Notícia

Panther II SC-1470 - História

Panther II SC-1470 - História

Panther II

(SC-1470: dp. 99; 1,11'6 ", b; 17'9"; dr. 5'6 "; s. 15 k .; a.

SC-1470, um sub-caçador construído para os Estados Unidos sob Lend Lease reverso pela Leblanc Shipbuilding Co., Weymouth, Nova Scotia, em 1942, foi lançado em 17 de junho de 1942, transferido para a Marinha dos EUA naquela data e comissionado em Weymouth 23 de outubro de 1942.

Depois de se equipar no Estaleiro Naval de Boston, SC-1470 passou a patrulhar em Tompkinsville, NY. Ela patrulhou entre Boston e Norfolk até 21 de janeiro de 1943, quando partiu de Tompkinsville para operar em Miami como uma unidade do Mar do Caribe Fronteira. Este foi um período crítico para os subcompradores da área, já que a campanha do submarino ameaçava sufocar o comércio caribenho.

Anexado à Fronteira do Mar do Golfo em 23 de maio de 1943, o SC-1470 continuou as operações de ASW e escolta em uma área mais restrita. Sua designação foi alterada para IX 105 e ela foi nomeada Pantera em 26 de junho de 1943. Ela foi avaliada como não mar

digno e desativado em 7 de julho e colocado em serviço no mesmo dia. Ela continuou a servir até 21 de janeiro de 1946, quando foi colocada fora de serviço e foi eliminada do Registro da Marinha. Posteriormente, ela foi vendida para sucateamento em 13 de fevereiro


Testemunhos

Chris e Jerry, muito obrigado por sua ajuda com este problema! Eu certamente aprecio isso e irei me gabar do seu atendimento pessoal aos amigos aqui em Charleston, SC.

Fantástico. Não posso dizer o suficiente, ótimo atendimento ao cliente! Obrigado um milhão.

Obrigado, Chris! Eu aprecio toda a sua ajuda! Tenho certeza de que esforços como esse mantêm a CMP líder na indústria. Agradecemos sua orientação enquanto trabalhamos nisso.


O Pershing e a Pantera

Em 6 de março de 1945, o tanque do sargento Bob Earley estava parado em um cruzamento em Colônia, Alemanha. À sua frente estava a Catedral de Colônia - o grande prêmio de uma das últimas cidades alemãs ainda de pé na Segunda Guerra Mundial. Comandante de um Pershing T26E3 chamado Eagle 7, Earley não sabia que ele e os outros quatro membros de sua tripulação estavam prestes a ser imortalizados na história. Embaixo dele, na escotilha do motorista, estava Woody McVeigh.

Ao lado de McVeigh no casco estava o operador de rádio Homer “Smokey” Davis usando seu capuz de malha de sua marca registrada. Na torre com Earley estava o carregador John “Johnny Boy” DeRiggi e o artilheiro de 21 anos, Clarence Smoyer. DeRiggi estava à esquerda de Earley, saindo de sua própria escotilha. No início da guerra, DeRiggi havia trocado por um capacete de petroleiro francês e # x27s e isso o tornou uma figura imediatamente reconhecível. A tripulação lutava junta desde setembro de 1944.

O veículo que eles chamavam de casa era o mais novo tanque do Exército dos Estados Unidos (EUA). Depois de anos de reclamações de petroleiros americanos sobre as deficiências do M4 Sherman como veículo de combate, o Exército dos EUA finalmente tinha uma ferramenta que poderia se igualar aos alemães. O sargento Earley foi um dos poucos sortudos. Seu Pershing foi um dos 20 que foram enviados à Europa para testes de combate. O preço que ele e sua equipe pagaram por ter o melhor equipamento era que deveriam conduzir sua unidade ao coração de Colônia. Mas um confronto lamentável em um cruzamento de quarteirões da Catedral interrompeu a coluna. Earley só pôde observar um trio de médicos que tentava desesperadamente salvar dois civis alemães que haviam sido pegos em um fogo cruzado entre o Eagle 7 e um Panzer IV alemão.

Com o Pershing parado, o esforço principal coube aos Shermans da Fox Company em uma rua paralela. Liderando esta coluna estava Karl Kellner e sua equipe. Morador de Sheboygan, Wisconsin, o Kellner de óculos havia recebido recentemente uma promoção de campo a segundo-tenente. No entanto, Kellner não era novo no campo de batalha. Ele já havia sido ferido duas vezes e premiado com a Estrela de Prata por bravura na Normandia. Ele estava bem preparado para liderar seu pelotão até a Catedral. Mas ele não estava sozinho.

Junto com a infantaria acompanhante estava um grupo de repórteres e fotógrafos. Eles estavam próximos da linha de frente, ansiosos para ouvir histórias sobre a queda de Colônia. Entre eles estava Jim Bates, um residente de Colorado Springs e cinegrafista da Alexander Film Company antes da guerra. Bates estava prestes a capturar o primeiro - e possivelmente o mais famoso - duelo de tanques filmado.

À frente de Kellner estava a Komodienstrasse. Correndo de leste a oeste, esta rua ia diretamente entre a Praça da Catedral e a estação ferroviária próxima a ela. Quando começou a descer a rua, Kellner não percebeu que um Pantera Alemã estava emboscado perto da estação ferroviária. A tripulação do Pantera do Segundo Tenente Wilhelm Bartelborth estava preparada para lutar até o fim. A ponte Hohenzollernbrucke foi destruída atrás deles. Sua demolição prematura os deixara de costas para o Reno e com uma terrível sensação de determinação. Eles tinham o veículo perfeito para uma luta. O Panther superou o Sherman em praticamente todas as categorias. Junto com seu primo felino, o Tigre, os Panteras estavam aterrorizando as tripulações de tanques Aliados desde a Normandia.

O movimento de Kellner foi inicialmente tranquilo. No entanto, logo após o cruzamento da Komodienstrasse com a Andreaskloster, no lado leste da Igreja Dominicana de St. Andrews, havia uma pilha de entulho que os Shermans não conseguiram limpar ou contornar. Eles tiveram que esperar por uma escavadeira. Com os Sherman canalizados em uma rua estreita, Bartelborth disparou sua armadilha. Duas das cápsulas de 75 mm do Panther atingiram a torre do Sherman de Kellner em rápida sucessão. Um terceiro esmagou os rastros do Sherman atrás de Kellner enquanto ele tentava se proteger.

Os primeiros projéteis mataram imediatamente o artilheiro e motorista de Kellner enquanto pegava sua perna esquerda. As câmeras rodavam enquanto Kellner rolava da parte de trás de seu Sherman, o coto de sua perna esquerda claramente visto fumegando. Um jornalista, alguns petroleiros e um médico correram para ajudar Kellner. Mas não adiantou. Ele morreria duas horas depois em uma cratera de granada, aos 26 anos. De sua tripulação de cinco homens, apenas o carregador e o artilheiro de Kellner sobreviveriam.

Na estrada, o guincho de rastros pode ser ouvido enquanto o Panther se arrastava para frente de sua posição.

Uma rua ao norte e quatrocentos metros atrás, Earley ouviu a conversa no rádio, mas não tinha certeza do que havia acontecido. Não até que Jim Bates subiu em sua torre e lhe disse que uma Pantera estava na Praça da Catedral. Sem saber onde o Panther estava, Bates e Earley desceram a rua até que pudessem entrar no prédio da Frente do Trabalho Alemã. De lá, eles podiam ver o sul pela Marzellenstrasse até a Praça da Catedral. Eles estavam olhando para o lado da Pantera. Ele havia avançado, mas seu cano ainda estava orientado para baixo na Komodienstrasse.

Earley viu uma oportunidade e voltou para seu tanque. Jim Bates configurou sua câmera. O poderoso Pantera estava prestes a encontrar seu adversário.

Earley e Eagle 7 saíram da sombra do Commerzbank em direção ao Panther. Com a Pantera distraída, era para ser uma morte fácil. Mas Bartelborth era um comandante de tanque experiente e seu sexto sentido disparou. Ele derrubou sua torre sobre o lado direito do casco. No prédio da Frente Trabalhista Alemã, Jim Bates entrou em pânico. O Pantera estava olhando bem para onde o Pershing faria a curva. Desamparado, tudo o que ele pôde fazer foi rolar a câmera.

