Notícia

Edward lee

Edward lee

Robert Lee, um filho mais novo de Richard Lee e neto de Sir Richard Lee, senhor prefeito de Londres, nasceu por volta de 1481. Um amigo da família, Sir Thomas More, mais tarde se lembrou da promessa intelectual de Lee quando era um estudante de dez anos. Lee foi admitido na Universidade de Oxford em 1495 e cinco anos depois tornou-se membro do Magdalen College. Em 1501 mudou-se para a Universidade de Cambridge. Ele também passou um tempo estudando na Universidade de Louvain. De acordo com Claire Cross "em 1510, 1512 e 1513 ele adquiriu prebendas nas catedrais de Salisbury, Lincoln e Winchester, respectivamente". (1)

Lee tinha opiniões conservadoras sobre a religião e em 1521 juntou forças com More, Thomas Wolsey e John Fisher para ajudar Henrique VIII a escrever um livro, Afirmação dos Sete Sacramentos, que atacou os ensinamentos de Martinho Lutero. (2) Nos anos seguintes, ele teve uma longa disputa teológica com Desiderius Erasmus, "que ficou tão irritado com a atitude de Lee para com ele que rejeitou o inglês como um jovem agressivo que simplesmente queria ser famoso". (3)

Em 1531, Edward Lee foi nomeado arcebispo de York. Ele foi então enviado para discutir o divórcio proposto pelo rei de Catarina de Aragão com o papa Clemente VII. O historiador David Starkey observou que Henrique VIII considerava Lee como seu principal especialista jurídico. (4) Em maio de 1534, Lee e o bispo Cuthbert Tunstall foram usados ​​para tentar persuadir Catarina a repudiar seu casamento e para avisá-la sobre o novo ato que limita a sucessão aos herdeiros de Henrique e Ana Bolena. (5) A obstinação de Catarina levou o rei a ordenar sua remoção para o castelo Kimbolton. (6)

Em novembro de 1534, o Parlamento aprovou o Ato de Supremacia. Isso deu a Henrique VIII o título de "chefe supremo da Igreja da Inglaterra". Também foi aprovado um Ato da Traição que tornava uma ofensa tentar por qualquer meio, incluindo escrever e falar, acusar o rei e seus herdeiros de heresia ou tirania. Todos os súditos foram obrigados a fazer um juramento de aceitação disso. (7)

Sir Thomas More e John Fisher, bispo de Rochester, recusaram-se a prestar juramento e foram presos na Torre de Londres. More foi convocado perante o arcebispo Thomas Cranmer e Thomas Cromwell no Palácio de Lambeth. More ficou feliz em jurar que os filhos de Ana Bolena poderiam suceder ao trono, mas não podia declarar sob juramento que todos os Atos do Parlamento anteriores haviam sido válidos. Ele não podia negar a autoridade do papa "sem colocar minha alma em perigo para a condenação perpétua". (8)

Foi alegado que o arcebispo Edward Lee tinha grandes dúvidas sobre as reformas religiosas do rei, mas ele concordou em fazer o juramento. (9) No entanto, ele permaneceu leal e pregou contra a supremacia papal no ministro de York em 1535. (10) Sir Francis Bigod acusou o arcebispo de falhar em pregar a supremacia real com fervor suficiente. Naquele verão, ele estava ocupado tentando persuadir os monges de Yorkshire de se rebelarem contra o rei. Lee também cooperou com Thomas Cromwell na aprovação do Ato de Supressão, aceitando a entrega das casas com uma renda de menos de £ 200 por ano. (11)

Em 28 de setembro de 1536, os comissários do rei para a supressão dos mosteiros chegaram para tomar posse da Abadia de Hexham e expulsar os monges. Eles encontraram os portões da abadia trancados e barricados. "Um monge apareceu no telhado da abadia, vestido com uma armadura; ele disse que havia vinte irmãos na abadia armados com armas e canhões, que todos morreriam antes que os comissários a levassem." Os comissários retiraram-se para Corbridge e informaram a Thomas Cromwell o que havia acontecido. (12)

Isso foi seguido por outros atos de rebelião contra a dissolução dos mosteiros. Um advogado, Robert Aske, acabou se tornando o líder da rebelião em Yorkshire. As pessoas aderiram ao que ficou conhecido como a Peregrinação da Graça por uma variedade de razões diferentes. Derek Wilson, o autor de A Tudor Tapestry: Men, Women & Society in Reformation England (1972) argumentou: "Seria incorreto ver a rebelião em Yorkshire, a chamada Peregrinação da Graça, como pura e simplesmente um surto de piedade militante em nome da antiga religião. Impostos impopulares, queixas locais e regionais, as más colheitas, bem como o ataque aos mosteiros e a legislação da Reforma, contribuíram para a criação de uma atmosfera tensa em muitas partes do país ". (13)

Em poucos dias, 40.000 homens haviam se levantado em East Riding e marchavam sobre York. (14) Aske convocou seus homens a fazer um juramento de se juntarem à "nossa Peregrinação da Graça" para "a comunidade ... a manutenção da Fé de Deus e da Igreja militante, preservação da pessoa e do assunto do Rei, e purificação da nobreza de todo o sangue dos vilões e conselheiros do mal, para a restituição da Igreja de Cristo e supressão das opiniões dos hereges ”. (15) Aske publicou uma declaração obrigando "todo homem a ser fiel à questão do rei, e ao sangue nobre, e preservar a Igreja de Deus da destruição". (16)

Temendo por sua vida, o arcebispo Lee fugiu para o Castelo de Pontefract, onde recebeu proteção de Thomas Darcy. (17) Robert Aske chegou ao castelo em 20 de outubro. Após um curto cerco, Darcy, ficando sem suprimentos, entregou o castelo. Richard Hoyle apontou: "As ações de Darcy são de fato perfeitamente plausíveis quando consideradas pelo valor de face e especialmente quando a Peregrinação da Graça é vista como um movimento popular generalizado em oposição às inovações religiosas esperadas e temidas. Quando os distúrbios eclodiram em Yorkshire, ele enviou ao rei uma avaliação longa e precisa da situação e pediu reforços, dinheiro, suprimentos de munições e autoridade para mobilizar. Em duas outras ocasiões, ele escreveu longamente descrevendo uma situação em deterioração. Em todas as três ocasiões, suas informações e conselhos foram ignorados ... Era a afirmação de Aske de que Darcy não poderia ter resistido a um cerco, mas teria sido morto se os comuns tivessem invadido o castelo. " (18)

Aske sabia que o arcebispo Lee tinha uma reputação de conservador e, no outono de 1535, escreveu a Thomas Cromwell, reclamando dos novos pregadores radicais que atuavam na região. Ele continuou seis meses depois com a sugestão de que ninguém deveria ter permissão para pregar, a menos que recebesse permissão de Henrique VIII. Lee também reclamou do plano de fechar a Abadia de Hexham. (19) Aske e seus seguidores presumiram que o arcebispo simpatizava com seus objetivos de restauração das liberdades da igreja. (20)

O arcebispo Lee concordou em fazer o juramento dos peregrinos. Incluía o seguinte: "Não entrareis nesta nossa Peregrinação da Graça para a Comunidade, mas apenas pelo amor que tendes a Deus Todo-Poderoso, a sua fé, e à Santa Igreja militante e a sua manutenção, para a preservação de a pessoa do Rei e seu resultado, para a purificação da nobreza, e para expulsar todo sangue vilão e conselheiros do mal contra a comunidade de sua Graça e seu Conselho Privado do mesmo. E vocês não devem entrar em nossa dita Peregrinação sem nenhum lucro particular para si mesmo, nem para desagradar a qualquer pessoa privada, mas por conselho da comunidade, nem matar nem matar por inveja, mas em seus corações afastem todo medo e pavor, e levem diante de vocês a Cruz de Cristo, e em seus corações Sua fé, a Restituição da Igreja, a supressão desses Hereges e suas opiniões, por todo o conteúdo sagrado deste livro. " (21)

Robert Aske estava convencido de que o arcebispo Lee apoiava a Peregrinação da Graça e ele foi autorizado a ir em liberdade. No entanto, em 4 de dezembro de 1536, ele pregou um sermão em Pontefract Priory defendendo a obediência passiva. (22) Em março de 1537, Henrique VIII e Thomas Cromwell assumiram o controle da situação e os líderes rebeldes foram presos. Naquele verão, mais de 200 foram executados. Isso incluiu Robert Aske, Thomas Darcy, Francis Bigod, Robert Constable, John Bulmer, Margaret Cheyney e William Thirsk.

