadon, da última dinastia Song do sul, com um esmalte excelente, cobrindo o corpo em duas ou três camadas, é conhecido como kinuta celadon no Japão.

Tigelas de chá com cobertura preta conhecidas como tenmoku no Japão foram queimadas em fornos em várias regiões durante a dinastia Song. As louças com esmalte preto foram queimadas pela primeira vez na dinastia Han oriental, e há exemplos de peças com esmalte preto Yue em fornos como o Deqing, mas só na dinastia Song do Norte a técnica foi aperfeiçoada, como visto em mercadorias como como as tigelas de vidro preto Ding. Taças de chá com esmalte preto eram produzidas em toda a China, incluindo utensílios Cizhou, Yaozhou, Jizhou e Jian. Durante a dinastia Song do Sul, grandes quantidades de tigelas de vidro preto foram produzidas nos fornos Jian (Shiji zhen, Jianyang xian, província de Fujian) e tenmoku de lebre & # 8217s fur, tenmoku com manchas de óleo e yohen tenmoku são altamente aclamados. Em Yonghe zhen, cidade de Jian, província de Jiangxi, os estênceis de papel foram usados ​​para criar padrões invertidos. Outras técnicas decorativas para o tenmoku incluem aquelas com um padrão feito com o fogo de uma folha na superfície do vidrado, ou taihi tenmoku, cuja superfície se assemelha a uma concha de tartaruga.

Os artigos de Cizhou são representativos de fornos de operação privada no norte da China. É caracterizada por potes recobertos por deslizamento branco e decorados com padrões não padronizados, desenhados livremente na técnica do esgrafito. Existem também exemplos notáveis ​​de peças em que o pigmento de ferro foi escovado sobre a pasta branca e o padrão foi esculpido em esgrafito. Os fornos que queimam essa louça esgrafada de esmalte preto foram centralizados em Ci xian, no sul da província de Hebei. Outros fornos que queimam louças de Cizhou estavam localizados na província de Henan, província de Hebei, província de Shanxi, província de Shandong e província de Shaanxi. No norte da China, durante a dinastia Song, os fornos Cizhou, Yaozhou, Jun e Ding, enquanto seus locais de produção se sobrepunham parcialmente, todos ativamente produziam mercadorias para atender à demanda popular. Da dinastia Jin no século 13 à dinastia Yuan, os artigos decorados com esmalte vermelho e verde sobre o vidrado eram produzidos em vários fornos que faziam artigos do tipo Cizhou, como o forno Cizhou na província de Hebei, o forno Hebi, o forno Dengfeng e o forno de bacun Yuxian em Henan Província, forno Zibo na província de Shandong e forno Changzhi na província de Shanxi. Na dinastia Yuan, louças decoradas com esmalte vermelho no estilo Cizhou também foram queimadas em Jingdezhen.
Louça Azul e Branca e Porcelana Wucai

Existem alguns exemplos antigos de utensílios azuis e brancos das dinastias Tang, Five Dynasties e Northern Song. A partir da dinastia Yuan, o número de materiais escavados aumentou, tornando possível rastrear o desenvolvimento estilístico das louças azuis e brancas. O azul cobalto brilhante que pode ser pintado de forma complexa na superfície de um corpo de porcelana branca possibilitou uma expressão pictórica inteiramente nova. Da dinastia Song do sul à dinastia Yuan, os principais métodos decorativos empregados em Jingdezhen eram padrões entalhados e impressos. A porcelana esculpida também começou a ser decorada com esmalte vermelho, ou contas em relevo podem ser aplicadas na superfície da porcelana. O mesmo tipo de desenho foi tentado na pintura vermelho-cobre sob o vidrado. O objetivo da decoração gradualmente mudou para a ênfase na técnica de expressão, ao invés do assunto em si. Com a conquista do uso do azul sob o vidrado, as peças passaram a ser pintadas com uma grande variedade de padrões. Com a liberdade adquirida com a capacidade de usar o pincel para aplicar desenhos em vasos, a gama de temas decorativos aumentou repentinamente. As expressões obtidas com pinceladas intrincadas e gradações na cor azul levaram ao desenvolvimento de representações realistas nunca antes vistas em cerâmica. Nesse ínterim, pratos e potes em grande escala começaram a ser produzidos. Com isso, o aumento da área da superfície a ser decorada era inevitável, e as atenções se voltaram para o tema da “pintura”. A superfície de porcelana branca era vista como nada mais do que um fundo para decoração pintada. As formas que se seguiram às da dinastia Song incluíam yuhuchun ou vasos em forma de pêra e vasos meiping. Aqueles que apareceram pela primeira vez na dinastia Yuan incluíam taças de caule e seng maohu ou monge & # 8217s-cap ewer.

Os principais motivos decorativos incluíam animais como dragões e fênix, bem como qilin, pássaros, peixes, insetos e plantas como peônias, melões, folhas de bananeira japonesas e lótus. No fundo dos motivos principais estão padrões de ondas, lappets ruyi, pétalas de lótus no estilo Lama, flores de baoxiang-hua, rolos de peônia e outros símbolos auspiciosos.

Um frasco coberto em azul e branco escavado da tumba datada de 1319 na cidade de Jiujiang, província de Jiangxi, está decorado com lappets ruyi, peônias e pétalas de lótus sob o esmalte qingbai. O frasco azul e branco com tampa vermelho-cobre sob o vidrado com desenho de quatro deuses e o pavilhão com torre em vermelho-cobre e azul e branco com vidrado vermelho-cobre datado de 1338 também são exemplos de porcelana qingbai decorada com pigmento sob o vidrado. Um exemplo posterior é o vaso do Templo com decoração azul sob o vidrado de dragões entre nuvens da coleção da Fundação Percival David, datada de 1351. A forma é um estilo típico de Zhizhen, nomeado após o ano chinês em que foi feito, representando perfeição e dignidade . Podemos supor que, durante esse período, houve um rápido processo de desenvolvimento da louça qingbai à porcelana azul e branca. Acredita-se que, nessa época, várias técnicas decorativas existiam simultaneamente. A perfeição da técnica em azul e branco tornou possível retratar designs mais intrincados, e a execução hábil de vários tons da cor azul aumentaram o enriquecimento das expressões decorativas. A louça azul e branca Jingdezhen da dinastia Yuan nasceu sob a influência da cultura islâmica, pois o cobalto foi importado de países islâmicos, as formas foram inspiradas em vasos de metal islâmicos e os desenhos compostos por várias faixas decorativas também foram emprestados de Design islâmico. Os fornos Jingdezhen da dinastia Yuan estavam concentrados dentro da cidade, bem como em Hutian, que fica nos arredores da cidade. Hutian era um grande complexo de fornos que produzia utensílios qingbai. Fragmentos de um frasco com miçangas aplicadas foram descobertos lá, junto com cacos de porcelana azul e branca cujo design corresponde ao de grandes pratos Yuan azuis e brancos encontrados no Museu do Palácio de Topkapi em Istambul e outras coleções.