O coração de Smokey afundou quando a Eagle 7 entrou no cruzamento. Sentado no lado direito dianteiro do veículo, Smokey foi o primeiro a ver o Pantera. Ele foi o primeiro a olhar para baixo. Smoyer ainda não havia virado a torre o suficiente quando eles passaram pela esquina. Ele ainda não havia acertado o alvo. O Panther, pré-mirado e imóvel, tinha todas as vantagens. Mas não disparou. Bartelborth hesitou. Ele nunca tinha visto nem ouvido falar de Pershing. Acreditando ser alemão, ele disse a seu artilheiro para segurar o fogo. Smoyer não tinha essa inclinação. Assim que viu a massa central, ele puxou o gatilho. DeRiggi imediatamente acertou outro projétil na culatra. E então um terceiro.

A câmera de Bates começou. Embora abalado pelas concussões do canhão de 90 mm do Pershing, a filmagem captura claramente cada um dos três impactos. Com o primeiro golpe, Bartelborth e três outros membros da tripulação podem ser vistos, um com roupas em chamas, evacuando o veículo. Eles fogem com sucesso em uma chuva de rastreadores da infantaria que se arrastou com o Eagle 7. Mas o artilheiro posicionado mais fundo na torre não tem tanta sorte. Ele está visivelmente lutando para sair da escotilha do comandante quando o segundo tiro atinge o anel da torre. Morto, ele desliza de volta para a torre para ser consumido pelas chamas. O terceiro tiro de Smoyer sela o noivado.

Agora, um inferno furioso, chamas brilhantes saem das escotilhas do Panther e os orifícios de penetração brilham como feridas fatais e raivosas. Jim Bates avança e captura as torres da Catedral que se elevam acima do Panther. Bob Earley e os homens do Eagle 7 podem limpar suas sobrancelhas e domar seus corações acelerados. A batalha por Colônia acabou.


Panther II

O Panther II é um tanque sólido e capaz nas mãos certas, entendendo seus pontos fortes e fracos são a chave para o sucesso. O Panther II não é um lutador. Falta velocidade e agilidade para fazer isso com muito sucesso. No entanto, pode ser um flanqueador de muito sucesso, desde que você escolha seus alvos. Sniping é sempre preferencial no Panther II em relação ao engajamento direto, mas não descarte o desmantelamento inteiramente no Panther II pode levar alguns golpes decentes, mas só arrisque se você tiver apoio. O Panther II funciona melhor em embalagem, como qualquer outro meio. Sair sozinho muitas vezes resultará em um naufrágio fumegante.

Se possível, tente apenas expor sua torre ao inimigo. Como a maioria dos tanques alemães, a placa glacis inferior é uma grande fraqueza, que oponentes inteligentes irão explorar prontamente se tiverem a chance. Tiros através do glacis inferior freqüentemente encontrarão seu motor quebrado e muitas vezes pegando fogo. Também pode ser difícil jogar com o veículo em declives, pois não há depressão do canhão.

Os equipamentos indispensáveis ​​para este tanque são o Tank Gun Rammer e o Vertical Stabilizer para reduzir o tempo de recarga e melhorar drasticamente o desempenho da arma. A terceira escolha de equipamento é preferencial: um Gun Laying Drive reduzirá o tempo de mira quando parado e ajudará a atirar mais rapidamente, Coated Optics aumentará o alcance de visão em 10% constantemente e os telescópios binoculares ajudarão a localizar até tanques camuflados muito bem, mas apenas quando o tanque estiver estacionário. O estilo de jogo determinará qual deles é o melhor para você.

Embora desaprovado, o Panther II, ao contrário de seu antecessor, posso desempenham um papel semelhante a um lutador pesado, mas de uma forma que o diferencia de quase qualquer outro tanque no jogo. Use a boa penetração da arma superior do Panther IIs a seu favor, assassinando oponentes incautos pesadamente danificados, médiuns, de qualquer classe que possam ser. Aprender os pontos fracos dos tanques e onde sua arma pode penetrar em sua armadura só aumentará essa habilidade. Equipar um compactador de pistola de tanque e um impulso de assentamento de arma aprimorado aumenta ainda mais o perigo no final do jogo que esse tanque se torna. O Panther II e aqueles que o seguem podem se tornar tanques de final de jogo extremamente perigosos nas mãos certas. Com uma tripulação de elite, este tanque pode avistar mais longe, virar e mirar mais rápido e com seu DPM alto, quase qualquer outro tanque em seu nível de classe. Em essência, este tanque pode enganosamente se transformar em um late-game "Médio-Pesado" em áreas urbanas em particular. Escolha tanques gravemente feridos, serpenteie por ruas e becos, use bastante cobertura e seja mais esperto que seus inimigos, fique atento a alvos recém-avistados e elimine-os o mais rápido possível e você será capaz de virar completamente, se não ajudar a virar a maré de uma batalha. Esse tipo de jogo é muito viável em partidas de nível 8 e 9, mas é melhor você se familiarizar com as capacidades do Panther II antes de tentar tal feito, e especialmente não é recomendado se você já sofreu danos graves.

Pesquisa Inicial

A primeira coisa a atualizar é a torre, que oferece maior alcance de visão e blindagem e oferece mais melhorias do que a suspensão. Em seguida, pesquise a suspensão para poder pesquisar e montar o L / 71 ou L / 100. O motor não dá uma grande melhoria a este meio pesado, então pesquise isso por último.

Informação Histórica


Em uma reunião em 10 de fevereiro de 1943, outras mudanças de projeto foram propostas, incluindo mudanças nas engrenagens de direção e comandos finais. Outra reunião em 17 de fevereiro de 1943 centrou-se no compartilhamento e padronização de peças entre o tanque Tiger II e o Panther 2, como a transmissão, rodas totalmente de aço e engrenagem de rolamento. Nenhum plano foi feito para incluir o L / 71 de 8,8 cm, pois o diâmetro da torre era muito pequeno. Em março de 1943, a MAN indicou que o primeiro protótipo estaria concluído em agosto de 1943. Vários motores estavam sendo considerados, entre eles o novo motor Maybach HL 234 com injeção de combustível (900 cv operado por uma transmissão hidráulica de 8 velocidades).


Assim, os planos para substituir o design original do Panther pelo Panther II já estavam em andamento antes que o primeiro Panther sequer tivesse visto o combate. Mas, de maio a junho de 1943, o trabalho no Panther II foi interrompido, pois o foco foi mudado para a expansão da produção do tanque Panther original. Não está claro se alguma vez houve um cancelamento oficial, isso pode ter ocorrido porque o caminho de atualização do Panther II foi originalmente iniciado por insistência de Hitler. A direção que o projeto estava tomando não teria sido consistente com a necessidade da Alemanha de um tanque produzido em massa, que era a meta do Ministério de Armamento e Produção de Guerra do Reich. Além disso, muitos dos problemas que o Panther II foi feito para resolver foram resolvidos, como a armadura lateral fraca.


Sir Roger Dalton de Croston

Sir Roger Dalton de Croston nasceu por volta de 1470 em Byspham, Lancashire, Inglaterra, filho de Sir Richard Dalton e Elizabeth Fleming. Ele morreu por volta de 1531 em Byspham. Sir Roger foi o último de nosso Dalton Knight por muitas gerações.

Sir Roger se casou com 4 esposas:

2) Miss Standyce - sem problemas

3) Srta. Farynton - sem problemas

Em 1500, o filho de Richard, Roger foi associado como herdeiro de seu pai na concessão de várias terras em Croston e Mawdesley, mas reservando as terras da Mansão e da propriedade. As várias ações e documentos mostram que, assim como Richard tinha ido mais longe e se estabelecido em Croston durante a vida de seu pai, Roger estava fazendo a mesma coisa e construindo uma herança familiar de valor crescente. Ele é descrito no pedigree como & quot de Dalton Hall, Yorks, e posteriormente, de Croston. & Quot

Roger casou-se com Anne, filha de Sir John Ratclyff. Anne nasceu em Wymerly por volta de 1475. Na Visitação do Herald de Lancashire em 1613, Roger é o primeiro ancestral de Dalton nomeado em conexão com os Ratclyffs. A data de seu casamento não é conhecida, mas como a concessão de vários cortiços em Bispham foi concedida ao filho de Roger, William, já em 1500, deve ter ocorrido algum tempo antes disso.

A família Ratcliff ou Radclyff, o Ancestral diz "estavam verdadeiramente entre as famílias mais antigas de Lancashire." do rei Henrique II da Inglaterra por meio de sua amante, Rosemund, e seu filho William, conde de Salisbury 1173-1225.

Em 1525, o nome de Roger Dalton está na lista dos proprietários de terras na paróquia de Croston que contribuíram para o subsídio, outros sendo Thomas Ashton, Henry Banastre, Robert e Bartholomew Hesketh e alguns outros. Ele foi associado a seu pai em 1527 na realização de uma bolsa que menciona William Dalton, o mais velho, seu tio, como ainda vivo.