Embora o arcebispo Lee tenha assinado o juramento, sua vida foi poupada. Como Jasper Ridley, autor de Henry VIII (1984) apontou: "Quase todos os nobres e senhores de Yorkshire se juntaram à Pilgrimage of Grace no outono. Henry não pôde executá-los todos. Ele os dividiu, de forma um tanto arbitrária, em dois grupos - aqueles que deveriam ser perdoados e restaurados ao cargo e aos favores, e aqueles que deveriam ser executados sob acusações formuladas de terem cometido novos atos de rebelião após o perdão geral. Arcebispo Lee, Lord Scrope, Lord Latimer, Sir Robert Bowes, Sir Ralph Ellerker e Sir Marmaduke Constable continuou a servir como servos leais de Henrique. " (23)

O arcebispo Edward Lee continuou a mostrar sua lealdade a Henrique VIII após a derrota da Peregrinação da Graça. Seguindo o conselho de Thomas Cromwell, ele pregou vários sermões em Londres em apoio à supremacia real no verão de 1537. Ele também concordou que os pregadores reformistas deveriam ter permissão para viajar livremente pelo Norte, algo de que ele se queixou em 1535. (24 )

A vida para o arcebispo Lee ficou mais fácil depois que o projeto dos Seis Artigos foi apresentado por Thomas Howard, o duque de Norfolk no Parlamento em maio de 1539. Logo ficou claro que tinha o apoio de Henrique VIII. Embora a palavra "transubstanciação" não tenha sido usada, a presença real do próprio corpo e sangue de Cristo no pão e no vinho foi endossada. O mesmo aconteceu com a ideia do purgatório. Os seis artigos apresentaram um sério problema para os reformadores religiosos.

O bispo Hugh Latimer e o bispo Nicholas Shaxton falaram contra os seis artigos na Câmara dos Lordes. Latimer havia argumentado contra a transubstanciação e o purgatório por muitos anos. Latimer agora enfrentava uma escolha entre obedecer ao rei como chefe supremo da igreja e defender a doutrina que ele teve um papel fundamental no desenvolvimento e promoção na última década. (25) Thomas Cromwell não pôde vir em seu auxílio e, em julho, os dois foram forçados a renunciar a seus bispados. Por um tempo, pensou-se que Henrique ordenaria sua execução como hereges. Ele acabou desistindo dessa medida e, em vez disso, eles foram obrigados a deixar de pregar.

Em julho de 1540, Lee juntou-se a seus colegas bispos na anulação do casamento de Henrique VIII e Ana de Cleves. Como sua biógrafa, Claire Cross, destacou: "No clima mais conservador que prevaleceu após a aprovação do Ato dos Seis Artigos e a queda de Cromwell, ele parecia um pouco menos sitiado, embora como alguém que se aliou aos rebeldes, o arcebispo ainda enfrentava a indignidade de ter de pedir o perdão de seu monarca de joelhos, quando Henrique VIII visitou York no final do verão de 1541. " (26)

O arcebispo Edward Lee morreu, aos 62 anos, em 13 de setembro de 1544.

A eclosão da Peregrinação da Graça em Beverley no início de outubro de 1536 tornou a relação do arcebispo com o governo central ainda mais precária. Temendo retaliação de seus inquilinos ofendidos, Lee fugiu de Cawood para Pontefract, onde se tornou prisioneiro dos rebeldes quando Lord Darcy entregou o castelo em 20 de outubro. Ele e os outros cavalheiros fizeram o juramento dos peregrinos. Não sem alguma justificativa, Aske e seus seguidores presumiram que o arcebispo simpatizava com seus objetivos de restauração das liberdades da igreja, mas Lee os decepcionou pregando um sermão defendendo a obediência passiva em Pontefract Priory em 4 de dezembro. Em janeiro de 1537, depois que Norfolk pôs fim à primeira insurreição, Lee se atreveu a questionar a sabedoria de tentar coletar o décimo clerical enquanto o norte permanecia tão volátil. Durante a segunda insurreição, ele permaneceu em seu palácio em Cawood e, ao fazê-lo, contribuiu para a quietude das partes adjacentes de East Riding. Para se defender contra as acusações de traição após o levante, ele redigiu um longo relato de defesa de seu envolvimento na peregrinação.

Quase todos os nobres e cavalheiros de Yorkshire haviam se juntado à Pilgrimage of Grace no outono. O Arcebispo Lee, Lord Scrope, Lord Latimer, Sir Robert Bowes, Sir Ralph Ellerker e Sir Marmaduke Constable continuaram a servir como servos leais de Henrique; Darcy, Aske, Sir Robert Constable e Bigod estavam para morrer. Assim como Sir John Bulmer e sua amante, Margaret Cheyney, que era conhecida como Lady Bulmer, mas não era legalmente casada com ele. Henry dera ordens especiais para prender o irmão do conde de Northumberland, Sir Thomas Percy, embora Northumberland, que estava morrendo de doença, tivesse permissão para passar seus últimos dias em liberdade em sua casa em Londres.

Henrique VIII (resposta ao comentário)

Henrique VII: um governante sábio ou perverso? (Responder comentário)

Hans Holbein e Henry VIII (resposta ao comentário)

O casamento do Príncipe Arthur e Catarina de Aragão (resposta ao comentário)

Henrique VIII e Ana de Cleves (resposta ao comentário)

A rainha Catarina Howard foi culpada de traição? (Responder comentário)

Anne Boleyn - reformadora religiosa (resposta ao comentário)

Ana Bolena tinha seis dedos na mão direita? Um estudo sobre propaganda católica (resposta ao comentário)

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Catherine Parr e os direitos das mulheres (resposta ao comentário)

Mulheres, Política e Henrique VIII (resposta ao comentário)

Cardeal Thomas Wolsey (resposta ao comentário)

Historiadores e romancistas sobre Thomas Cromwell (resposta ao comentário)

Martin Luther e Thomas Müntzer (responder a comentários)

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Anne Askew - Queimada na Estaca (Resposta ao Comentário)

Elizabeth Barton e Henry VIII (responder a comentários)

Execução de Margaret Cheyney (resposta ao comentário)

Robert Aske (resposta ao comentário)

Dissolução dos mosteiros (resposta ao comentário)

Peregrinação da Graça (resposta ao comentário)

Pobreza em Tudor Inglaterra (resposta ao comentário)

Por que a Rainha Elizabeth não se casou? (Responder comentário)

Francis Walsingham - Códigos e codificação (resposta ao comentário)

Códigos e quebra de código (comentário de resposta)

Sir Thomas More: Santo ou Pecador? (Responder comentário)

Arte e propaganda religiosa de Hans Holbein (resposta ao comentário)

Tumultos do Dia de Maio de 1517: Como os historiadores sabem o que aconteceu? (Responder comentário)

(1) Claire Cross, Edward Lee: Dicionário Oxford de Biografia Nacional (2004-2014)

(2) Jasper Ridley, Henry VIII (1984) página 127

(3) Geoffrey Moorhouse, A peregrinação da graça (2002) página 80

(4) David Starkey, Seis esposas: as rainhas de Henrique VIII (2003) página 231

(5) Claire Cross, Edward Lee: Dicionário Oxford de Biografia Nacional (2004-2014)