Acredita-se que a fábrica de porcelana de Fuliang em Jiangzuo yuan tenha sido estabelecida pela corte de Yuan em 1278. Além da fábrica de porcelana de Jiangzuo yuan, havia também uma fábrica de pinturas onde decorava o vidrado em azul e branco. Um grande número de pintores, incluindo os de países islâmicos, trabalhava nesta fábrica, o que se reflete nos desenhos geométricos de alguns dos vasos azuis e brancos da coleção do Museu do Palácio de Topkapi.

Na China, a porcelana azul e branca Yuan foi escavada em depósitos em Baoding, província de Hebei e Gaoan xian, província de Jiangxi. As louças azuis e brancas Yuan também eram feitas para exportação e são encontradas em coleções ou escavadas em todo o mundo. Por exemplo, eles são encontrados nas coleções do Museu do Palácio de Topkapi e do Ardebil no Irã, e foram escavados nas ruínas do Palácio Tughlug, áreas costeiras na Índia, no Oriente Médio, Damasco, Hormuz e Fustat do Egito, e mesmo em Fukui e Okinawa. No sudeste da Ásia, uma grande quantidade de porcelana azul e branca Yuan que é diferente da porcelana estilo Zhizhen foi escavada. No entanto, embora essa mercadoria tenha sido feita para uso da corte na dinastia Yuan, quase não há exemplos dela na Coleção Imperial, e há mais peças de porcelana azul e branca Yuan de alta qualidade em coleções estrangeiras do que na própria China. Isso demonstra o caráter da mercadoria azul e branca Yuan como mercadoria de exportação e também reflete a avaliação da mercadoria azul e branca Yuan durante as dinastias Ming e Qing.

Outra técnica decorativa pode ser vista nas louças decoradas com esmalte sobre o vidrado do forno Cizhou da dinastia Jin. Esta mercadoria apresenta padrões simples escovados rapidamente em vermelho, verde e amarelo. Um exemplo bem conhecido é uma tigela datada de 1201, que é decorada com um sancai ou esmalte de três cores e pigmento vermelho sobre um fundo de esmalte branco. Durante a dinastia Yuan, os fornos Jingdezhen também produziam esse tipo de louça, que é semelhante aos exemplos Jin. Tanto quanto pode ser determinado a partir de fragmentos escavados em Jingdezhen, este artigo não possui as qualidades formais de um artigo oficial, mas mantém a vivacidade dos artigos de Cizhou. O estilo dos artigos de Cizhou do norte da China foi transmitido aos fornos Jingdezhen na província de Jiangxi. Com a perfeição da decoração de estilo Zhizhen, as louças azuis e brancas sofreram um desenvolvimento dramático, mas a esmaltação sobre o vidrado não apresentou um progresso significativo.

Recentemente, o local da fábrica imperial (yuqichang) em Zhushan, cidade de Jingdezhen foi escavado pelo Instituto de Pesquisa em Cerâmica Arqueológica da Cidade de Jingdezhen, e alguns dos resultados da escavação foram introduzidos na & # 8220 Extribição de Porcelana Imperial & # 8221 (1995). Yuqichang foi um forno oficial estabelecido no início da dinastia Ming. Oficiais foram despachados para lá e mercadorias imperiais foram despedidas. Existem várias teorias sobre exatamente quando a fábrica imperial foi estabelecida, como 1369 (Registro de Cerâmica de Jingdezhen), 1426 (História de Jiangxi) ou 1426 até mesmo textos históricos fornecem datas diferentes.

Os governantes de Hongwu baniram o comércio marítimo, limitando o comércio aos tributos imperiais. O suprimento de cobalto dos países islâmicos foi interrompido, e os oleiros começaram a produzir porcelana decorada com vermelho cobre sob o vidrado, emprestando desenhos de porcelana azul e branca. As peças de estilo Hongwu seguiam a tradição Yuan, mas a porcelana decorada com vermelho-cobre sob o vidrado era a preferida, e não se trocavam muitas peças de azul e branco. É sabido pela escavação de Zhushan que grandes vasos de porcelana foram produzidos em grandes quantidades durante o reinado de Hongwu (1368-1398). Os principais motivos decorativos das louças Hongwu azul e branco e vermelho-cobre sob o vidrado são plantas como peônias, crisântemos, folhas de bananeira japonesas, pinheiros, bambu e ameixas. Eles não têm inscrição. Bandas de decoração em torno dos motivos principais incluem pergaminhos florais de peônia, rolos florais de crisântemo, pétalas de lótus, folhas de bananeira japonesas, padrões de nuvens, padrões de trastes principais e padrões de onda. As formas dos vasos incluem tigelas e pratos grandes, potes, garrafas de yuhuchun e vasos meiping.

Um caco de um prato com um dragão com cinco garras pintadas em esmalte vermelho sobre o esmalte de porcelana foi escavado no palácio de Hongwu em Nanjing. Considera-se que a técnica de decoração do overglaze era basicamente dominada durante o reinado de Hongwu, mas não era comum naquela época combinar duas ou três cores para decoração.