Roger Dalton era marido de pelo menos quatro esposas e pai de pelo menos 16 filhos. Roger e sua primeira esposa, Anne Ratcliff, tiveram:

1. Roger, que não deixou nenhum problema.

2. Sybell, casou-se com William Wolberd Draper e não deixou nenhum problema.

4. William nasceu em 1513 em Byspham

A segunda esposa de Roger foi uma Srta. Standyche, e a terceira uma Srta. Farynton, mas ele não teve filhos com sua segunda ou terceira esposa. & quot Ele compensou por sua 4ª esposa, Jane, filha e um dos quatro herdeiros de Roger Jakes de Barkemsted e de Mawde Shordyche. Jane deu a ele 8 filhos e 5 filhas:

EU . Lawrence. Ele se casou com Dorothy Bream. Ele se tornou um Arauto, Norroy King of Arms. Sua linhagem ainda sobrevive no ano de 2000. Lawrence morreu em 13 de dezembro de 1561 e está sepultado em St. Dunstan's, no oeste de Londres.

2. Margaret que se casou, primeiro, com Richard Pawley de Londres, Fishmonger, que era pai de dois filhos: Walter e Dorothy Pawley. Ela se casou, em segundo lugar com Thomas Weston de Londres, um alfaiate.

3. Anne. Ela se casou com Thomas Baker de Barkensted. Não há dúvida de que se tratava de Berkhamsted, a 30 milhas de Londres, em Hertfordshire, que era a terra natal de Jane Jakes. Anne Baker teve cinco filhos.

4. Cyssely, que se casou com Chygwell de Essex.

5. Elizabeth, que se casou com Francis Colbarne e teve duas filhas.

6. Filha (sem nome fornecido) casou-se primeiro com Richard Nott / Knott de Londres & quotale bruer & quot e, em segundo lugar, com Robert Vady.

7. 7 outros filhos que não sobreviveram.

Evidentemente, a segunda família de Roger Dalton (como adultos) migrou à força para Londres. Mas de toda esta grande família, apenas dois homens sobreviveram para continuar o nome da família - William (nossa linha) e seu meio-irmão, Lawrence.

Inglaterra: Canterbury - Testamentos Provados no Tribunal Prerrogativo de Canterbury, 1383-1558 (A-J)

1543 Dalton, Roger, escudeiro, Croston, Lancashire Dalton, Yorks. F. 29 Spert

A vontade de Roger Dalton de Croston:

Roger é descrito no pedigree como de Dalton Hall em Yorkshyre e depois de Croston. Ele ainda possuía terras em Yorkshire na data de seu testamento, mas provavelmente se mudou para Croston em algum momento. Talvez ao conseguir a morte de seu pai.

O testamento de Roger Dalton foi provado no Tribunal de Prerrogativa do Arcebispo de Canterbury e obtive do Public Record Office (ref 11/29) uma fotocópia da inscrição do testamento e de um documento nele inscrito nos autos de O tribunal. Ambos estão em latim, às vezes muito abreviados, e não são fáceis de transcrever. Posso ter cometido alguns erros em minhas transcrições, mas acho que são substancialmente precisas. Acho que, para algumas das informações que eles fornecem, vale a pena transcrevê-las de forma bastante completa.

& quot Em nome de Deus Amém, no décimo dia de março do ano de nosso Senhor 1531, eu, Roger Dalton Cavaleiro de mente sã e boa memória, mas doente no corpo, faço minha vontade desta forma. Primeiro, eu lego minha alma ao Deus onipotente e ao bendita Maria e todos os santos e eleitos da igreja e meu corpo para ser sepultado em uma pequena tumba religiosa na igreja de São Miguel Arcanjo de Croston na capela-mor da mesma igreja com a permissão e a disposição do coadjutor do o mesmo por enquanto em exercício próximo ao túmulo de meu pai (corpus quo meum ad sepeliend em parva sepultura ecclesiastiva sancti Michis Arch ecclie de Croston em cancello eiusdem cum licencia et providencia curati siusdem tunc pro tempe existen juxta sepultur patris mei). Então eu dou e lego um pagamento mortuário ao vigário da mesma igreja de acordo com o Ato feito e constituído pelo rei. Em seguida, dou e deixo para minhas filhas, Anne, Margaret, Joan e Elizabeth, duzentos marcos. Então eu dou e deixo para meu filho Richard, quatro marcos anuais até que ele seja promovido a algum benefício de dez libras ou mais por ano (donec sit promotus ad aliquot beneficice decem librarum annuatim aut ultra) E eu desejo que todas as outras coisas estejam no disposição de Roger Jakes, Thomas Jakes e meu filho Richard a quem ordeno fazer e constituir meus verdadeiros e legítimos executores para que eles próprios possam dispor para o benefício de minha alma ou como possa parecer melhor para eles. Então eu ordeno e constituo Henry Faryington, Knight Richard Bonaster, Bankes Knight e supervisores de Richmond deste meu testamento e testamento. Então, desejo que quaisquer dívidas não pagas na data de minha morte possam ser pagas com meus bens. Em testemunho de quais coisas eu coloquei nesta minha vontade de uma folha de papel meu selo, Dado o dia e ano acima mencionados. & Quot

O testamento foi provado em Londres em 6 de dezembro de 1543 por Roger Jakes e Richard Dalton.

Inscrito com o testamento nos autos do Tribunal de Prerrogativa é um documento ainda mais difícil de transcrever do que o testamento e também em latim. Mas, em substância, acho que diz

& quotSaber todos os homens presentes e futuros que eu, Roger Dalton, Knight, dei determinado e por este meu documento confirmado a Anthony Lathom, cavalheiro, Thomas Bond, Vigário da Igreja de Croston, Richard Clerk, Vigário da Igreja de Leigh e Adam Bonaster, todas as minhas mensagens, terras, cortiços, prados, pastagens, pastagens, aluguéis e todos os seus pertences em Dalton, no condado de Yorkshire (em Dalton em comitate Eboraci) para ter e manter todas e singularmente essas mensagens, terras, cortiços e outras premissas supracitadas a Anthony Lathom, Thomas Bond, Richard Clerk e Adam Bonaster e suas atribuições para sempre ao uso e intenção de cumprir esta minha última vontade e testamento anexado a este documento para que após o cumprimento do dito testamento todas as ditas mensagens, terras , cortiços e outras instalações podem permanecer total e corretamente para o meu herdeiro, o dito Roger em perpetuidade. & quot

Seguem então as sentenças nas quais Roger parece dizer que ele e seus herdeiros irão garantir e defender todas as referidas instalações para Anthony Thomas, Richard e Adam contra todos os homens e ele nomeia Thomas Lathom como seu advogado legal para obter a posse de todas as referidas instalações para Anthony Thomas, Richard e Adam.

O documento foi selado por Roger com seu selo na presença de John Smyth, capelão George Nelson, Thomas Graveson, John Stopforth e outros no dia 10 de março do 23º ano do reinado do rei Henrique VIII (1531).

HISTÓRIAS DO CONDADO DE VICTORIA de LANCASHIRE:

Lady Strange possuía terras em Chorley e Bolton de Thomas Ashton e Roger Dalton de Croston.

Robert Dalton era um dos proprietários de terras de Croston que contribuíam para o subsídio por leigos.

ARQUIVO [sem título] - ref. DDB 12/10 - data: 2 de setembro de 1501

Grant: Richard Dalton, Roger seu filho e herdeiro, William Wall, escriturário, e Sir Richard Shirburne, para Seth Wodecoke, escriturário, Henry Faryngton, esq., Thomas filho, herdeiro de William Lathome, e James Anderton - metade da mansão de Wath - para manter por toda a vida de Mary, esposa de Roger Dalton e filha de Sir William Faryngton.

LIQUIDAÇÃO, HIPOTECA E DOCUMENTOS RELACIONADOS A VÁRIAS PROPRIEDADES

ARQUIVO - HE 60/20 - data: 20 de outubro de 1499

Desistência: Roger Dalton para Thomas Hesketh, esq. - mensagens no mandato de Robert Wuddes, Otuel Maudisley e Robert Nicholasson, em Croston e Maudisley - Witn: Hugh Aughton, Henry Banastre, George Becansaw, esqs., Hugh Thornton, Hugh Banastre.

ARQUIVO - HE 60/21 - data: 9 de janeiro de 1499/1500

Desistência: Roger Dalton para Thomas Hesketh, esq. - propriedades em Croston e Maudisley e John Brethirton e Henry Hawarth - Witn: Hugh Aughton, Henry Banastre, George Becansaw esqs.