(6) Alison Weir, As seis esposas de Henrique VIII (2007) página 269

(7) Roger Lockyer, Tudor e Stuart Britain (1985) páginas 43-44

(8) Peter Ackroyd, Tudors (2012) página 82

(9) Antonia Fraser, As seis esposas de Henrique VIII (1992) página 333

(10) Geoffrey Moorhouse, A peregrinação da graça (2002) página 80

(11) Claire Cross, Edward Lee: Dicionário Oxford de Biografia Nacional (2004-2014)

(12) Jasper Ridley, Henry VIII (1984) página 285

(13) Derek Wilson, A Tudor Tapestry: Men, Women & Society in Reformation England (1972) página 59

(14) Anthony Fletcher, Rebeliões Tudor (1974) página 26

(15) Jasper Ridley, Henry VIII (1984) página 287

(16) Peter Ackroyd, Tudors (2012) página 109

(17) Claire Cross, Edward Lee: Dicionário Oxford de Biografia Nacional (2004-2014)

(18) Richard Hoyle, Thomas Darcy: Dicionário Oxford de Biografia Nacional (2004-2014)

(19) Geoffrey Moorhouse, A peregrinação da graça (2002) páginas 80-81

(20) Claire Cross, Edward Lee: Dicionário Oxford de Biografia Nacional (2004-2014)

(21) Robert Aske, Pilgrimage of Grace Oath (outubro de 1536)

(22) Claire Cross, Edward Lee: Dicionário Oxford de Biografia Nacional (2004-2014)

(23) Jasper Ridley, Henry VIII (1984) página 295

(24) Claire Cross, Edward Lee: Dicionário Oxford de Biografia Nacional (2004-2014)

(25) Susan Wabuda, Hugh Latimer: Dicionário Oxford de Biografia Nacional (2004-2014)


Lee, Robert E. 1807-1870

Robert Edward Lee foi o general mais famoso das forças confederadas durante a Guerra Civil Americana (1861 & # x2013 1865). Lee serviu como comandante do Exército da Virgínia do Norte e, eventualmente, general-chefe de todo o Exército Confederado até o término da guerra em 1865.

Lee nasceu em 19 de janeiro de 1807, no condado de Westmoreland, Virgínia. Seu pai, que ele mal conhecia, era o famoso herói da Guerra Revolucionária, Henry & # x201C Light Horse Harry & # x201D Lee (1756 & # x2013 1818). Em 1829, Robert E. Lee graduou-se em segundo lugar em sua classe sem um único demérito na Academia Militar dos Estados Unidos em West Point, Nova York. Em 1831, Lee casou-se com Mary Custis (1808 & # x2013 1873), bisneta de Martha Washington (1731 & # x2013 1802). Juntos, eles tiveram sete filhos.

Durante a Guerra do México (1846 e # x2013 1848), Lee serviu na equipe do General Winfield Scott (1786 e # x2013 1866). Como engenheiro, Lee dirigiu a colocação e transporte de artilharia pesada no desembarque de Veracruz e a marcha subsequente para a Cidade do México em 1847. Em 1852, ele se tornou superintendente de West Point. Em 1859, ele comandou uma força de fuzileiros navais que, junto com a milícia local, derrubou John Brown & # x2019 s (1800 & # x2013 1859) do ataque ao arsenal Harpers Ferry.

Lee chefiou o Departamento do Texas de 1860 até março de 1861. Em abril, em Washington, D.C., ele foi oferecido e recusou o comando do Exército da União (Norte). Em um mês, ele ingressou no Exército Confederado. Em 1862, ele assumiu o comando do Exército da Virgínia do Norte, liderando as forças confederadas para vitórias decisivas em batalhas como Segunda Corrida de Touros (agosto de 1862), Fredericksburg (dezembro de 1862) e Chancellorsville (maio de 1863). Ele e seu exército sofreram uma derrota esmagadora na Batalha de Gettysburg em julho de 1863, sem dúvida o ponto de virada da Guerra Civil Americana. Pouco depois da derrota em Petersburgo, Lee entregou as forças confederadas ao general da União Ulysses S. Grant (1822 & # x2013 1885) em 9 de abril de 1865, no Tribunal de Appomattox na zona rural da Virgínia.

Após a guerra, Lee serviu como presidente do Washington College (mais tarde renomeado Washington and Lee College) em Lexington, Virgínia. Ele morreu de pneumonia em 12 de outubro de 1870 e foi enterrado embaixo da capela do Washington College.


Edward Lee Wiki, biografia, patrimônio líquido, idade, família, fatos e mais

Você encontrará todas as informações básicas sobre Edward Lee. Role para baixo para obter os detalhes completos. Nós explicamos tudo sobre Edward. Checkout Edward Wiki Idade, biografia, carreira, altura, peso, família. Fique atualizado conosco sobre suas celebridades favoritas. Atualizamos nossos dados de tempos em tempos.

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BIOGRAFIA

Chef celebridade e vencedor do Iron Chef America da Food Network. Ele também foi um dos favoritos na nona temporada de Top Chef: Texas e apareceu na terceira temporada do programa da PBS The Mind of a Chef. Ele também é proprietário dos restaurantes 610 Magnolia, Milkweed e Succotash. Edward Lee é um Chef conhecido. Edward nasceu em 2 de julho de 1972 no Brooklyn, NY.Edward é uma das celebridades famosas e populares que é popular por ser um Chef. Em 2018, Edward Lee tinha 46 anos. Edward Lee é um membro famoso Chefe de cozinha Lista.

O Wikifamouspeople classificou Edward Lee na lista de celebridades populares. Edward Lee também está listado junto com as pessoas nascidas em 2 de julho de 72. Uma das celebridades preciosas da lista do Chef.

Não se sabe muito sobre Edward Education Background & amp Childhood. Iremos atualizá-lo em breve.

Detalhes
Nome Edward lee
Idade (a partir de 2018) 46 anos
Profissão Chefe de cozinha
Data de nascimento 2 de julho de 72
Local de nascimento Brooklyn, NY
Nacionalidade Brooklyn

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Edward Lee Net Worth

A principal fonte de renda de Edward é o Chef. Atualmente não temos informações suficientes sobre sua família, relacionamentos, infância, etc. Atualizaremos em breve.

Patrimônio líquido estimado em 2019: US $ 100 mil - US $ 1 milhão (aprox.)

Idade, altura e peso de Edward

As medidas do corpo de Edward, altura e peso ainda não são conhecidos, mas vamos atualizar em breve.

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Família e relações

Não se sabe muito sobre a família e os relacionamentos de Edward. Todas as informações sobre sua vida privada são ocultadas. Iremos atualizá-lo em breve.

Fatos

  • A idade de Edward Lee é 46 anos. a partir de 2018
  • O aniversário de Edward é em 2 de julho de 72.
  • Signo do Zodíaco: Câncer.

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Conteúdo

Richard Lee afirmou ser descendente de Lees de Shropshire e portava um brasão que foi confirmado em 1660/1 por John Gibbon, Bluemantle Pursuivant do College of Arms. Em 1988, um estudo de William Thorndal foi publicado no National Genealogical Society Quarterly, [1] provando que Richard Lee I era na verdade filho de John Lee, um fabricante de roupas, e de sua esposa Jane Hancock, que Richard havia nascido não no Coton Hall em Shropshire, mas em Worcester (a alguma distância rio abaixo no rio Severn) e que vários de seus parentes imediatos haviam sido aprendizes como vinicultores. A questão, então, tem sido 'como Richard Lee descendeu da família com quem compartilhou um brasão de armas?' O livro Coleções para os ancestrais do Coronel Richard Lee, emigrante da Virgínia, do genealogista inglês Alan Nicholls [2] apresentou evidências da ancestralidade inglesa do coronel Richard Lee usando documentos contemporâneos, transcrevendo registros deixados por Richard Lee, sua família e seus associados. Também examina os registros deixados pelas famílias Shropshire e Worcester Lee. Esses dados e outras descobertas relacionadas demonstram que os ancestrais Marson de Richard Lee, os comerciantes e comerciantes mais ricos de Worcester, foram provavelmente a causa da vida de seu avô e de seu pai em Worcester. Um tio-avô, Richard Lee, era provavelmente o homem de mesmo nome, chamado 'Richard Lee, Gent' enterrado na Paróquia de Alveley de Coton Hall em 1613. [3] [4]

Colonial Virginia Edit

Nos EUA, a família começou quando Richard Lee I emigrou para a Virgínia e fez fortuna com o fumo. Seu filho Richard Lee II casou-se com Laetitia Corbin, filha do Exmo. Henry Corbin (colono) do condado de Rappahannock, foi membro da Casa dos Burgesses e posteriormente do Conselho do Rei. Seu filho, Richard Lee III, era um corretor de algodão em Londres para a família e alugou para seus irmãos Thomas e Henry a plantação que herdou de seu pai, "Machodoc," por "um aluguel anual de apenas um grão de pimenta, pagável no dia de Natal " Os Lees ganharam um significado mais amplo com o já mencionado Thomas Lee (1690–1750). Ele se tornou um membro da House of Burgesses e mais tarde fundou a Ohio Company, e foi o co-executor do espólio de seu tio, John Tayloe I, que se tornou Mount Airy.