A & # 8220Great Zhenghe Expedition & # 8221 ocorreu no reinado de Yongle (1403-1424), com um grande séquito conduzindo o comércio em escala internacional. Como resultado, as importações de cobalto dos países islâmicos foram retomadas. O cobalto conhecido como smalt tem baixo teor de manganês, resultando em uma cor azul brilhante. Peças decoradas em marrom, vermelho e ouro sobre vidrado foram escavadas no local do forno imperial em Jingdezhen. Podemos ver por esses fragmentos que os pintores buscavam padrões claramente expressos em seu trabalho sobre o esmalte. Muitas vezes tentaram-se decorações em esmalte monocromático sobre vidrado, mas a principal técnica decorativa permaneceu como a porcelana azul e branca. Acredita-se que o esmalte vermelho e o esmalte vermelho tenham sido usados ​​pela primeira vez no reinado de Xuande (1426-1435), mas agora está ficando claro que essas técnicas já haviam sido aperfeiçoadas no período Yongle. Os desenhos eram pintados em vermelho sobre o vidrado ou sobre o vidrado na porcelana tianbai & # 8220sweet white & # 8221, a cor exclusiva das produzidas no reinado de Yongle. A porcelana com decoração verde sobre fundo amarelo, juntamente com a decoração castanha sobre fundo verde também foi produzida durante o período Yongle.

A porcelana Yongle traz a inscrição & # 8220Feita no Reinado de Yongle & # 8221, mas não era comum inscrever os potes com o nome do forno oficial onde foram queimados. A prática de inscrever em vasos com inscrições como & # 8220Feita no Reinado de Xuande & # 8221 é característica de peças de meados do período Xuande em diante que foram escavadas no local do forno imperial. Há uma grande variedade de formas de vasos, incluindo frascos globulares, frascos com corpo achatado, tampas de monge # 8217s, suportes para velas e pratos grandes. Estes são decorados livremente com desenhos bem equilibrados de flores de lótus e rolos florais. Algumas peças, como o & # 8220 Prato azul e branco com desenho de flores e pássaros & # 8221 têm uma qualidade pictórica que vai além da mera decoração.

Uma grande variedade de técnicas decorativas, como doucai, foram introduzidas durante o reinado de Xuande. Fragmentos de peças doucai do período Xuande estão entre as peças que foram desenterradas em locais de Jingdezhen. Essas peças foram decoradas com contornos em azul sob o vidrado, dentro dos quais estão pintados desenhos em vermelho, amarelo, verde e roxo sobre o vidrado. No entanto, não existem exemplos conhecidos de doucai ware intacta do período Xuande. Durante este período, a técnica decorativa de pintar um desenho de peônias ou lírios em azul sob o vidrado e, em seguida, pintar o fundo ao redor em amarelo sobre o vidrado foi aperfeiçoada. O uso desta técnica começou no período Xuande e continuou durante os períodos Chenghua, Hongzhi e Zhengde.

As louças azuis e brancas dos fornos oficiais dos períodos Zhengtong (1436-1449), Jingtai (1450-1457) e Tianshun (1457-1464) não apresentam marcas de reinado, mas sabemos de registros históricos e de escavações em Jingdezhen que uma variedade de cerâmicas foram ativamente produzidas durante este período. Tanto quanto pode ser determinado a partir de peças escavadas em Zhushan, as mercadorias produzidas durante esses períodos continuaram no estilo das mercadorias Xuande. No entanto, não existem exemplos existentes de trabalho com os padrões decorativos tão intrincados como os do período Xuande. Fornos particulares queimavam cerâmicas decoradas com figuras humanas ou padrões de nuvens, conhecido como undo-de no Japão.

No período Chenghua, foram produzidas porcelanas que continuam na tradição Xuande, incluindo algumas imitações com inscrições Xuande. A maioria dos exemplos existentes de porcelanas desse período são relativamente pequenos. Embora não haja uma grande variedade de formas, alguns exemplos notáveis ​​de tigelas e pratos foram produzidos durante este período. As tigelas Chenghua conhecidas como & # 8220Palace Bowls & # 8221 são especialmente aclamadas.

Muito poucos exemplos de porcelana doucai do período Chenghua são conhecidos, mas mais de 10.000 pés de aros foram escavados no local do forno imperial em Jingdezhen, indicando que doucai foi produzida em grandes quantidades. Isso também nos dá uma ideia do rígido controle de qualidade que se praticava na época. A maioria das peças de doucai do período Chenghua eram peças pequenas, como xícaras e tigelas. No início da dinastia Ming, mais cores foram adicionadas ao vermelho e verde sobre o vidrado. A escavação em Jingdezhen nos mostra a verdadeira riqueza da decoração sobre o vidrado no período Chenghua, incluindo esmalte monocromático sobre o vidrado, wucai, doucai, utensílios decorados com azul sob o vidrado e vermelho sobre o vidrado e utensílios com vidrado roxo, verde ou azul sob o vidrado sobre amarelo backgrounds, as well as ware with green designs painted on white porcelain or against a red background, which were also popular during the Jiajing period. Large numbers of jars inscribed with the character tian, meaning the sky or heaven, have also been discovered. The extant examples of Chenghua doucai are brilliant and refined, worthy of an official kiln.

Porcelain production in the succeeding Hongzhi (1488-1505) and Zhengde (1506-1521) periods is thought to have continued in the same way as in the Chenghua period, but extant examples as rare, with little more than a few pieces of ware decorated with designs in overglaze green or underglaze blue against yellow backgrounds.

In Jingdezhen, porcelain was produced at both the official kilns and private kilns. Beginning around the Jiajing period, however, orders for official ware from the imperial factory became so large that private kilns were commissioned to produce some of the ware. In this way the system of “officially controlled, privately fired” ware was established. As a result, the quality of the products of the private kilns improved, due to assimilation of production techniques and quality control. In this way, private kilns firing wares of superior quality were able to meet the demand of the wealthy class. The ware fired at these kilns included overglaze polychrome decoration of the traditional style. The Jiajing period saw the production of a variety of colorful wucai or five-color ware, and the variety of decorative motifs also broadened. The designs of dragons, phoenixes, bird-and-flower, fish, lotus ponds and peonies which were often seen in the products of the official kilns until the middle of the Ming dynasty underwent various changes during the Jiajing period. The conventional designs that had been handed down and copied within the official kilns began to show a decrease in the severity of decorative styles in the Jiajing period. In turn, there was a notable increase in the use of auspicious symbols as designs. This trend was observed chiefly in the products of private kilns. The ware known as kinrande was made in the Wanli period.