ARQUIVO - HE 25/64 - data: 21 de junho de 1519

Escrito de Edward Stanley, Lord Mountegle, Sheriff of Lancashire, para os Stewards of Leylondshire, Blakburnshire e Derbyshire, e os Condestáveis ​​de Longton, Croston, Mawdisley e Rufford, Thomas Lathum, John Smyth e John Watkynson - aquele Roger Dalton , esq. levou bens de Thomas Hesketh em Longton e os deteve. Foca.

ARQUIVO - HE 60/37 - data: 4 de janeiro de 1519/20

Escritura de Convênios: (i) Thomas Hesketh, esq. (ii) Roger Dalton, esq. e William, seu filho e herdeiro, e (iii) Bartholomew Hesketh - R.D., W.D. e B.H. vender para T.H. suas propriedades em Longton e Mawdisley no final do mandato de Miles Sompnor e a esposa de Richard Sharpuls, chamada Tumlyns, valor 23d. anualmente também 8d. aluguel do Fysher Erthe em Mawdisley também um cortiço no final do mandato de Richard Assheton em Mawdisley valor 20 / - anualmente também a metade de Groston Milne valor 26/8 anualmente também um cortiço no final do mandato de Thomas Dalton, chapman, em Croston , valor 9 / - anual - recuperação a ser obtida por John Watkynson e William Tarleton. Etc. Seals.

ACORDOS GERAIS, HIPOTECA, etc.

ARQUIVO - CL 892 - data: 10 de janeiro de 1519/20

Acordo: Roger Dalton, esquier e William, seu filho e herdeiro e esposa Merget de W., a respeito dos acordos feitos em 4 de maio de 1500 entre Richard pai de Roger e o Sr. William Wall, pároco de Eccliston, ambos decd. e Certos pagamentos especificados a serem feitos para W. e M.

ARQUIVO - L 355 - data: 14 de dezembro de 1524

Aluguel por 61 anos com aluguel de pimenta por 2 anos, depois 13/4 aluguel: por & # x00a33 e 26/8: Roger Dalton, esq., William seu filho e herdeiro e William Walles, cavalheiro e James Delater, padre, curadores de Richard, pai de RD, de Nicholas Mawdesley e Richard Nelson de M., - próximo em M. chamado Longshawe, no final do mandato de Cristopher Rutter e agora de John Bane - Seals.

ARQUIVO - HE 11/65 - data: 6 de setembro de 1525

Aluguel por 2 vidas a 6/4 aluguel: por 40 / -: Roger Dalton, squier, e William seu filho e herdeiro, para Richard Hoghe de Croston - um mease no final do mandato de Jenet Holme no

ARQUIVO - HE 56/25 - data: 21 de março de 1530/1

Roger Dalton, esq., William seu filho e herdeiro, Thurstan Sanderson, Robert Charlis e Thomas Stopforth, para John Watkynson de Rufforth, jun .: & # x00a310: pagar 26/4 antes dos próximos Martinmas.

Tribunal de Chancelaria: Six Clerks Office: Early Proceedings, Richard II para Philip e Mary

William, filho e herdeiro de Roger Dalton e de Anne, sua esposa, filha de Hugh Radcliff, cavalheiro. v. Thomas Wentworth, esquire .: Detenção de atos relativos a metade do feudo de Wath .: York.

ARQUIVO - [sem título] - ref. DDB 12/10 - data: 2 de setembro de 1501

Grant: Richard Dalton, Roger seu filho e herdeiro, William Wall, escriturário, e Sir Richard Shirburne, para Seth Wodecoke, escriturário, Henry Faryngton, esq., Thomas filho, herdeiro de William Lathome, e James Anderton - metade da mansão de Wath - para segurar pelo resto da vida de Mary, esposa de Roger Dalton e filha de Sir William Faryngton.

ARQUIVO - [sem título] - ref. DDN 1/41 - data: 27 de março de 1500

Hipoteca: para & # x00a330. 13. 4: Thomas Hesketh, esq., & Amp Roger Dalton, esq. - propriedades em Croston e Mawdesley, falecida com Margaret, esposa de Thomas Ashton, nos mandatos de Elis Scharpuls, Hugh Haresnape, Robert Jamisson, Robert Hogekinson, William Adamson, Richard Waterward, Gilbart Nelson, Cristor Rutter, Richard Nelson, Robert Waterward, Issabell Sonke, Charles Herrison, Robert Woddes, Ottwell Mawdesley, Robert Nicholasson, Henry Hanworth, Robert Mawdesley, Richard Ashton, Thomas Ashton, & amp Issabell viúva de John Nelson & amp aluga de um vizinho chamado Burscogh Feld & amp das terras de William Brodehede e propriedades de amp tarde na posse de William Holme, Thomas Farington e John Brethyrton também terras pertencentes a Flemynge Hall, com um acre de prado em Old Mawdesley que pertenceu a Thomas Dalton de Bispham pelo resto da vida. Foca.


Panther II

O Panther II é um tanque sólido e capaz nas mãos certas, entendendo seus pontos fortes e fracos são a chave para o sucesso. O Panther II não é um lutador. Falta velocidade e agilidade para fazer isso com muito sucesso. No entanto, pode ser um flanqueador de muito sucesso, desde que você escolha seus alvos. Sniping é sempre preferencial no Panther II em relação ao engajamento direto, mas não descarte o desmantelamento inteiramente no Panther II pode levar alguns golpes decentes, mas só arrisque se você tiver apoio. O Panther II funciona melhor em embalagem, como qualquer outro meio. Sair sozinho muitas vezes resultará em um naufrágio fumegante.

Se possível, tente apenas expor sua torre ao inimigo. Como a maioria dos tanques alemães, a placa glacis inferior é uma grande fraqueza, que oponentes inteligentes irão explorar prontamente se tiverem a chance. Tiros através do glacis inferior freqüentemente encontrarão seu motor quebrado e muitas vezes pegando fogo. Também pode ser difícil jogar com o veículo em declives, pois não há depressão do canhão.

Os equipamentos indispensáveis ​​para este tanque são o Tank Gun Rammer e o Vertical Stabilizer para reduzir o tempo de recarga e melhorar drasticamente o desempenho da arma. A terceira escolha de equipamento é preferencial: um Gun Laying Drive reduzirá o tempo de mira quando parado e ajudará a atirar mais rapidamente, Coated Optics aumentará o alcance de visão em 10% constantemente e os telescópios binoculares ajudarão a localizar até tanques camuflados muito bem, mas apenas quando o tanque estiver estacionário. O estilo de jogo determinará qual deles é o melhor para você.

Embora desaprovado, o Panther II, ao contrário de seu antecessor, posso desempenham um papel semelhante a um lutador pesado, mas de uma forma que o diferencia de quase qualquer outro tanque no jogo. Use a boa penetração da arma superior do Panther IIs a seu favor, assassinando oponentes incautos pesadamente danificados, médiuns, de qualquer classe que possam ser. Aprender os pontos fracos dos tanques e onde sua arma pode penetrar em sua armadura só aumentará essa habilidade. Equipar um compactador de pistola de tanque e um impulso de assentamento de arma aprimorado aumenta ainda mais o perigo no final do jogo que esse tanque se torna. O Panther II e aqueles que o seguem podem se tornar tanques de final de jogo extremamente perigosos nas mãos certas. Com uma tripulação de elite, este tanque pode localizar mais longe, girar e mirar mais rápido e com seu DPM alto, quase qualquer outro tanque em seu nível de classe. Em essência, este tanque pode enganosamente se transformar em um late-game "Médio-Pesado" em áreas urbanas em particular. Escolha tanques gravemente feridos, serpenteie por ruas e becos, use bastante cobertura e seja mais esperto que seus inimigos, fique atento a alvos recém-avistados e elimine-os o mais rápido possível e você será capaz de virar completamente, se não ajudar a virar a maré de uma batalha. Esse tipo de jogo é muito viável em partidas de nível 8 e 9, mas é melhor você se familiarizar com as capacidades do Panther II antes de tentar tal feito, e especialmente não é recomendado se você já sofreu danos graves.

Pesquisa Inicial

A primeira coisa a ser atualizada é a torre, que oferece maior alcance de visão e blindagem e oferece mais melhorias do que a suspensão. Em seguida, pesquise a suspensão para poder pesquisar e montar o L / 71 ou L / 100. O motor não dá uma grande melhoria a este meio pesado, então pesquise isso por último.