Era da Guerra Revolucionária Editar

Thomas Lee [5] (1690-1750) casou-se com Hannah Harrison Ludwell: [6] seus filhos, como os descendentes do irmão de Thomas Lee, Henry Lee I (1691-1747), incluíam várias figuras políticas proeminentes da Guerra Revolucionária e da pré-Revolução .

Os dois filhos mais velhos de Thomas e Hannah Lee foram Philip Ludwell Lee (1726–1775) e Hannah Lee (1728–1782).

Thomas Ludwell Lee (1730-1778) foi um membro dos Delegados da Virgínia e um dos principais editores da Declaração de Direitos da Virgínia de George Mason (1776), um precursor da Declaração de Independência dos Estados Unidos, que foi assinada por seus irmãos Richard Henry Lee ( 1732–1794) e Francis Lightfoot Lee (1734–1797).

Richard Henry Lee foi um delegado ao Congresso Continental da Virgínia e presidente desse órgão em 1774, servindo posteriormente como presidente do Congresso Continental de acordo com os Artigos da Confederação, e senador dos Estados Unidos da Virgínia (1789-1792) de acordo com a nova Constituição dos Estados Unidos .

Entre os irmãos mais novos estavam Alice Lee (1736-1818), que se casou com o médico-chefe americano William Shippen Jr. [7] e os diplomatas William Lee (nascido em 1739, d. 1795) e Arthur Lee (nascido em 1740, d. 1792).

O neto de Henry Lee, Henry Lee III (1756-1818), conhecido como "Cavalo Leve Harry", formou-se em Princeton que serviu com grande distinção sob o comando do General George Washington na Guerra Revolucionária Americana e foi o único oficial abaixo do posto de General para receber a "Medalha de Ouro", concedida por sua liderança na Batalha de Paulus Hook em Nova Jersey, em 19 de agosto de 1779. Ele foi governador da Virgínia de 1791-1794. Entre seus seis filhos estava Robert Edward Lee, mais tarde o famoso general confederado durante a Guerra Civil Americana.

Os irmãos de Henry Lee III eram o famoso Richard Bland Lee, um congressista norte-americano de três mandatos da Virgínia, e Charles Lee (1758–1815), procurador-geral dos Estados Unidos de 1795–1801.

Thomas Sim Lee, um primo de segundo grau de Henry Lee III, foi eleito governador de Maryland em 1779 e 1792 e recusou um terceiro mandato em 1798. Ele desempenhou um papel importante no nascimento de Maryland como estado e no nascimento dos Estados Unidos de América como nação. Um neto de Thomas Sim Lee era John Lee Carroll, o 37º governador de Maryland.

Era da Guerra Civil Editar

Robert E. Lee (1807–1870), era filho de Henry Lee III e provavelmente o membro mais famoso da família Lee. Ele serviu como general confederado na Guerra Civil dos Estados Unidos e mais tarde como presidente da Washington and Lee University, que foi nomeada em sua homenagem e em homenagem a George Washington. A Universidade Washington and Lee abriga a Lee Chapel, local do enterro de vários membros da família Lee. Stratford Hall, uma propriedade da família Lee e local de nascimento de Robert E. Lee, abriga o Lee Family Digital Archive. Ele era casado com Mary Anna Randolph Custis, [8] que era neta de Martha Washington e também foi primo de terceiro grau de Lee uma vez removido por Richard Lee II, primo de quarto por William Randolph, e terceiro primo de Robert Carter IRE Os filhos de Lee foram George Washington Custis Lee, Mary Custis Lee, Robert E. Lee Jr., Anne Carter Lee, Mildred Childe Lee, Eleanor Agnes Lee e William H. Fitzhugh Lee.

Outros parentes de Lee que foram Oficiais Gerais durante a Guerra Civil foram Fitzhugh Lee (C.S.A.), Samuel Phillips Lee (Marinha dos EUA) Richard Lucian Page (Estados Confederados e Marinha) Edwin Gray Lee (C.S.A.) e Richard L. T. Beale (C.S.A.). As relações indiretas de R.E.Lee que eram oficiais gerais confederados incluíam William N. Pendleton e o graduado do Instituto Militar da Virgínia William H. F. Payne. [9] Dois outros generais da guerra civil que eram aparentados com Lee foram George B. Crittenden (CSA) e Thomas Leonidas Crittenden (EUA), sua irmã era a autora Ann Mary Butler Crittenden Coleman e sua mãe era Sarah O. Lee uma tatara-tatara -neta de Richard Lee I "o Fundador". Um filho de Thomas L. Crittenden, John Jordan Crittenden III, morreu na Batalha de Little Bighorn em 1876. Outro parente distante de Lee era o almirante americano Willis A. Lee, de Kentucky.

"Bedford", a casa do condado de Jefferson de seu primo Edmund J. Lee Jr. (1797-1877), filho de Edmund Jennings Lee I, foi queimado em julho de 1864, junto com outros simpatizantes confederados no que se tornou o Panhandle Oriental do Oeste Virgínia. [10]

Gerações posteriores Editar

Francis Preston Blair Lee (1857 a 1944) foi um membro democrata do Senado dos Estados Unidos, representando o Estado de Maryland de 1914 a 1917. Ele também foi o bisneto do patriota americano Richard Henry Lee, pai do controlador E. Brooke Lee de Maryland e "Pai de Silver Spring" e avô de Blair Lee III, vice-governador de Maryland de 1971-1979 e governador interino de Maryland de 1977 a 1979. [11]

O juiz Charles Carter Lee, um descendente direto de Henry Lee III (Lighthorse Harry), foi escolhido para representar os Estados Unidos nos Jogos Olímpicos de 2008 como Chef de Missão do Comitê Olímpico dos Estados Unidos. O juiz Lee, juiz do Tribunal Superior do Condado de Los Angeles desde 1989, também esteve envolvido nos Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 1984, enquanto chefiava uma delegação enviada à China depois que a União Soviética anunciou um plano para boicotar os Jogos Olímpicos de Los Angeles. Essas negociações foram concluídas com o acordo formal por escrito da China para participar das Olimpíadas de 1984. A mãe de Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis nasceu Janet Lee e afirmou ser parte da família. Mais tarde, ficou provado que ela não era. [ citação necessária ]

Abaixo está uma lista de membros notáveis ​​do sexo masculino da família Lee, começando com o governador da Virgínia Thomas Lee e Henry Lee: [ pesquisa original? ]


Fazendo sentido de Robert E. Lee

Poucas figuras na história americana são mais divisivas, contraditórias ou elusivas do que Robert E. Lee, o relutante e trágico líder do Exército Confederado, que morreu em sua amada Virgínia aos 63 anos em 1870, cinco anos após o fim da Guerra Civil. Em uma nova biografia, Robert E. Lee, Roy Blount, Jr., trata Lee como um homem de impulsos concorrentes, um & # 8220parágono da masculinidade & # 8221 e & # 8220 um dos maiores comandantes militares da história & # 8221 que, no entanto, & # 8220 não é bom em dizer o que aos homens a fazer. & # 8221