According to records, official ware was produced once during the Longqing period (1567-1572), and the wares bear the reign mark “Made in the Reign of Longqing.” In the following Wanli period, there was a dramatic increase in the variety of wucai or five-color enameled ware being produced. Blue-and-white ware with the same forms and designs as the wucai ware was also produced. Particularly notable are the large utensils such as wine vessels, censers, and candle stands as well as stationary such as brush cases, inkstones, brush holders, and brush rests. The decorations intricately cover the surface of the pieces, and in addition to decorative motifs used in the Jiajing period, auspicious designs such as deer and bats were also adopted. Pieces with openwork decoration were also produced. Porcelain produced at the beginning of the Wanli period was carefully crafted, but as tougher orders for production were assigned in the latter half of the period, the workmanship became coarser.

At the end of the Ming dynasty, private kilns in Jingdezhen fired large dishes known as “Kraak porcelain,” which were exported to Europe by the Dutch East India Company. At the end of the Ming dynasty private kilns replaced official kilns as the most active centers of ceramic production. From the Tianqi period (1621-1627) through the Chongzhen period (1628-1644) blue-and-white ware known as ko-sometsuke in Japan was fired. Following this, another type of ware in underglaze blue known as shonzui, or iro-e shonzui with overglaze painting, was produced. ‘Nanjing ware’ with overglaze decoration was exported to countries across Europe. Coarse polychrome and blue-and-white ware was fired at kilns in Fujian Province and Guangdong Province. Among these, the ware known as swatow ware, gosu-de and gosu aka-e in Japan was fired at kilns such as Zhangzhou yao, Fujian Province from the end of the 16th century until the middle of the 17th century.

At the beginning of the Qing dynasty, Jingdezhen private kilns produced wares of unrestrained forms and designs, the so-called “transitional-style” ware, which was made for export to Europe.

In 1680, the imperial factory resumed operation, and Jingdezhen became a thriving center of ceramic production. The three-color glazed decorations seen in the Wanli period reappeared in an even more sophisticated form, as represented by a dish with a design of delicately incised dragons and clouds along with painted pomegranates. The amount of carefully crafted ware with intricate five-color overglaze decoration increased. While the colors used in the Ming dynasty were red, yellow, green, purple, and black, more colors appeared during the Kangxi period (1662-1722). Also, many pieces with monochrome glazes of superb colors such as red, blue, and yellow were produced. In addition, the enamel painting technique which was used on metal and glass was applied to porcelain. In this case, the vessels were made at Jingdezhen and taken to the inner Palace workshops in Beijing to be decorated by imperial court painters. Utilizing this technique, the overglaze enameling technique of famille rose was developed at Jingdezhen. The opaque enamels used in famille rose made possible to achieve delicate painted decorations in a variety of colors and hues.

The famille rose technique began to be used in the Kangxi period, and in the Yongzheng period (1723-1735) a great number of works were created with realistic depictions of flowers and birds, represented in even more delicate gradations of color. As a result the blue-and-white ware of the official kilns experienced no further technical development, and gradually went into decline. The appearance of the famille rose technique represented one of the pinnacles of overglaze decorated porcelain.

In the Qianlong period (1736-1795) the number of decorative subjects increased, and the famille rose technique became even more intricate. As a result, polychrome porcelain imitating the texture of different materials such as lacquer, stone, and wood began to appear, which render a light, playful atmosphere. Rather than observing this phenomenon as the degradation of ceramics, we can view the works as avant garde challenges possessing a modern quality. Works known as guyuexuan and vases with designs of Western figures are representative examples of the overglaze enamel painted ware decorated by imperial court painters.

Copyright © 2009-All Rights Reserved by The Museum of Oriental Ceramics,Osaka

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Tang Dynasty Chinese Ceramics

The Sancai ( meaning three-colour) Porcelain style was predominant during the Tang dynasty (618 - 911). Its main origins are in northern China, in areas such as Chang'an, Shaanxi Province, and Loyang, Henan Province.

Sancai Ceramics are created in a wide range of decorative forms often with bright colours. Because of the style's liberal use of green, yellow and white, Sancai is sometimes called egg-and-spinach in the west. In earlier times, the ceramic style did not attract collectors since almost all of the pieces were originally burial objects. Today, most people appreciate the intense creativity of the ancient Sancai potters.

The Sancai technique used a low-temperature glazing and white clay, and later finishing pieces by firing at a temperature around 800C. Figures such as horses were formed by moulding and adding white clay. Glazes on Sancai pieces often flowed downward during firing and colours commonly appear uneven.

CERAMIC ARTIFACT # ta-007308

The Jun ware jar has 2 handles with 3 knobs on each side. It is covered with a crackled bluish glaze and purple splashes on the main body.

The artifact was created near Linru County in the province of Henan at the Jun kilns of Yuxian County during the Northern Song dynasty (960-1126) to the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) and Yuan dynasty (1271-1368). It was brought to Southeast Asia as a trade-good probably by an ancient Chinese trading ship and sold among one of the many thriving Chinese communities living in Southeast Asia. The object probably ended up as a burial object of a prominent individual. Centuries later, it was rediscovered by excavators and subsequently acquired by The Chalre Collection through a registered dealer.

Produced in the Sung Dynasty period (960 - 1279).

Artifacts with similar or identical shape and/or decorations are found in various publications including: Chinese Ceramics, The Art of Chinese Ceramics and other publications dealing with Tang era pottery styles.

Similar and/or identical items are also on display at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London (UK), the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco (USA), the National Museum of Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur), the National Museum of the Philippines (Manila) and other museums throughout the world with diverse collections of Asian ceramics.

Specific references will be provided at a later phase of this site's development.


You can also become an expert in the identification of blue and white porcelain, don’t believe this article

Blue-and-white porcelain originated in the Tang Dynasty, until the Yuan Dynasty began to become everyone for the call of exquisite utensils.From Yuan Dynasty to Qing Dynasty, blue-and-white porcelain showed its rich characteristics in every era.You can’t miss the curio market unless you know the blue and white materials used in these times. You can also be a half-expert.Let’s study together today!