Informação Histórica


Em uma reunião em 10 de fevereiro de 1943, outras alterações de design foram propostas, incluindo mudanças nas engrenagens de direção e comandos finais. Outra reunião em 17 de fevereiro de 1943 enfocou o compartilhamento e padronização de peças entre o tanque Tiger II e o Panther 2, como a transmissão, rodas totalmente de aço e engrenagem de rolamento. Nenhum plano foi feito para incluir o L / 71 de 8,8 cm, pois o diâmetro da torre era muito pequeno. Em março de 1943, a MAN indicou que o primeiro protótipo estaria concluído em agosto de 1943. Vários motores estavam sendo considerados, entre eles o novo motor Maybach HL 234 com injeção de combustível (900 cv operado por uma transmissão hidráulica de 8 velocidades).


Assim, os planos para substituir o design original do Panther pelo Panther II já estavam em andamento antes que o primeiro Panther tivesse sequer visto o combate. Mas, de maio a junho de 1943, o trabalho no Panther II foi interrompido, pois o foco foi mudado para a expansão da produção do tanque Panther original. It is not clear if there was ever an official cancellation this may have been because the Panther II upgrade path was originally started at Hitler's insistence. The direction that the design was headed would not have been consistent with Germany's need for a mass-produced tank, which was the goal of the Reich Ministry of Armament and War Production. Additionally, many of the problems the Panther II was made to address had been resolved, such as the weak side armor.


Whitewashing the Black Panthers

A new PBS documentary tries to excuse a murderous and totalitarian cult.

Michael Moynihan

Alamy

When his captors uncinched the noose around his neck and shoved him into a wooden chair, Alex Rackley might have assumed his ordeal was over. He had already endured a flurry of kicks and punches, the repeated crack of a wooden truncheon, ritual humiliation, and a mock lynching. But it wasn’t over. It was about to get much, much worse.

Rackley, a slight, 19-year-old black kid from Florida, was tough (he had a black belt in karate), but hardly in a position to resist his psychopathic interrogators. During a previous beating he had gamely tried, kicking and flailing and swinging his arms. But this time he was tied to the chair, with a towel stuffed in his mouth to mute the screams. The women upstairs were tending to the children while assiduously preparing pots of boiling water—because traditional gender roles applied in the torture business, too.

When the bubbling cauldrons were brought to the basement—four or five of them—they were thrown over Rackley’s naked body. Then they worked him over some more. With him burned, battered, and bloodied, the towel was removed from his mouth. As a warning to those who would sell out the party to the Feds (“jackanapes,” “pigs,” and “faggots,” in the party’s nomenclature), the Lubyanka-style proceedings would be recorded on half-inch tape.

The interrogation begins with a woman’s voice: Brother Alex from New York was sleeping in the office…And I kicked him and said, “Motherfucker, wake up!” A few minutes pass, instinct kicks in, and Rackley tries to free himself. Sit down, motherfucker. Be still. The woman coolly and dispassionately reads the details of the previous interrogation session into the record: So then we began to realize how phony he was and that he was either an extreme fool or a pig, so we began to ask questions with a little force and the answers came out after a few buckets of hot water…then the brother got some discipline in the areas of the nose and mouth.

He wasn’t working for the Feds, but Rackley confessed to being a rat anyway. Why bother denying the “charges”? Every denial resulted in a new acts of barbarism anyway. Maybe this way he would be expelled from the party, but allowed to survive.

Ericka Huggins, George Sams, Warren Kimbro, and the other members of the New Haven Black Panther Party present in the house on May 18, 1969 had gotten what they wanted. So Rackley was carried from the basement and deposited into a bedroom usually occupied by a 7-year-old girl. Someone tied him to the child’s bed. Three days later, covered in his own shit and piss, Rackley was cleaned up by one of the Panther women and hustled out of the house into an idling car: He would be driven to a boat, they said, and brought either to New York or home to his native Florida.

With his arms again bound and a fresh noose around his neck—this one fashioned from a wire coat hanger—Alex Rackley, an illiterate teenager who had joined the Black Panther Party eight months earlier, was led to the edge of the Coginchaug River in Middlefield, Connecticut.

Of course, there was no boat. And there was no escape. “Orders from national [headquarters],” said George Sams, the bloodthirsty ringleader of the hit squad. “Ice him.”

Warren Kimbro, a Black Panther party cadre from the New Haven branch, put the first bullet in Rackley’s head, collapsing him in the shallow water. As his body heaved, another Panther foot soldier, Lonnie McLucas, took the gun from Kimbro and fired a bullet into his chest, just in case. They didn’t bother checking, but Alex Rackley was still alive, gasping and in pain, one expert later speculated, for almost four hours.

According to George Sams, he was merely following orders issued by Bobby Seale, the Black Panther Party’s infamous co-founder and “chairman.” Not long after Rackley’s waterlogged corpse was fished out of the water, Sams, Kimbro, and McLucas were all behind bars, awaiting trial on murder charges.

And Ericka Huggins—that cruel voice on the tape interrogating Rackley mocking him for crying watching while he was beaten telling the motherfucker to sit down during the torture session witnessing him frog-marched out of the house with a noose around his neck, no shoes, and flanked by three armed men—would also stand trial, accused of orchestrating the killing with Seale.**

When the theater lights dim and the PBS logo dissolves, a disembodied voice tells a parable of three blind men running their hands over the body of an elephant. They all describe something different: it feels like a wall, or a spear, or possibly a snake. “And that is quite often what happens with our descriptions of the Black Panther Party. We know the party we were in and not the entire thing.”

The first voice in Stanley Nelson’s documentary The Black Panthers: Vanguard of the Revolution, is mellifluous and childlike, not as sharp and hateful as it was on that 1969 tape. But here is Ericka Huggins, along with more than a dozen of her former comrades, educating viewers about the Black Panther Party’s (BPP) accomplishments, miraculously achieved in the face of interminable harassment from the FBI and police. With an assist from PBS, who will broadcast the documentary in September, Nelson has recruited a cast of shriveled militants for his one-dimensional Panther festschrift —a film that doesn’t disturb the ghost of Alex Rackley or the many other victims of the party’s revenge killings, punishment beatings, purges, or “disappearances.”

Like many former members of the party elite, these days Ericka Huggins interrogates students about race, class, and gender in her job as a college professor, having long-since lost interest in brutally interrogating suspected FBI informants.

From Huggins, we are shunted along to the second witness—another Panther turned college professor. “Now [in the late 1960s] we had the emergence of voices within the community who said ‘We’re not going to continue to turn the other cheek,’” says Jamal Joseph, who teaches film at Columbia University. Joseph features heavily in the Vanguard of the Revolution, fulfilling the role of the handsome, clever, naive teenage Panther railroaded by the pigs for his membership in a renegade political party.

But as with Ericka Huggins, there is much about Joseph that viewers aren’t told. The most important piece of neglected information is this: When the Panthers were a spent political force, Joseph joined up with the spinoff Black Guerrilla Army and was sentenced to 12½ years in prison for his part in the infamous 1981 Brinks armored car robbery, which resulted in the death of three innocents, including Waverly Brown, the first African-American to serve on the Nyack, New York, police force.

Joseph wasn’t sentenced for his participation in the robbery—his conviction was for harboring fugitives, provoking the exasperated judge to declare “I have never understood juries”—though countless accounts of the murders finger him as both a key player and an armed participant. In his new book Days of Rage, Vanity Fair journalist Bryan Burrough says the Brinks job was “laboriously scouted by” Joseph. A long out-of-print account of the murders by journalist John Castellucci meticulously catalogues Joseph’s involvement and fingers him as one of the six armed men lurking behind ski masks that fateful day. Journalist Susan Braudy’s Pulitzer-nominated book Family Circle: The Boudins and the Aristocracy of the Left places Joseph at the scene of the robbery. But Joseph’s very long rap sheet (more on that later) is never mentioned by Nelson.

This is, perhaps, unsurprising. In front of a sold-out crowd of geriatric radicals and their dippy young acolytes, Nelson matter-of-factly acknowledged that Vanguard of the Revolution is a “pro-Panther” film and expressed surprise that at previous screenings “no one stood up and said, ‘How could you say these good things about the Panthers,’ which we thought would happen.’”

Someone should. Because almost anything that reflects poorly on the Panthers is ignored or dismissed and no critics of the party are included. The story is told entirely through the testimony of former Panthers and sympathetic historians, with the occasional appearance of a porcine ex-cop, at whom the audience is supposed to hiss. When a former FBI agent weighs in, it’s G-man turned radical activist M. Wesley Swearingen, whose book FBI Secrets comes with a fulsome introduction by disgraced academic and noted crackpot Ward Churchill. He exists in Vanguard of the Revolution to echo the Panther narrative. (Swearingen’s latest book is a self-published mélange of Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories fingering “Cuban exiles, [the] Chicago mafia, and bad cops trained by the CIA” in the president’s murder).