Blount, um conhecido humorista, jornalista, dramaturgo e contador de histórias, é autor ou co-autor de 15 livros anteriores e editor de Roy Blount & # 8217s Book of Southern Humor. Residente na cidade de Nova York e no oeste de Massachusetts, ele traça seu interesse por Lee em sua infância na Geórgia. Embora Blount nunca tenha sido um fã da Guerra Civil, ele diz que & # 8220 todo sulista tem que fazer as pazes com essa guerra. Eu mergulhei de volta nisso para este livro e estou aliviado por ter emergido vivo. & # 8221

& # 8220Além disso, & # 8221, ele diz, & # 8220Lee me lembra de algumas maneiras meu pai. & # 8221

No centro da história de Lee & # 8217 está uma das escolhas monumentais da história americana: reverenciado por sua honra, Lee renunciou à comissão do Exército dos EUA para defender a Virgínia e lutar pela Confederação, do lado da escravidão. & # 8220A decisão foi honrosa de acordo com seus padrões de honra & # 8212 que, independentemente do que possamos pensar deles, não eram egoístas nem complicados, & # 8221 Blount diz. Lee & # 8220 achou que era uma má ideia a separação da Virgínia, e Deus sabe que ele estava certo, mas a secessão tinha sido decidida mais ou menos democraticamente. & # 8221 A família de Lee & # 8217 tinha escravos e ele próprio era, na melhor das hipóteses, ambíguo sobre o assunto, levando alguns de seus defensores ao longo dos anos a desconsiderar a importância da escravidão nas avaliações de seu caráter. Blount argumenta que a questão é importante: & # 8220Para mim, é a escravidão, muito mais do que a secessão como tal, que lança uma sombra sobre a honorabilidade de Lee & # 8217. & # 8221

No trecho a seguir, o general reúne suas tropas para uma batalha de três dias úmidos de julho em uma cidade da Pensilvânia. Seu nome depois disso ressoou com coragem, baixas e erros de cálculo: Gettysburg.

Em seu arrojado (embora às vezes depressivo) auge antes da guerra, ele pode ter sido a pessoa mais bonita da América, uma espécie de cruzado entre Cary Grant e Randolph Scott. Ele estava em seu elemento fofocando com belas sobre seus namorados nos bailes. Em teatros de trituração e carnificina humana infernal, ele mantinha uma galinha de estimação como companhia. He had tiny feet that he loved his children to tickle None of these things seems to fit, for if ever there was a grave American icon, it is Robert Edward Lee—hero of the Confederacy in the Civil War and a symbol of nobility to some, of slavery to others.

After Lee’s death in 1870, Frederick Douglass, the former fugitive slave who had become the nation’s most prominent African-American, wrote, “We can scarcely take up a newspaper . . . that is not filled with nauseating flatteries” of Lee, from which “it would seem . . . that the soldier who kills the most men in battle, even in a bad cause, is the greatest Christian, and entitled to the highest place in heaven.” Two years later one of Lee’s ex-generals, Jubal A. Early, apotheosized his late commander as follows: “Our beloved Chief stands, like some lofty column which rears its head among the highest, in grandeur, simple, pure and sublime.”

In 1907, on the 100th anniversary of Lee’s birth, President Theodore Roosevelt expressed mainstream American sentiment, praising Lee’s “extraordinary skill as a General, his dauntless courage and high leadership,” adding, “He stood that hardest of all strains, the strain of bearing himself well through the gray evening of failure and therefore out of what seemed failure he helped to build the wonderful and mighty triumph of our national life, in which all his countrymen, north and south, share.”

We may think we know Lee because we have a mental image: gray. Not only the uniform, the mythic horse, the hair and beard, but the resignation with which he accepted dreary burdens that offered “neither pleasure nor advantage”: in particular, the Confederacy, a cause of which he took a dim view until he went to war for it. He did not see right and wrong in tones of gray, and yet his moralizing could generate a fog, as in a letter from the front to his invalid wife: “You must endeavour to enjoy the pleasure of doing good. That is all that makes life valuable.” All right. But then he adds: “When I measure my own by that standard I am filled with confusion and despair.”

His own hand probably never drew human blood nor fired a shot in anger, and his only Civil War wound was a faint scratch on the cheek from a sharpshooter’s bullet, but many thousands of men died quite horribly in battles where he was the dominant spirit, and most of the casualties were on the other side. If we take as a given Lee’s granitic conviction that everything is God’s will, however, he was born to lose.

As battlefield generals go, he could be extremely fiery, and could go out of his way to be kind. But in even the most sympathetic versions of his life story he comes across as a bit of a stick—certainly compared with his scruffy nemesis, Ulysses S. Grant his zany, ferocious “right arm,” Stonewall Jackson and the dashing “eyes” of his army, J.E.B. “Jeb” Stuart. For these men, the Civil War was just the ticket. Lee, however, has come down in history as too fine for the bloodbath of 1861-65. To efface the squalor and horror of the war, we have the image of Abraham Lincoln freeing the slaves, and we have the image of Robert E. Lee’s gracious surrender. Still, for many contemporary Americans, Lee is at best the moral equivalent of Hitler’s brilliant field marshal Erwin Rommel (who, however, turned against Hitler, as Lee never did against Jefferson Davis, who, to be sure, was no Hitler).

On his father’s side, Lee’s family was among Virginia’s and therefore the nation’s most distinguished. Henry, the scion who was to become known in the Revolutionary War as Light-Horse Harry, was born in 1756. He graduated from Princeton at 19 and joined the Continental Army at 20 as a captain of dragoons, and he rose in rank and independence to command Lee’s light cavalry and then Lee’s legion of cavalry and infantry. Without the medicines, elixirs, and food Harry Lee’s raiders captured from the enemy, George Washington’s army would not likely have survived the harrowing winter encampment of 1777-78 at Valley Forge. Washington became his patron and close friend. With the war nearly over, however, Harry decided he was underappreciated, so he impulsively resigned from the army. In 1785, he was elected to the Continental Congress, and in 1791 he was elected governor of Virginia. In 1794 Washington put him in command of the troops that bloodlessly put down the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania. In 1799 he was elected to the U.S. Congress, where he famously eulogized Washington as “first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.”

Meanwhile, though, Harry’s fast and loose speculation in hundreds of thousands of the new nation’s acres went sour, and in 1808 he was reduced to chicanery. He and his second wife, Ann Hill Carter Lee, and their children departed the Lee ancestral home, where Robert was born, for a smaller rented house in Alexandria. Under the conditions of bankruptcy that obtained in those days, Harry was still liable for his debts. He jumped a personal appearance bail—to the dismay of his brother, Edmund, who had posted a sizable bond—and wangled passage, with pitying help from President James Monroe, to the West Indies. In 1818, after five years away, Harry headed home to die, but got only as far as Cumberland Island, Georgia, where he was buried. Robert was 11.

Robert appears to have been too fine for his childhood, for his education, for his profession, for his marriage, and for the Confederacy. Not according to him. According to him, he was not fine enough. For all his audacity on the battlefield, he accepted rather passively one raw deal after another, bending over backward for everyone from Jefferson Davis to James McNeill Whistler’s mother. (When he was superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy, Lee acquiesced to Mrs. Whistler’s request on behalf of her cadet son, who was eventually dismissed in 1854.)

By what can we know of him? The works of a general are battles, campaigns and usually memoirs. The engagements of the Civil War shape up more as bloody muddles than as commanders’ chess games. For a long time during the war, “Old Bobbie Lee,” as he was referred to worshipfully by his troops and nervously by the foe, had the greatly superior Union forces spooked, but a century and a third of analysis and counteranalysis has resulted in no core consensus as to the genius or the folly of his generalship. And he wrote no memoir. He wrote personal letters—a discordant mix of flirtation, joshing, lyrical touches, and stern religious adjuration—and he wrote official dispatches that are so impersonal and (generally) unselfserving as to seem above the fray.