_ “The Theory of Reading Porcelain”

The three-pot Pegasus Foundation

In the history of ceramics, the different blue-and-white glaze tones on the blue-and-white porcelain have their own unique features.the Tang Dynasty (the Tang Dynasty)618-907) is the origin of blue glaze ceramics, blue-and-white porcelain at this time first seen in the prototype, to the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) is more brilliant than bright (1368-1644(c), (c), (c) (c)1644-1911The continuous development of the two dynasties has become one of the largest-burning varieties in the history of Chinese ceramics.Among them, the application of different kinds of cobalt materials can be described as blue-and-white hair color is an important key.

Qing Kang Xi, Qing Hua, Bo Gu, Kaiguang, Deli, Guanyin Bottle and Flower Bird, Guanyin Bottle

The earliest use of cobalt materials can be traced back to BC2000It is known that it was used as a blue colorant in West Asia at that time.But in Chinese archaeological excavations, only from the Warring States Period (BC)475-221At the beginning of the cultural relics of the period, there were traces of cobalt blue on the glass beads and instruments, which, according to their shape and workmanship, were most likely from Western Asia rather than something made in China.

Mingwanli blue-and-white seahorse with dragon pattern plum vase

Except for the glass process, there was no blue glaze ceramics in China until Tang Dynasty.On the road of ancient Chinese ceramic civilization, blue glaze appeared almost at the latest in all kinds of colored glaze.In the eyes of the ancients, blue is really not an auspicious color, but everywhere with blue, a little bit of horror.In particular, the dark blue is the coldest color in the blue system.The name of the evil spirit in the Buddhist scriptures is called Lan Fu, the statue is often painted on the face of the blue, with its color bluff peopleThe examination paper in ancient rural test has been defaced or not procedures, the examiner will use blue pen to write clear punishment, known as the “blue bill”Tang people in “Youyang Zu · Insect” wrote: “Blue snake, the first big poison…. The south of the first combined poison, known as the blue medicine, drugs stand dead.” Listening to the horror.

The social role of literature is always hard to get rid of, so before the Tang Dynasty, we have not found the slightest sign of blue glaze.From the accidental nature of burning, although blue is most likely to appear, but the craftsman may not want to dig out any “ominous” blue glaze products, so this situation continues until the three-colored Tang Dynasty blue glaze burst.

“In Tang Dynasty, the silk road was prosperous, and the cobalt material was introduced into China, and used as one of the ceramic glaze materials. It was used as decorative glaze on low-temperature pottery with other high-lead copper-green glaze and iron-brown glaze at that time. After firing, the glaze was bright and colorful, and the glaze was covered with small pieces.” Thus the creation of world-famous three-colored pottery.

Tang tricolour phoenix head pot, Met Art Museum, USA

Tang Sancai Ma Luoyang City, Henan Province Guan Lin Tang Tomb unearthed, Luoyang Museum collection

The three-color blue glaze color is full and bright, and yellow, green, white and other colors parallel, changeful, unexpected.It is often said that”Three colors plus blue, the value of the city”, but I am afraid that the present people are looking at a new look, it is not as strong as the people of the Tang Dynasty at that time their own feelings.

Tang Tri-color is an attempt, after which the ancient Chinese began to accept the blue glaze.The song people advocate the minimalist aesthetics, the song porcelain glaze pays attention to warm and smooth, the pursuit of tranquility reflects simplicity and elegance, but this also makes the cobalt blue material in the ceramic development of a state of stagnation.Until the Yuan Dynasty, in the grassland culture, the blue and white blue and white Mongolian to the wolf white deer totem belief _ as blue sky, white means pure good.Under the adoration of the ruler, blue-and-white porcelain with blue glaze as its main object of appreciation has flourished since then, and it has created the highest peak in the history of ceramics.

Yuan Qing Hua Gu Zi downhill picture pot

Yuan Qing Hua ZhaoJun plug can, Japan Deguang Art Museum, Tibet

Yuan Qing Hua Wei Chigong Savior Canister, Boston Museum of Art, USA

The cobalt material used in the Yuan Dynasty came from Persia, which was called “Su Ma Li Qing” or “Su Bo Mud Green”. Its iron content was high and it was rich in divergence. After firing, the green flowers had rust-like black and brown spots on the glaze, and the spots were sunken into the tyre, showing rich color and bright visual effect.

2017 Sotheby’s Hong Kong auction Ming Xuande blue-and-white mackerel pattern, ten edge rhomboid plate

Qing Hua peacock cave stone peony pattern plate in the 15th and 16th centuries of Ming Dynasty

By the Ming Dynasty, “Su Ma Li Qing” was expected to be in Yongle (1403-1425), Xuande (1426-1435), by Zheng He’s fleet of ships to the West introduced to China.In addition, the strict supervision of the Imperial Kiln Factory at that time led to the deep color of the forever and the Xuanqing flowers, such as precious stone blue, the later dynasty more to its Guigao, and has a “hair of the ancient, a generation of strange flowers” reputation.

Compared with imported cobalt materials, domestic cobalt materials are valued for their several sea bans during the Hongwu period (1368-1369).But this cobalt material contains high manganese content, light tone, hair color is also good and bad, so in the Yongxuan period blue and white porcelain production is not taken seriously.As far as Chenghua (1465-1487) and Zhengde (1506-1521) were concerned, the “equal green” (or “Pitang green”) produced by Leping, Jiangxi Province, was the main source of the glaze.As the “equal green” of the better, less miscellaneous quality, the firing of the blue and white color blending elegant, stable color, and a sense of obscurity, the achievement of this period blue and white porcelain unique features.

In addition to Leping, Jiangxi also produces a kind of cobalt material called “pebble green”.Its hair color black, most of the people’s kiln fired green flowers used at that time.But in the years of Jiajing and Wanli, a kind of “Hui Qing” from Central Asia, Xinjiang and Yunnan was difficult to be used alone, so it needed to be mixed with domestic pebble blue to be used.By adjusting its mixing ratio, this kind of green material has the upper green, the middle green cent.If the ratio of Hui Qing is higher than that of Shi Qing, then its blue and white hair color is purple and gorgeousOn the contrary, it is slightly gray-blue.