We don’t lack for Panther hagiographies—histories, memoirs, feature films, and documentaries (often broadcast on PBS, like A Huey P. Newton Story Passin’ It On: The Black Panthers’ Search for Justice A Panther in Africa e The Black Power Mixtape, 1967-1975). And most of them are correct on a few important questions. As Nelson points out, it’s indeed correct to say that Chicago Panther leader Fred Hampton era murdered by the police. The Oakland police force era full of rotten thugs and racists. Teenage Panther Bobby Hutton era shot while trying to surrender (though in a gun battle precipitated by a Panthers ambush). The Feds were engaged in illegal activity in their war against the Panthers.

But as writer Steve Wasserman recently noted in A nação, the Panthers’ many hagiographers have often “refused to acknowledge the party’s crimes and misdemeanors, preferring to attribute its demise almost entirely to the machinations of others.” (A reviewer at The Root says Nelson documents the party’s “demise at the hands of the FBI,” an impression one might reasonably get from watching Vanguard of the Revolution.)

Vanguard of the Revolution is a lumbering two-hour film, and while Nelson offers a playful précis on the sexy proto-Ramones style of the Panthers—leavened with archival footage of attractive party activists of both genders in knee-high black boots, crisp black leather jackets, black berets, and black sunglasses—you’ll find almost no discussion of more important issues, like what the Panther’s actually believed.

Because beyond the mindless “power to the people” platitudes, the Panthers were ideological fanatics. After all, the party was guided, the Pantera negra newspaper exclaimed, by “the revolutionary works of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin, Chairman Mao, Comrades Kim Il Sung, Ho Chi Minh, Che Guevara, Malcolm X, and other great leaders of the worldwide people’s struggle for liberation.”

It was in the newspaper where “everything came together,” says Ericka Huggins in Vanguard of the Revolution. “It explained who we were, what we were about, what our goals were.” She’s right. If you want to get a sense of the party, one need only thumb through a few back issues of The Black Panther newspaper, scanning editorials signed by “we black revolutionaries who are fighting this racist imperialist faggot honkey,” gasping at the countless images of North Korean dictator Kim Il-Sung and Chinese genocidaire Mao Tse-Tung, or scratching your head at the paeans to demented Albanian Stalinist Enver Hoxha.

So I shouldn’t have been surprised to find that The Black Panther was actually full of glowing references to Josef Stalin. Eldridge Cleaver (“And I’d also like to quote Stalin…”), Panther “chief of staff” David Hilliard (“We think that Stalin was very clear in this concept…”), and Bobby Seale (“Joseph Stalin said one time that our best weapon…”) were all fond of citing him. And Seale was complimenting his comrades when he observed that “our party can see Lenin and Stalin when we want to understand Huey and Eldridge.” Hilliard kept a photo of Stalin on display in his office, believing that tales of Stalinist mass murder were bourgeois propaganda. “The reason that they fear Joseph Stalin is because of the distorted facts that they have gained through the Western press,” he told an interviewer. Chairman Elaine Brown clarified that the Black Panther Party was “not opposed to Stalin.”

Again, none of this mentioned by Nelson. Nor is the group’s frightening obsession with North Korea’s uniquely demented brand of Stalinism (“The Korean people and their great leader Comrade Kim II Sung” are “a nation of Newtons, tough brothers, off the block who once built a mountainous barbecue which imperialism called Heartbreak Ridge!”). Interviewee Kathleen Cleaver isn’t asked by Nelson about her pilgrimages to Pyongyang, or why she chose to give birth to her daughter Joju Younghi—a name chosen for her by Kim Il-Sung’s wife—in North Korea. Nor is she asked about credible accusations that when Eldridge Cleaver returned from his first trip to North Korea he shot and killed a Panther he believed to be Kathleen’s lover (When asked, Eldridge wouldn’t deny killing his romantic rival and in 2001 former Panther fugitive and Cleaver confidante Byron Vaughn Booth confessed to having witnessed the murder.)

When inconvenient party members weren’t being physically eliminated, The Black Panther newspaper was denouncing errant comrades for ideological deviationism. One particularly jarring example, found in a 1970 edition of paper, was the purging of Verlina (Donnetta) Brewer, one of the Panthers wounded when the Chicago police sprayed Fred Hampton’s apartment with bullets. She was expelled from the party for having had an abortion. The communique from headquarters was blunt: “As of April 25, 1970, Donnetta Brewer is no longer [a party member] in good standing…She has been purged.” (When I tracked down Brewer, she said she was unaware of the article and claimed to have been "taken advantage of by a party member," cryptically speculating that the story was “written to cover up what was done to me.”)

What few histories of the BPP dwell upon—and, of course, Vanguard of the Revolution doesn’t address—is not only the party’s rampant sexism but its deeply conservative gender politics. The Panther newspaper opposed the liberalization of abortion laws because it would be “a victory for the oppressive ruling class who will use [abortion] to kill off Black and other oppressed people before they are born.” The birth control pill was deemed “another type of genocide that the power structure has poured into the Black community.”

During a Q&A following the screening of Vanguard of the Revolution at the Human Rights Watch film festival in New York, Nelson and Jamal Joseph recast the patriarchal Panthers as flawed proto-feminists icons, unfortunately saddled with a streak of au courant “chauvinism.” And Joseph recently claimed, somewhat confusingly, that the BPP actually “took on” sexism and “wrapped it in something called love.”

But unbeknownst to viewers of Vanguard of the Revolution—and as O jornal New York Times reported during his 1981 murder trial—Joseph’s lawyer once acknowledged that his client was a revolutionary who also “operated ‘an escort service’” on the side. Journalist John Castellucci reported that at the time of the Brinks murders, Joseph the feminist “had a few girls” working for him, “all in their teens, and [he] ran ads for them in sex-oriented tabloids under the name Jay Daniels.”

But apparently neither Joseph nor Nelson remember that one Black Panther Party founder (Bobby Seale) penned a memoir featuring a multi-page boast of bedding five supplicant Panther women in one night. Or that another BPP big shot (Eldridge Cleaver) was a confessed rapist who described his violent sexual assaults as “insurrectionary acts.” Or that the party’s other founder and intellectual heavyweight (Huey Newton) frequently physically abused women and in 1974 was charged with murdering a teenage prostitute who had “disrespected” him.

Indeed, Huey Newton’s increasingly erratic behavior gets only a perfunctory mention in Vanguard of the Revolution and skips over the gory details. The factionalism Newton provoked resulted in a bloody party split (which Nelson ludicrously blames on the FBI) creating two warring factions: one loyal to Newton and one to Eldridge Cleaver. It was at this point in the party’s history, Jamal Joseph explains, that many party members either went “underground” or walked away from the movement. The party split is illustrated by Nelson with a few newspaper headlines crawling across the screen, but no further detail is provided.

One of those newspaper clippings references the murder of Sam Napier, the well-liked, Newton-loyal distribution manager of the party newspaper, murdered in 1973 by Panthers aligned with the Cleaver faction. In their aggressively pro-Panther history Black Against Empire, academics Joshua Bloom and Waldo Martin describe how the “assailants shot Napier three times in the back, tied him to a bed. gagged him, shot him three times in the head, and then set the building on fire.” (In fact, they also tortured Napier, pouring boiling water over his body, before shooting him multiple times, dousing him with lighter fluid, and setting his broken body on fire).

Black Panther Party confidant and fundraiser Marty Kenner called the murder of Napier “unspeakably brutal,” noting that “the assassins grabbed the two-year-old child that Sam was taking care of in the office and literally threw him out the door, giving him lasting injuries.” There were other children in the office too their mouths were taped and they were made to lie on the floor, though later released.

One of those tried in connection with the killing? Columbia University professor Jamal Joseph. After an initial trial resulted in a hung jury, Joseph and three others pleaded guilty to the reduced charge of attempted manslaughter. O jornal New York Times headline was succinct: “4 Panthers Admit Guilt in Slaying.” Again, there is no mention of the Napier slaying in Vanguard of the Revolution (nor in Joseph’s memoir Panther Baby).

Joseph isn’t the only Nelson interview subject whose violent past is left unmentioned. Vanguard of the Revolution includes testimony from former Panther enforcer Landon Williams, prosecuted for his involvement in the murder of Alex Rackley. At the trial, Panther triggerman Warren Kimbro recounted on the stand the moment when “Landon said, ‘Take [Rackley] out and take care of him.’” Williams pleaded guilty to the charge of conspiracy to murder.