During the postbellum century, when Americans North and South decided to embrace R. E. Lee as a national as well as a Southern hero, he was generally described as antislavery. This assumption rests not on any public position he took but on a passage in an 1856 letter to his wife. The passage begins: “In this enlightened age, there are few I believe, but what will acknowledge, that slavery as an institution, is a moral & political evil in any Country. It is useless to expatiate on its disadvantages.” But he goes on: “I think it however a greater evil to the white than to the black race, & while my feelings are strongly enlisted in behalf of the latter, my sympathies are more strong for the former. The blacks are immeasurably better off here than in Africa, morally, socially & physically. The painful discipline they are undergoing, is necessary for their instruction as a race, & I hope will prepare & lead them to better things. How long their subjugation may be necessary is known & ordered by a wise Merciful Providence.”

The only way to get inside Lee, perhaps, is by edging fractally around the record of his life to find spots where he comes through by holding up next to him some of the fully realized characters—Grant, Jackson, Stuart, Light-Horse Harry Lee, John Brown—with whom he interacted and by subjecting to contemporary skepticism certain concepts—honor, “gradual emancipation,” divine will—upon which he unreflectively founded his identity.

He wasn’t always gray. Until war aged him dramatically, his sharp dark brown eyes were complemented by black hair (“ebon and abundant,” as his doting biographer Douglas Southall Freeman puts it, “with a wave that a woman might have envied”), a robust black mustache, a strong full mouth and chin unobscured by any beard, and dark mercurial brows. He was not one to hide his looks under a bushel. His heart, on the other hand . . . “The heart, he kept locked away,” as Stephen Vincent Benét proclaimed in “John Brown’s Body,” “from all the picklocks of biographers.” Accounts by people who knew him give the impression that no one knew his whole heart, even before it was broken by the war. Perhaps it broke many years before the war. “You know she is like her papa, always wanting something,” he wrote about one of his daughters. The great Southern diarist of his day, Mary Chesnut, tells us that when a lady teased him about his ambitions, he “remonstrated—said his tastes were of the simplest. He only wanted a Virginia farm—no end of cream and fresh butter—and fried chicken. Not one fried chicken or two—but unlimited fried chicken.” Just before Lee’s surrender at Appomattox, one of his nephews found him in the field, “very grave and tired,” carrying around a fried chicken leg wrapped in a piece of bread, which a Virginia countrywoman had pressed upon him but for which he couldn’t muster any hunger.

One thing that clearly drove him was devotion to his home state. “If Virginia stands by the old Union,” Lee told a friend, “so will I. But if she secedes (though I do not believe in secession as a constitutional right, nor that there is sufficient cause for revolution), then I will follow my native State with my sword, and, if need be, with my life.”

The North took secession as an act of aggression, to be countered accordingly. When Lincoln called on the loyal states for troops to invade the South, Southerners could see the issue as defense not of slavery but of homeland. A Virginia convention that had voted 2 to 1 against secession, now voted 2 to 1 in favor.

When Lee read the news that Virginia had joined the Confederacy, he said to his wife, “Well, Mary, the question is settled,” and resigned the U.S. Army commission he had held for 32 years.

The days of July 1-3, 1863, still stand among the most horrific and formative in American history. Lincoln had given up on Joe Hooker, put Maj. Gen. George G. Meade in command of the Army of the Potomac, and sent him to stop Lee’s invasion of Pennsylvania. Since Jeb Stuart’s scouting operation had been uncharacteristically out of touch, Lee wasn’t sure where Meade’s army was. Lee had actually advanced farther north than the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, when he learned that Meade was south of him, threatening his supply lines. So Lee swung back in that direction. On June 30 a Confederate brigade, pursuing the report that there were shoes to be had in Gettysburg, ran into Federal cavalry west of town, and withdrew. On July 1 a larger Confederate force returned, engaged Meade’s advance force, and pushed it back through the town—to the fishhook-shaped heights comprising Cemetery Hill, Cemetery Ridge, Little Round Top, and Round Top. It was almost a rout, until Maj. Gen. O. O. Howard, to whom Lee as West Point superintendent had been kind when Howard was an unpopular cadet, and Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock rallied the Federals and held the high ground. Excellent ground to defend from. That evening Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, who commanded the First Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, urged Lee not to attack, but to swing around to the south, get between Meade and Washington, and find a strategically even better defensive position, against which the Federals might feel obliged to mount one of those frontal assaults that virtually always lost in this war. Still not having heard from Stuart, Lee felt he might have numerical superiority for once. “No,” he said, “the enemy is there, and I am going to attack him there.”

The next morning, Lee set in motion a two-part offensive: Lt. Gen. Richard Ewell’s corps was to pin down the enemy’s right flank, on Culp’s Hill and Cemetery Hill, while Longstreet’s, with a couple of extra divisions, would hit the left flank—believed to be exposed—on Cemetery Ridge. To get there Longstreet would have to make a long march under cover. Longstreet mounted a sulky objection, but Lee was adamant. And wrong.

Lee didn’t know that in the night Meade had managed by forced marches to concentrate nearly his entire army at Lee’s front, and had deployed it skillfully—his left flank was now extended to Little Round Top, nearly three-quarters of a mile south of where Lee thought it was. The disgruntled Longstreet, never one to rush into anything, and confused to find the left flank farther left than expected, didn’t begin his assault until 3:30 that afternoon. It nearly prevailed anyway, but at last was beaten gorily back. Although the two-pronged offensive was ill-coordinated, and the Federal artillery had knocked out the Confederate guns to the north before Ewell attacked, Ewell’s infantry came tantalizingly close to taking Cemetery Hill, but a counterattack forced them to retreat.

On the third morning, July 3, Lee’s plan was roughly the same, but Meade seized the initiative by pushing forward on his right and seizing Culp’s Hill, which the Confederates held. So Lee was forced to improvise. He decided to strike straight ahead, at Meade’s heavily fortified midsection. Confederate artillery would soften it up, and Longstreet would direct a frontal assault across a mile of open ground against the center of Missionary Ridge. Again Longstreet objected again Lee wouldn’t listen. The Confederate artillery exhausted all its shells ineffectively, so was unable to support the assault—which has gone down in history as Pickett’s charge because Maj. Gen. George Pickett’s division absorbed the worst of the horrible bloodbath it turned into.

Lee’s idolaters strained after the war to shift the blame, but the consensus today is that Lee managed the battle badly. Each supposed major blunder of his subordinates—Ewell’s failure to take the high ground of Cemetery Hill on July 1, Stuart’s getting out of touch and leaving Lee unapprised of what force he was facing, and the lateness of Longstreet’s attack on the second day—either wasn’t a blunder at all (if Longstreet had attacked earlier he would have encountered an even stronger Union position) or was caused by a lack of forcefulness and specificity in Lee’s orders.

Before Gettysburg, Lee had seemed not only to read the minds of Union generals but almost to expect his subordinates to read his. He was not in fact good at telling men what to do. That no doubt suited the Confederate fighting man, who didn’t take kindly to being told what to do—but Lee’s only weakness as a commander, his otherwise reverent nephew Fitzhugh Lee would write, was his “reluctance to oppose the wishes of others, or to order them to do anything that would be disagreeable and to which they would not consent.” With men as well as with women, his authority derived from his sightliness, politeness, and unimpeachability. His usually cheerful detachment patently covered solemn depths, depths faintly lit by glints of previous and potential rejection of self and others. It all seemed Olympian, in a Christian cavalier sort of way. Officers’ hearts went out to him across the latitude he granted them to be willingly, creatively honorable. Longstreet speaks of responding to Lee at another critical moment by “receiving his anxious expressions really as appeals for reinforcement of his unexpressed wish.” When people obey you because they think you enable them to follow their own instincts, you need a keen instinct yourself for when they’re getting out of touch, as Stuart did, and when they are balking for good reason, as Longstreet did. As a father Lee was fond but fretful, as a husband devoted but distant. As an attacking general he was inspiring but not necessarily cogent.