Qinghua to the Ming Dynasty, and in the Kangxi (1662-1722) another peak.At that time, we mainly selected Zhejiang materials produced in Shaoxing, Jinhua and Quzhou of Zhejiang Province, and painted them with the method of dividing the water into two parts, so that the finished products had clear blue color, clear structure and rich three-dimensional sense.

Qing Dynasty blue and white alum red water dragon pattern plate a pair

Qing Qianlong blue and white silkworm printing plate for longevity, a pair

After careful observation and comparison, this process can not only train the eye’s perceptual ability, but also enhance his understanding of the style of each dynasty and the connotation of aesthetic interest.


Tang San Cai tea or ginger jar 19th century

i first thought this was a ginger jar but this pretty little jar looks like it was used to hold tea. it is a turquoise green with flowers and a crane. i don't know anything about it yet so if u have any info leave me a message. no markers or asian writing on this one but i am sure it is asian. love this site!
update:
i found an identical ginger jar for sale on a popular web site and here is what the owner had to say about this lovely jar:

This gorgeous Chinese Tang Sancai ginger jar was exported from China to the US sometime between 1890-1920, though it is older than that. It features an applied figural crane, lotus blossoms and leaves, and aquatic grasses, giving an overall three dimensional look. Done on a turquoise ground, the colors include, yellows, greens, pinks, white, and tan. It has a red stamp on its bottom that says "China" which helps to date it, as well as a partial customs stamp. Just a stunning piece!
Tang Sancai (or three colored ware) is a polychrome lead glaze decorated pottery. "Three-color" doesn't mean only three colors, but multicolored. During the Tang Dynasty (618-907), the production of Tang Sancai reached its peak, which is part of the reason the pottery got the name of Tang San Cai.

Unsure of maker dates from the mid to late 1800s.

i am soooo lucky!! mine did not have any labels stamped on the bottom but this jar is so unique i was able to find another on line. so far i have only found 2 others like mine and the information is the same. it is a genuine antique!


Tang Three-colour Glaze Jar - History

The focus of The Chalre Collection is Chinese and Asian Tradeware Ceramics -- in other words, Ceramics that were traded throughout Asia. Tradeware Ceramics (Porcelain, Stoneware and Earthenware) tell the story of how the peoples of Asia forged social and commercial ties with each other during ancient times.

The Ceramic Art collection of Chalre Associates came about through the efforts of the firm ' s principals, Rebecca Bustamante and Richard Mills. It is their intention that a significant portion of The Chalre Collection become property of a museum foundation or other public body in the future.

In creating the collection, major recognition must be given to Jose (Joe) Yusef Makmak for his considerable support and friendship. Our thoughts are with Joe, formerly a prominent ceramic antiquities dealer in Philippines, who passed away in 2008.

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Tang and Han Dynasty Ceramics

The Chalre Collection of

Three-Colour Sancai
(Main Period: 700 to 900 AD)

Examples of Three-Colour Ceramics of the Tang era from The Chalre Collection are listed below. Click on the icons for a full page description of each piece. More are being added on a regular basis and research into the origins, dating and descriptions of each artifact is ongoing, so please come back again. In the meantime, enjoy your discovery of The Chalre Collection of Asian Ceramic Art.

Tang Dynasty Chinese Ceramics

The Sancai ( meaning three-colour) pottery style was predominant during the Tang dynasty (618 - 911). Its main origins are in northern China, in areas such as Chang'an, Shaanxi Province, and Loyang, Henan Province.

Sancai Ceramics are created in a wide range of decorative forms with bright colours. Because of its liberal use of green, yellow and white, Sancai is sometimes called egg-and-spinach by collectors in the west. In earlier times, the Ceramic style did not attract collectors since almost all of the pieces were originally burial objects. Today, most people appreciate the intense creativity of the ancient Sancai potters.

The Sancai technique used a low-temperature glazing and white clay, and later finishing pieces by firing at a higher temperature of around 800C. Figures such as horses were formed by molding and adding white clay. Glazes on Sancai pieces often flowed downward during firing and colours commonly appear uneven.


Tang Three-colour Glaze Jar - History

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We had an absolutely perfect day with our tour guide - Rogin Luo - who took us for a hike along The Great Wall! Didn't know what to expect and were thrilled to have him as our guide. Very imformative, knowledgable and fun! We go to experience a part of The Great Wall that was unrestored and see all its natural beauty. Got a long history lesson along the way!

After the hike, we all went to lunch at a small place at the bottom of the hill. Located in a house, we ate lunch in the proprietors bedroom! What a hoot! Rogin is the Best of the Best! This tour company delivered for us and we are extremely grateful.

Karenkatz,
Westborough, Massachusetts

Tang Tricolor Pottery is general term for low-temperature and glazed pottery of the Tang Dynasty. On the same utensils, yellow, green, white or yellow, green, blue, ocher, black and other basic glaze are staggered use, form a colorful artistic effect. "Three color" is means many different color but not specifically refers to three colors.

Tang tricolor pottery is a multi-colored glazed pottery, which is based on the delicate white clay material, use lead, aluminum oxide as a flux, use the copper, iron, cobalt and other minerals elements as a coloring agent. Its glaze is yellow, green, blue, white, purple, brown and other colors, but many more objects in yellow, green, white-based, and even some artifacts have only one or two of these colors. People collectively referred to them as "Tang Tricolor Pottery".

Tang tricolor glazed pottery began in the Southern and Northern Dynasties and flourished in the Tang Dynasty. It is famous for its vivid style, beautiful color and rich flavor of life, as well as the use of three basic colors and formed its characteristics in the Tang Dynasty, it was later known as &ldquoTang Tricolor Pottery&rdquo.

Tang tricolor pottery was burial objects for sacrificial victims in the ancient times. Since the founding of New China, increased attention to pottery and pottery recovery and development processes, people began to be interested in using it as room furnishings decoration and the gift to relatives and friends

Tang tricolor pottery was not only popular in ancient China, but also widely spread abroad. Tang tricolor pottery was found in more than ten countries, such as India, Japan, North Korea, Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Italy and other countries.