And there is former Panther and current Columbia University administrator Flores Forbes, who mistakenly shot and killed a fellow Panther during an attempt to assassinate Crystal Gray, a witness willing to testify against Huey Newton in the murder of 17-year-old prostitute Kathleen Smith who made the mistake of calling Newton “baby.” Around the same time, Newton’s tailor Preston Callins also made the mistake of calling him “baby.” As punishment, Callins was brutally pistol-whipped and tortured by Newton. Again, none of this is mentioned in Vanguard of the Revolution.

Nelson has made a stylistically interesting documentary, but has revealed himself to be an astonishingly bad journalist. Because a good journalist would have forced Joseph, Huggins, Forbes, and Williams to confront their own pasts and the Panther’s violent legacy, while steering them away from rote banalities accusing the FBI of provoking their murderousness. A good journalist would have brought in voices critical of the party from other expanses of the civil rights movement (like the late Bayard Rustin). A good journalist might look at the actuarial table for Panther members and wonder why more Panthers were killed by fellow black nationalists than by the pigs.

Because the murder of Alex Rackley wasn’t an aberration. And while the Feds undoubtedly abused their power in pursuit of the Panthers, their obsession with violent black nationalism wasn’t irrational. Too bad PBS viewers won’t understand why the “Gestapo pigs,” the shock troops of “fascist Amerikkka,” were so interested in disrupting the revolution Huggins, Seale, Cleaver, and Newton tried so desperately to foment.

** I pulled information on the Alex Rackley murder from a number of contemporaneous sources, but the text upon which I relied most for detail and chronology was Paul Bass and Doug Rae's spectacular book about the New Haven Panther trial, Murder in the Model City: The Black Panthers, Yale, and the Redemption of a Killer.


Panther: Probably the best German tank design of WWII?

The Panther was not as thickly armoured, nor as heavily armed, as tanks such as the Tiger but was probably a much more balanced design. It was one of the fastest German tanks, highly manoeuvrable and equipped with an accurate gun. Its worst defect was a propensity to catch fire if the engine backfired.

The Model G was the last main production variant of Panther and our exhibit was one of a group built, under British control, at the end of the war. These were tested in Britain and Germany and may have contributed to the design of the British Centurion.

This Panther was found partly completed on the production lines after the German surrender and was finished by REME troops. It has features characteristic of the Ausf G, including increased armour, a one-piece side plate and hinged hatches in the hull.

The camouflage scheme issimilar to that used on Panthers leaving the factory in the last months of the war. A basic undercoat of red with other colours rapidly applied. It was seen on Panthers of 5th Battalion, 25th Panzer Grenadier Division on the Eastern Front in February 1945.

Precise Name: Panzerkampfwagen V Aus G

Other Name: SdKfz 171, VK3002, Panther I, Pz Kpfw Panther (Aus G)

DESCRIPTION

The Panzerkampfwagen V or Panther was the best German tank of World War II and possibly the best medium tank fielded by any of the combatants in World War II. The other contender for the accolade of best tank is the Soviet T34, earlier versions of which inspired some aspects of the design of the Panther.

The Soviet T34/76 and KV tanks were a complete surprise to the Germans when they encountered them in July 1941 during the invasion of the Soviet Union. They were superior to any tanks that the Germans had in service and the German troops were soon demanding a new tank to counter them.

A special Panzer Commission was sent to the eastern front in November 1941 to gather information. After the Commission reported Daimler Benz and MAN were asked to design a new medium tank. MAN eventually won the design competition and the first prototype appeared in September 1942. Hitler decreed that the new tank, named Panther, had to be ready for service by the end of May 1943 so that it could participate in the offensive against the Soviet Army planned for the summer of 1943, Operation Zitadelle. As a result its’ development was rushed and the first production version, the Ausfuhrung D, suffered from many teething problems. These included failures of the wheel rims, problems with the transmission and a tendency for the engine to catch fire.

The Panther Aus D made its’ combat debut at the Battle of Kursk in July 1943, the largest tank battle in history. Many early model Panthers were lost because of mechanical failure rather than by enemy action.

The Panther hull was welded and had sloping, thick, armour. The upper part of the hull front was 6cms thick, the turret front 8cms thick. This armour was capable of resisting the projectiles fired by most allied tank guns when it entered service. The hull was carried on eight pairs of large road wheels on each side, attached to torsion bars and riding on broad tracks like the T34. The transmission and drive sprockets were at the front of the hull and the Maybach petrol engine was in the rear.

The Panther mounted a long, high velocity, accurate 7.5cm gun, the KwK42. This gun was 70 calibres long and had a muzzle velocity of 1,120 metres/sec. It could penetrate 14.9cm of armour plate sloping at 30 degrees at a range of 1,000 metres. The front armour of the principle United States tank of this period, the Sherman, (see E1955. 32) was just over 5cms thick the Soviet T34/76 had 4.5cms on the hull front and 6.5cms on the turret front (see E1952.44). The gun was complemented by excellent optics.

Eight hundred and fifty Panther Aus D were produced before an improved tank, confusingly called the Aus A, superseded it in September 1943! The Aus A had an extensively modified turret with a cast commander’s cupola, a ball mount for the bow machine gun in place of a letter box flap and many changes to improve reliability. The Aus A became the main combat tank of the Wehrmacht and 2,000 were built between August 1943 and May 1944. They served on the Eastern front, in Italy and in Normandy following the Anglo American invasion in June 1944.

The Panther Aus A was in turn replaced by the Panther Aus G in the spring of 1944, (the Aus F was a projected model that never entered production). The Aus G had further changes to improve reliability, thicker armour, a simplified hull structure and a modified gun mantlet that was intended to eliminate a shot trap. It was the last production variant and 3,126 were made by MAN, Daimler Benz and MNH between March 1944 and April 1945, bringing total production of Panther gun tanks to 5,976 vehicles. The Panther Aus G was the first tank to use infrared night vision aids in combat, albeit on a small scale. The commander’s cupola was fitted with an infrared sight while illumination was provided by an infrared search light mounted on a special version of the SdKfz 251 half track, called the Uhu (Owl).

The Panther Aus B and C were ‘paper’ projects that were never built, while only prototypes were made of the Aus F.

The Tank Museum’s Panther is a rather unusual Aus G unusual because it is one of a small batch completed in the MNH factory by British REME troops for the British Army immediately after the end of the war in Europe. These were extensively tested in Britain and Germany. The results of the trials may have influenced the development of the British Centurion tank.


A Look Inside The Most Feared Tank Of WWII, The Panther

The German Panther tank was deployed during the Second World War in the European Theater, between the years 1943 and 1945. It saw action on both the Eastern and Western fronts, and is widely hailed as one of the best tanks designed and produced during the conflict.

The Panther was the third most-produced German armored fighting vehicle, after the Sturmgeschütz III assault gun/tank destroyer at 9,408 units, and the Panzer IV tank at 8,298 units.

They proved to be extremely popular, and as a result more than 6000 Panthers were built for the German military. More surprisingly, however, is the fact that nine of these tanks were built by the British Army between 1945 and 1946. This alone is a testament to the high quality of these remarkable war machines.

There were three main version of the Panther – versions D, A and G – with each new version incorporating significant improvements. There were also the artillery spotter, recovery, and Commander versions.

The full name was the Panzerkampfwagen V Panther and it had the ordnance inventory designation of Sd.Kfz. 171. However, on 27 February 1944, Hitler ordered that the Roman numeral “V” be deleted from the designation.

This wan’t the only way in which Hitler was directly involved with the tank’s design. The Panther was originally meant to weigh 30 tons, but the Nazi Leader demanded extra armor and a heavier gun and so it ended up weighing almost 50 tons.

Panther tanks of the Großdeutschland Division advance in the area of Iaşi, Romania in 1944 .Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 2.0

Hitler later ordered a Panther II which would feature more armor while still maintaining the same gun, one prototype of which prototype was captured by the Americans. The project was quietly cancelled in mid-1943.

Although weighing a great deal, they could still move at a considerable pace. The later models had a top speed of 46km/h, roughly as fast as the Tiger and slightly faster than the Sherman tank.

These powerful tanks could be used to devastating effect on the battlefield. One of the top German Panther commanders was SS-Oberscharführer Ernst Barkmann of the 2nd SS-Panzer Regiment “Das Reich”. By the end of the war, he had some 80 tank kills claimed.