At Gettysburg he was jittery, snappish. He was 56 and bone weary. He may have had dysentery, though a scholar’s widely publicized assertion to that effect rests on tenuous evidence. He did have rheumatism and heart trouble. He kept fretfully wondering why Stuart was out of touch, worrying that something bad had happened to him. He had given Stuart broad discretion as usual, and Stuart had overextended himself. Stuart wasn’t frolicking. He had done his best to act on Lee’s written instructions: “You will . . . be able to judge whether you can pass around their army without hindrance, doing them all the damage you can, and cross the [Potomac] east of the mountains. In either case, after crossing the river, you must move on and feel the right of Ewell’s troops, collecting information, provisions, etc.” But he had not, in fact, been able to judge: he met several hindrances in the form of Union troops, a swollen river that he and his men managed only heroically to cross, and 150 Federal wagons that he captured antes he crossed the river. And he had not sent word of what he was up to.

When on the afternoon of the second day Stuart did show up at Gettysburg, after pushing himself nearly to exhaustion, Lee’s only greeting to him is said to have been, “Well, General Stuart, you are here at last.” A coolly devastating cut: Lee’s way of chewing out someone who he felt had let him down. In the months after Gettysburg, as Lee stewed over his defeat, he repeatedly criticized the laxness of Stuart’s command, deeply hurting a man who prided himself on the sort of dashing freelance effectiveness by which Lee’s father, Maj. Gen. Light-Horse Harry, had defined himself. A bond of implicit trust had been broken. Loving-son figure had failed loving-father figure and vice versa.

In the past Lee had also granted Ewell and Longstreet wide discretion, and it had paid off. Maybe his magic in Virginia didn’t travel. “The whole affair was disjointed,” Taylor the aide said of Gettysburg. “There was an utter absence of accord in the movements of the several commands.”

Why did Lee stake everything, finally, on an ill-considered thrust straight up the middle? Lee’s critics have never come up with a logical explanation. Evidently he just got his blood up, as the expression goes. When the usually repressed Lee felt an overpowering need for emotional release, and had an army at his disposal and another one in front of him, he couldn’t hold back. And why should Lee expect his imprudence to be any less unsettling to Meade than it had been to the other Union commanders?

The spot against which he hurled Pickett was right in front of Meade’s headquarters. (Once, Dwight Eisenhower, who admired Lee’s generalship, took Field Marshal Montgomery to visit the Gettysburg battlefield. They looked at the site of Pickett’s charge and were baffled. Eisenhower said, “The man [Lee] must have got so mad that he wanted to hit that guy [Meade] with a brick.”)

Pickett’s troops advanced with precision, closed up the gaps that withering fire tore into their smartly dressed ranks, and at close quarters fought tooth and nail. Acouple of hundred Confederates did break the Union line, but only briefly. Someone counted 15 bodies on a patch of ground less than five feet wide and three feet long. It has been estimated that 10,500 Johnny Rebs made the charge and 5,675—roughly 54 percent—fell dead or wounded. As a Captain Spessard charged, he saw his son shot dead. He laid him out gently on the ground, kissed him, and got back to advancing.

As the minority who hadn’t been cut to ribbons streamed back to the Confederate lines, Lee rode in splendid calm among them, apologizing. “It’s all my fault,” he assured stunned privates and corporals. He took the time to admonish, mildly, an officer who was beating his horse: “Don’t whip him, captain it does no good. I had a foolish horse, once, and kind treatment is the best.” Then he resumed his apologies: “I am very sorry—the task was too great for you—but we mustn’t despond.” Shelby Foote has called this Lee’s finest moment. But generals don’t want apologies from those beneath them, and that goes both ways. After midnight, he told a cavalry officer, “I never saw troops behave more magnificently than Pickett’s division of Virginians. . . . ” Then he fell silent, and it was then that he exclaimed, as the officer later wrote it down, “Too bad! Too bad! OH! TOO BAD!”

Pickett’s charge wasn’t the half of it. Altogether at Gettysburg as many as 28,000 Confederates were killed, wounded, captured, or missing: more than a third of Lee’s whole army. Perhaps it was because Meade and his troops were so stunned by their own losses—about 23,000—that they failed to pursue Lee on his withdrawal south, trap him against the flooded Potomac, and wipe his army out. Lincoln and the Northern press were furious that this didn’t happen.

For months Lee had been traveling with a pet hen. Meant for the stewpot, she had won his heart by entering his tent first thing every morning and laying his breakfast egg under his Spartan cot. As the Army of Northern Virginia was breaking camp in all deliberate speed for the withdrawal, Lee’s staff ran around anxiously crying, “Where is the hen?” Lee himself found her nestled in her accustomed spot on the wagon that transported his personal matériel. Life goes on.

After Gettysburg, Lee never mounted another murderous head-on assault. He went on the defensive. Grant took over command of the eastern front and 118,700 men. He set out to grind Lee’s 64,000 down. Lee had his men well dug in. Grant resolved to turn his flank, force him into a weaker position, and crush him.

On April 9, 1865, Lee finally had to admit that he was trapped. At the beginning of Lee’s long, combative retreat by stages from Grant’s overpowering numbers, he had 64,000 men. By the end they had inflicted 63,000 Union casualties but had been reduced themselves to fewer than 10,000.

To be sure, there were those in Lee’s army who proposed continuing the struggle as guerrillas or by reorganizing under the governors of the various Confederate states. Lee cut off any such talk. He was a professional soldier. He had seen more than enough of governors who would be commanders, and he had no respect for ragtag guerrilladom. He told Col. Edward Porter Alexander, his artillery commander, . . . the men would become mere bands of marauders, and the enemy’s cavalry would pursue them and overrun many wide sections they may never have occasion to visit. We would bring on a state of affairs it would take the country years to recover from.”

“And, as for myself, you young fellows might go to bushwhacking, but the only dignified course for me would be, to go to Gen. Grant and surrender myself and take the consequences.” That is what he did on April 9, 1865, at a farmhouse in the village of Appomattox Court House, wearing a fulldress uniform and carrying a borrowed ceremonial sword which he did not surrender.

Thomas Morris Chester, the only black correspondent for a major daily newspaper (the Philadelphia Press) during the war, had nothing but scorn for the Confederacy, and referred to Lee as a “notorious rebel.” But when Chester witnessed Lee’s arrival in shattered, burned-out Richmond after the surrender, his dispatch sounded a more sympathetic note. After Lee “alighted from his horse, he immediately uncovered his head, thinly covered with silver hairs, as he had done in acknowledgment of the veneration of the people along the streets,” Chester wrote. “There was a general rush of the small crowd to shake hands with him. During these manifestations not a word was spoken, and when the ceremony was through, the General bowed and ascended his steps. The silence was then broken by a few voices calling for a speech, to which he paid no attention. The General then passed into his house, and the crowd dispersed.”


Robert E. Lee dies

General Robert Edward Lee, the commander of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, dies at his home in Lexington, Virginia. He was 63 years old.

Lee was born to Henry Lee and Ann Carter Lee at Stratford Hall, Virginia, in 1807. His father served in the American Revolution under George Washington and was later a governor of Virginia. Robert Lee attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and graduated second in his class in 1829. He did not earn a single demerit during his four years at the academy. Afterward,Lee embarked on a military career, eventually fighting in the Mexican War (1846-48) and later serving as the superintendent of West Point.

When the Civil War broke out in 1861, Lee sided with the Confederacy and spent the first year of the war as an advisor to Confederate President Jefferson Davis. He assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia when Joseph Johnston was wounded in battle in May 1862. Over the next three years, Lee earned a reputation for his brilliant tactics and battlefield leadership. However, his invasions of the North, at Antietam in Maryland and Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, ended in defeat.