Tang tricolor pottery is a low-temperature lead-glazed pottery, adding different metal oxides in the glaze. After roasting, they form a light yellow, ocher yellow, light green, dark green, sky blue, brown red, eggplant purple and other colors, but yellow, ocher and green are basic colors. The glaze painted on billet pottery has chemical changes in the baking process. The glaze would have various density, different color invaded each other, mottled dripping, colors naturally coordinated with smooth pattern which is a unique kind of Chinese style. Tang tricolor pottery embraced in color which shows grand splendid artistic charm. Tang Tricolor Pottery is used for burial, as burial objects. Because its body is crisp which has poor water resistance, the practicality is far less than celadon and white porcelain which had already appeared.

Tang tricolor pottery mainly spread in Xi'an and Luoyang. Xi'an is known as West kiln and Luoyang is called East kiln. Burial was prevailed in Tang Dynasty, not only the nobles, but also the common people did.

Tang tricolor pottery has many different types of pottery figures, such as animals, dishes, water, wine, stationery, furniture, houses, and even loaded the ashes of the altar, and so on. More generally loved is horse figurines. Some of them was running while some was standing, some eagerly neighing, showed various lifelike postures. As for character modeling, there are women, civilian, military commanders, Hu figurines and king. According to the social status and hierarchy of the character, the portray shows different personalities and characteristics: lady&rsquos face is mellow and full, comb various kinds of hair, wearing colorful costumes civilian is polite staunch warrior is brave Hu figurines have high nose and deep eyes kings are angry and mighty, have magnificent spirit. Tang tricolor pottery is a model of Chinese ancient carving and it is a great treasure in Chinese culture.

The Tang Dynasty was the heyday of Chinese feudal society, economically thriving, beautiful and fragrant flowers blooming on culture and art. Pottery of this period is famous for its vivid posture, beautiful color and full of vitality.


Art Journey to the East

China and Japan have had a long relationship since the Han Dynasty. In the same manner that Monk Jianzhen’s east journey, brought to Japan Buddhism, traditional Chinese medical science, architecture, painting and calligraphy skills, implements and artworks were also shipped to the land of the rising sun in addition to ceramics.

The Museum of Oriental Ceramics, Osaka, as its name suggests, is a museum dedicated to collecting, exhibiting, and researching oriental ceramics. The strength of Chinese ceramics in the museum’s collection lies in the Tang, Song, Yuan, and Ming dynasties, exactly the period during which ceramic art enjoyed its most brilliant successes as it grew to full maturity. Although it is not large in scope, the collection has important works representing each period and results in a collection of remarkably high concentration, one which indeed may be called a “Treasure house of Oriental ceramics?

JAR: Earthenware with Applied Medallions under Three-Color Glaze

Tang Dynasty 7th-8th Century h.30.9cm

The three baoxiang-hua medallions applied to the body of this jar stand out brilliantly under the fantastically mottled glaze, brown and green with white spots. The medallions were applied after press molding. The medallions on the “Bottle with Dragon Lugs, Three-Color Glaze,?an Important Cultural Property in the Yokogawa Collection of the Tokyo National Museum were made from a similar type of mold. This jar was covered with a white slip before glazing. The colorful glaze stops midway down the lower portion, achieving a delicate balance. The mouth and interior of the jar are glazed with a yellowish white glaze. A similar jar is in the Art Institute of Chicago, and a lidded jar which employs a slightly different glazing technique has been excavated at Jinjiagou, Luoyang, Henan Province.

BASIN: Porcelain with Carved Lotus Design

Ding Ware Northern Song Dynasty 11th Century d.24.5cm

This may appear to be a deep bowl, but the wide area of the base indicates that it is a basin. The lotus design is delicately carved, beveled and combed, to appear faintly against the ivory white surface which is unique to Ding ware. The pot is altered slightly with six vertical lines, making it melon-shaped. The clay is extremely fine, with almost no impurities, making it impossible for this pot to be thrown very thinly, and it is surprisingly light for its size. It did not warp in firing because it was fired upside down, and the glaze on the lip was later grimed. We can see the potter’s masterful touch in the beveled trimming around the base and the thin, low trimming work on the foot.

VASE: Stoneware with Sgraffito Decoration of Peony with Transparent Glaze under Green Glaz

Cizhou Ware Northern Song Dynasty 11th-12th Century h.35.0cm

This vase was first formed out of a greyish clay and coated with a white slip. A second coating of iron pigment was applied, then its background was carved away to create a raised pattern. Then the entire vase was coated with a transparent glaze and fired. Up to this point, the vessel was made in the manner typical of Cizhou ware. However, this case is rare in that another coat of green glaze was added and fired again at a low temperature. The particular severity of the peony design that best reflects Northern Song aesthetics, as well as the exceptional size, has made this piece a valuable example noted worldwide.

BOTTLE: Porcelain with Incised Peony Scrolls Design Cut through Underglaze Iron-Coating

Ding Ware Northern Song Dynasty 11th-12th Century h.17.3cm


This shape is known as taibozun or tuluping. The white porcelain body was covered with an iron slip and then the design was carved away. The center of the form has a peony scroll design, while the shoulder and base are decorated with a double flower petal pattern. This form and decorative method were both also employed at the Cizhou kilns during the same period, the early 12th century, although there were differences in the use of white slip. This pot provides a good example for considering the relationship between the two wares. Other similar wares produced include small dishes, jars, and pillows, although compared to classic Ding ware, the clay has a slight gray tint and seems to be coarser.

BOTTLE: Celadon with Carved Peony Scrolls Design

Yaozhou Ware Northern Song Dynasty 11th-12th Century h.16.7cm

Among the ceramic wares of the Northern Song Dynasty at its zenith, one finds Yaozhou ware. The kiln site for this ware has been discovered in Tongchuan, Shaanxi Province, north of Xi’an. The celadon glaze is often seen in an olive green color that is the result of oxidization during the firing process. It is also common to find a boldly-carved design covering most of the surface. The shape falls into the category of the tuluping, and at present it is the only one of its kind among Yaozhou celadon ware. The carving technique, called katakiribori in Japanese, leaves one side of the cut perpendicular to the surface and the other side with a slant. Here the celadon glaze fills the carved areas to create a beautiful feeling of depth befitting the worldwide fame of this piece.

TEA BOWL: Tenmoku Glaze with Leaf Design

Jizhou Ware Southern Song Dynasty 12th Century d.14.7cm

Unlike the tenmoku tea bowl of the Jian ware, the tenmoku tea bowls of Jizhou have thinner walls because of the dense white clay, and have straight sides. The smallness of the foot is also another characteristic of Jizhou ware. Some Jizhou wares are known for the tortoise shell glaze created by coats of yellowish brown and black glazes. This piece shows an application of this glazing technique. However, the technique of actually using a leaf to leave an intricate imprint that even retains the pattern of the veins still remains unexplained.

Vase with Phoenix Handles Celadon

Longquan Ware Southern Song Dynasty 12th Century h.28.8cm

Commonly called the “vase with phoenix handles? this vessel is characterized by the mallet-shaped body and the attached phoenix-shaped handles. Many Chinese ceramic wares have survived since the Yuan Dynasty and the early Ming Dynasty, during and after which they were shipped in quantity to Japan. This particular vase, too, was handed down through an un-known number of generations of the Aoyama family of Tanba Province. Of the many extant phoenix-handled vases, one titled “ten thousand voices?and another called “one thousand voices?are especially famous for their beauty this vase, however, surpasses even them with the unrivaled beauty of its glaze. It is believed to demonstrate the zenith of celadon ware production in the Longquan kilns of Zhejiang Province.

TEA BOWL: Tenmoku Glaze with Silvery Spots

Jian Ware Southern Song Dynasty 12th-13th Century d.12.2cm

The Chinese describe this vessel type as dizhu, meaning beautiful drops, for the exquisite beauty created by myriads of iridescent “oil spots.?Jian tenmoku tea bowls were shipped in quantity to Japan during the Yuan Dynasty and the early Ming Dynasty. Among these wares, Tenmoku Glaze with Silvery Spots was prized the most. This tea bowl has long been considered an unrivaled piece of “oil spot?tenmoku.

BOTTLE: Celadon with Iron Brown Spots

Longquan Ware Yuan Dynasty 13th-14th Century h.27.4cm

This bottle was decorated with iron spots and covered with a celadon glaze, a decorative method which was employed widely at the Longquan kilns in the Yuan Dynasty. This vase is particularly outstanding, both for the color of the glaze and the appearance of the iron spots. This type of form is popularly known as yuhuchun, pear-shaped bottle. The slender neck and full belly present a pleasing contrast, achieving a beautiful balance. The glaze has been scraped away from about five millimeters of the foot rim, revealing the clay body which has turned red in the fire.

DISH: Blue-and-White with Bird and Branch Design

Jingdezhen Ware Ming Dynasty Yongle Period, 1403-1424 d.50.5cm

This large dish, with a diameter exceeding 50 centimeters, was made using a mold and then fired skillfully to obtain a non- warped form. A delicate floral scroll graces the foliated rim. The sides of the dish are divided into 16 sections containing pomegranate, peach and other auspicious fruits. In the center, a magpie eats berries on a branch. The composition is spacious, and the brush work is both decorous and elegant, making this a typical example of early Ming Dynasty pictorial design. Several other similar pieces are known to exist.

DISH: Porcelain with Reversed Peony Decoration against Cobalt-Blue Glaze

Jingdezhen Ware Ming Dynasty Xuande Mark and Period, 1426-1435 d.38.7cm

There is a large design of a peony branch in the center of this dish, and pomegranates, peaches, and litchi in six places around the rim. On the exterior there is a peony scroll pattern. The details of each pattern have been incised. This dish was probably decorated by applying a white slip to the decorated area, then glazing the rest with a blue glaze. The technique of decorating pots with a reverse white pattern against a blue background was already used in the Yuan Dynasty.

Porcellaneous Stoneware in Cloissone Style (Fuhua Ware) with Bird and Blossom Design

Ming Dynasty 15th Century h.44.5cm

According to records from the Qing Dynasty, the fahua technique was invented in the Yuan Dynasty in Shanxi Province, after which it spread to other areas. One theory traces the origin of this ware to three-color tiles which were made in Shanxi, while others point out the similarities to enameled bronze ware techniques which were perfected in the early Ming Dynasty however, many points remain unclear. Extant fahua ware can be divided into porcellaneous ware and stoneware. Among the porcellaneous works, there are many large pieces, and it has been noted that there are similarities in form and decorative patterns between these and the blue-and-white ware and overglaze enameled ware of the Jingdezhen kilns. This jar is a rarely seen example of a large fahua porcellaneous jar. The design is applied in relief over a dark blue base, and the white areas strike a particularly beautiful contrast. Green glaze has been coarsely applied to the inside and the bottom of the jar.

COVERED JAR: Porcelain with Overglaze Yellow and Red Enamels Dragon Design

Jingdezhen Ware Ming Dynasty Jiajing Mark and Period, 1522-1566 h.27.0cm

Among zacai wares, this jar uses a particularly complex decorative technique. After first firing as porcelain, the entire surface was covered with yellow enamel and the jar was fired again. Then the design was applied and the piece fired a third time. In this case, the outline and details of the dragon design were painted in brown pigment, and the background filled in with red enamel. Due to the yellow base, the red color is even more vivid than usual. The design covering the jar’s surface combines with this vivid color for a rich effect. This jar is a good example of the mood of the Jiajing period, when colorful wares were popular.


Further information on Tang

Many of these stunning Tang dynasty antiques were used as pieces that were buried with the dead for use in the afterlife, known as mingqui. They mainly took the form of horses, camels, servants and soldiers and even camel drivers from Africa and central Asia depicted by their thick beards and facial features with realistic detail unprecedented in the history of not only Tang dynasty ceramics but in all of Chinese art.

It has been suggested that no other potters of any other dynasty have been as skilful in their stunning representations of horses and consequently Tang dynasty antiques and sancai are collected and admired by collectors from around the world.


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The condition of lots can vary widely and the nature of the lots sold means that they are unlikely to be in a perfect condition. Lots are sold in the condition they are in at the time of sale.

We have sought to record changes in the condition of this piece acquired after its initial manufacture.
- The jar has been broken into several pieces and restuck with associated overpainting.
- There are some minor chips around the exterior of the foot and rim.
- There are some scratches and glaze flakes to the surface and minor chips to the extremities, as can be expected.