Lee, a member of a prominent Virginia family, was the son of "Light Horse Harry" Lee, a hero of the American Revolution. His older brother, Sydney Lee, served as commandant at Annapolis, commanded Commodore Perry's flagship in the Japan expedition, and later served in the Confederate Navy. Robert graduated from West Point in 1829, second in his class of forty-six. He then served at various forts along the east coast before being assigned chief engineer for the St. Louis, Missouri, harbor. During the Mexican War Lee served on the staff of General Winfield Scott in the Vera Cruz expedition, receiving in succession the brevets of major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel. Depois da guerra Lee returned to supervise construction of fortifications until appointed superintendent of West Point, a position he held from 1852 to 1855. Later he was transferred from the engineer corps and assigned as lieutenant colonel of the 2d Cavalry. In late 1859 the abolitionist John Brown made his raid on the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry Lee, on leave in Washington, was sent with a force of marines from the Navy Yard to capture the raiders. In early 1861 Lee was promoted to colonel of the 1st Cavalry, his commission signed by the newly elected Abraham Lincoln. However, when he was offered command of forces that would invade the South, Lee resigned his commission.

In late April he was appointed major general and commander of Virginia military forces. A month later, when Virginia became part of the Confederacy, Lee was commissioned first a brigadier general in the Confederate Army (no higher rank having been created at that time) and later general. In March 1862 he became the military adviser to President Jefferson Davis. At the beginning of June Lee succeeded the wounded General Joseph E. Johnston in command of the Army of Northern Virginia in charge of defending Richmond. Lee led his army through a series of victories-at the Battles of the Seven Days, Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville-punctuated by reverses at Antietam and Gettysburg. In February 1865 Lee was appointed general in chief of the Confederate armies but two months later, on 9 April, he was forced to surrender the Exército da Virgínia do Norte at Appomattox Court House. Depois da guerra Lee accepted the presidency of Washington College at Lexington, Virginia, and served there until his death. (The school's name was later changed to Washington and Lee University.)


Robert Edward Lee

One of the most revered of American soldiers, Robert Edward Lee (1807–1870) was born at Stratford in Westmoreland County, Virginia, in 1807, the son of Revolutionary War general Light Horse Harry Lee. Before the Civil War, few men could match Lee's record of achievement in the army. Graduating without a single demerit and second in his class from West Point in 1829, he served for several years with distinction as a military engineer, steadily rising in rank and reputation.

During the Mexican War, his extraordinary bravery and ability won him the lasting confidence of fellow Virginian and American commander, General Winfield Scott. Later, Lee was appointed superintendent of West Point then he returned to line duty with the 2nd U.S. Cavalry on the West Texas frontier. Early in 1861, he was recalled to Washington by General Scott.

Politically a moderate, strongly attached to the Union, and with no special sympathy for the institution of slavery, Lee watched with growing anxiety as the lower South seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. When Virginia left the Union, Lee made the most difficult decision of his life. His old friend and mentor General Scott offered him principal command of the United States Army. But Lee maintained his conscience would not allow him to bear arms against his native Virginia. He submitted his resignation and traveled to Richmond where he was named commander-in-chief of the military and naval forces of Virginia. Soon he was commissioned as a general in the Confederate army. Probably, he is the only man in history offered the command of opposing armies.

With the wounding of General Joseph E. Johnston at Seven Pines in May 1862, Lee was given command of the Army of Northern Virginia. Initially successful in a series of brilliant campaigns, Lee adopted a largely defensive strategy after a stunning defeat at Gettysburg in July 1863. From the Wilderness to Petersburg, he tried desperately to hold a much larger Union army at bay. Dislodged at Petersburg, his weakened forces surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant's army at Appomattox on April 9, 1865.

General Lee returned to Richmond, but several months later he accepted the presidency of Washington College in Lexington, Virginia, which after his death was renamed Washington and Lee. He devoted the remaining five years of his life to education and the healing of old animosities, and he died, mourned both in the North and South, in October 1870.

VHS accession number: 1957.29

Image rights owned by the Virginia Historical Society. Rights and reproductions

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Lee History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The name Lee was carried to England in the enormous movement of people that followed the Norman Conquest of 1066. The Lee family lived in any of the various places named Leigh in England. There are at least 16 counties that contain a place named Leigh. The place-name was originally derived from the Old English word leah, which means wood clearing. [1] The English Lee family is descended from the Norman Lee family. The family name Lee became popular in England after the Norman Conquest, when William the Conqueror gave his friends and relatives most of the land formerly owned by Anglo-Saxon aristocrats. The Normans frequently adopted the names of their recently acquired estates in England.

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Early Origins of the Lee family

The surname Lee was first found in Cheshire, at High Leigh, where the name is from "an eminent family, who for centuries in that county nearly all the gentry families of that name claim descent." [2]

Of note are the following ancient families: Legh of East Hall, in High Legh, county Chester, descended from Efward de Lega, who lived at or near the period of the Conquest and who appears to have a Saxon origin Leigh of West Hall, in High Leigh, originally De Lynne who married a Legh heiress in the 13th century and Leigh of Adlestrop (Baron Leigh) county Gloucester, descended from Agens, daughter and heiress of Richard de Legh. [3]

"The Lees of Lee, and Darnhall, co. Chester, now represented by the Townshends of Hem and Trevallyn, and the Lees of Quarendon, Bucks, of whom was the gallant Sir Henry Lee, K.G. and the Lees of Ditchley, Earls of Lichfield, whose descendant Viscount Dillon now possesses the Ditchley estate, spring from the De Lee of Battle Abbey." [4]

Leigh is a fairly common place name that dates back to pre-Conquest times as Leigh, Herefordshire and Worcestershire were both listed as Beornothesleah in 972. [1]

There are over nineteen villages that are either named Leigh or include Leigh in their name throughout Britain. The parish of Hughley in Shropshire derives "its name from Hugh de Lea, proprietor of the manor in the twelfth century, and ancestor of the Leas of Langley and Lea Hall." [5]

"The township [of Poulton with Fearnhead, Lancashire] has been the property of the Legh family, of Lyme, since their union with the Haydocks. Bruch, or Birch, the old manor-house, existing in the 12th of Charles I., was given by Sir Peter Legh to his fourth son Peter, whose grand-daughter married the grandson of Dr. Thomas Legh, the third son of Sir Peter." [5]


Robert Edward Lee

One of the most revered of American soldiers, Robert Edward Lee (1807–1870) was born at Stratford in Westmoreland County, Virginia, in 1807, the son of Revolutionary War general Light Horse Harry Lee. Before the Civil War, few men could match Lee's record of achievement in the army. Graduating without a single demerit and second in his class from West Point in 1829, he served for several years with distinction as a military engineer, steadily rising in rank and reputation.

During the Mexican War, his extraordinary bravery and ability won him the lasting confidence of fellow Virginian and American commander, General Winfield Scott. Later, Lee was appointed superintendent of West Point then he returned to line duty with the 2nd U.S. Cavalry on the West Texas frontier. Early in 1861, he was recalled to Washington by General Scott.

Politically a moderate, strongly attached to the Union, and with no special sympathy for the institution of slavery, Lee watched with growing anxiety as the lower South seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. When Virginia left the Union, Lee made the most difficult decision of his life. His old friend and mentor General Scott offered him principal command of the United States Army. But Lee maintained his conscience would not allow him to bear arms against his native Virginia. He submitted his resignation and traveled to Richmond where he was named commander-in-chief of the military and naval forces of Virginia. Soon he was commissioned as a general in the Confederate army. Probably, he is the only man in history offered the command of opposing armies.

With the wounding of General Joseph E. Johnston at Seven Pines in May 1862, Lee was given command of the Army of Northern Virginia. Initially successful in a series of brilliant campaigns, Lee adopted a largely defensive strategy after a stunning defeat at Gettysburg in July 1863. From the Wilderness to Petersburg, he tried desperately to hold a much larger Union army at bay. Dislodged at Petersburg, his weakened forces surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant's army at Appomattox on April 9, 1865.

General Lee returned to Richmond, but several months later he accepted the presidency of Washington College in Lexington, Virginia, which after his death was renamed Washington and Lee. He devoted the remaining five years of his life to education and the healing of old animosities, and he died, mourned both in the North and South, in October 1870.

VHS accession number: 1957.29

Image rights owned by the Virginia Historical Society. Rights and reproductions

Become a member! Enjoy exciting benefits and explore new exhibitions year-round.


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