The Panther tank uses an engine very similar to the one used in the Tiger Tank, with an average life of 1500 hours. The Panther tank came into service after the Tiger tank, the Panther being first used in combat in July 1943 in Kursk whereas the Tiger was first used in Leningrad in December 1942.

Panther tank with bush camouflage in Northern France, 1944. Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 2.0

Panther tanks were captured on certain occasions and put to use by Germany’s enemies. At least two Panthers were commandeered by the Polish resistance in the early days of the Warshaw uprising, although they were immobilized after several days due to lack of fuel, and were then set on fire.

Russian troops also captured several Panthers, turning them against the Nazis along the Eastern Front. They abandoned them once the tanks broke down, however, as they were deemed too complicated and too difficult to repair.

The Panther had a 7.5 cm main gun that could carry 40 rounds of anti-tank ammo and 39 high explosive shells. It also had two MG 34 machine guns with 5100 rounds of ammunition. The tank needed a crew of at least five men, including a commander, driver, gunner, loader, radioman and machine gunner.

A Panther crew. Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 2.0

The Panthers saw a great deal of action during their years in service. At their peak in September 1944 there were 552 Panthers operational on the Eastern Front, out of a total of 728. Later, during the Battle of the Bulge, the Germans used 400 Panther Tanks, five of which were disguised to look like American M10 Tank Destroyers. They did this by welding on additional plates and applying US-style camouflage paint and markings.

There are thought to be five surviving Panthers in running order, two of which were built by the British Army. There are a lot more non-runner Panthers out there in museums, as monuments or in the hands of private collectors.

The last operational report dated March 15, 1945, lists 361 operational out of 740 Panther tanks.

In this video, Nicolas Moran talks about the Panther, particularly about the cupola and the gunner’s position.


Experience as X-Factor

Sherman tank crews’ last great advantage was in experience, even though Germany had been at war six years before most of the American tankers invaded France. In early August, Adolf Hitler ordered that all new Panthers sent to the West would go to new armored formations rather than depleted divisions. Thus, Germany’s veteran tankers received lighter Mark IVs, while new, inexperienced crews got the better tanks. So whenever Americans faced off against the Panther, they were usually more skilled in the tactics of close combat.

Two Panthers take up a battle line in a farmer’s field near Ravenna, east of Bologna.

Despite their advantages against the Panther, American tankers knew their Shermans were no match for the Wehrmacht’s main battle tank thus, the Sherman’s nickname in Western Europe was the “Death Trap.”

Comentários

First and foremost that ” death trap” LIE was passed along by Belton Cooper- a nitwit who never actually faced combat but was a rear area supply officer.

The Sherman crew survival rate was higher than the Panzer IV and Panther tank crews( easier to escape)

Also ever here of the battle of Arracourt? US tankers blasted apart 88 german Panzer IVs, StuGs and supposedly superior Panthers for the loss of 25 Shermans. The majority of the tanks on that battle on the Us side were Sherman’s armed with 75mm cannon, some 76.2mm Sherman’s and a few 76.2 km hellcats and M10 tank destroyers with 3″( 76 mm) guns.

While the panthers 75mm HV cannon was potent, late 1944 their armor quality was questionable due to short cuts and manufacturing losses. When the Shermans had proper AP rounds they didnt have to fear the Panther or even the lesser available tiger and king tiger.( a platoon of 75mm armed Sherman’s ganged up on a Tiger II in the village of LeGlaize, Belgium and literally BEAT THE DOG CRAP out , mobility killing it and causing the wounded crew to flee!

There are plenty of after action reports with 75mm Sherman’s mobility killing german Panthers, and 76mm armed ones ” pinning” Panthers at 800-1000m .

Most US and UK and Canadian Sherman’s got ” killed” cause they used poor tactics,often getting AMBUSHED like in the hedgerow areas of Normandy .

Although there were at least a dozen german tank “aces”, when the US/ UK and Russians (Soviets) stopped bullrushing through combat zones with their tanks and actually started using BETTER tactics, German tanks STOPPED being so feared ( Russians used better AP ammo in their lend lease shermans like they did in their T-34s and got more kills, causing the germans to run!)

In fact 3/4 of allied armor kills by the german forces were done wiith anti tank cannon crews, not actual german tanks!

Please stop repeating ” sherman tanks were inferior” fairy tale- the Sherman’s were far more reliable, had better trained crews, better supply lines, and simply OVERRAN the germans ( who throughout the war still used horse drawn wagons like they did in the franco-prussian war to move supplies about!)

Actualy Arracourt is proof of the opposite, despite inexperienced german crews that bungled into the american lines, american tankers regularly had to hit the german tanks 5-6 times before knocking them out. The battle was a disaster for the germans but the survivability alone of their tanks on the battlefield was quite good. I dont get why people get so worked over who had the best tanks, WW2 proved that the war could not be won single-handedly by any one arm of the military, it didnt really matter if you only had slightly better armored vehicles.

All these comparisons are done on the assumption that tanks are engaged exclusively in tank on tank warfare. In that case the higher penetration of German tank guns over the 75mm Sherman is a real advantage. However when reading the actual results of engagements of the Canadian 2nd Armoured brigade against the Mark 4 and Panther tanks of the 12 SS in early June 44, the outcomes were more or less a trade off with no evidence of German tank superiority based on outcomes. Later engagements south of Caen against mainly panthers were the same. When all the advantages and disadvantages of both sets of tanks were factored in, the Germans did not have any real advantage, as the other factors offset the advantage of a more powerful gun (17 pounder Firefly excepted).

If you want to do the comparison on the basis of Infantry support, the main role of Canadian Shermans, the Sherman wins hands down over the Panzers as it had the most powerful high explosive ammo of any tank in Normandy and that is what you need to engage infantry in strong points, buildings etc. and any towed AT or artillery gun, or vehicle that is not a tank. If the Sherman had a higher velocity gun and a weak high explosive round, the allies would have taken much higher infantry casualties and more battles would have ended with the German infantry repulsing the attackers.

The only decent Sherman was the British Firefly, it killed Tigers at a 1,000 yards, Panthers were easy meet for the British 17 Pounder.

According to British historian Sir Max Hastings, “no single Allied failure had more important consequences on the European battlefield than the lack of tanks with adequate punch and protection.” The Sherman, he added, was one of the Allies’ “greatest failures.”

I did a quick Google search and did not find the credentials of a Mark Feener but quite easily found the credentials of Sir Max Hastings – certainly no ‘nitwit’ and Cooper wasn’t either, might want to pay attention to those who actually saw the damage these tanks and crews suffered.

Max Hastings is a journalist, not a military historian, and is widely regarded as being at least 30 years out of date in his work. He is also credited as being the original “Wehraboo” and wildly biased in favour of the Germans. Please pick up works by professional military historians such as Peter Caddick-Adams or John Buckley, who are both professors in their own field. Not journalists.

Belton Coopers book is a personal anecdote not a scholarly work and has been widely discredited due to the huge number of inaccuracies and just plain falsehoods throughout.

The main pourpose of the tank concept is to SUPPORT INFANTRY not engage tanks. Yea they did but most tank battalions left the tank combat to the tank destroyers who with 3 inch guns made easy work of german tanks. People bash the sherman because it was “inferior in the face of german tanks” well they were, only to the big cats though. The 75 sherman could easily take care of the panzer 3s and 4s it came across 80 percent of the time. But in its role its supposed to be in which is an infantry support vehicle it performed very well. German AT crews with the long 88 and the short 88 could easily front penetrate the sherman but as soon as they do they are immediently fired upon by 4 other Sherman’s (American tank battalions consisted of 5 tanks) with 50cals and HE rounds. Yea tell me those guns will survive because they wont. And not to mention 3-4 crew will get out due to easy escape hatches. The only ones who will die would be the crew directly in the way of the penetrating shot. So in conclusion the sherman was NOT a bad tank in the role it was designed for, it may have suffered against panthers and tigers but only because it wasn’t meant to fight them. That’s the m 10s, m 18s, and m 36s, job these TDs could make quick work of hand and his crew if they came across them.

What’s the point of trying to make quick work of Hans and his crew using moronic field tactics like was common for western allied troops. Unfortunately for John, Hans had fought on the eastern front against Ivan two tours of duty before John was eventually hauled into Normandy. John wasn’t a soldier, he was a civilian drafted into the army and got made quick work of himself in most cases. By the end of the Normandy campaign, despite huge overweight in air support, artillery, supply chain and unlimited reserves the allied had a staggering 100% casualty rate across its frontline divisions. Germany equally suffered a staggering loss of life, but with only a single replacement for every fifteen casualties they simply lost a battle of attrition, rather than having been defeated by ability.

Only a team of 5 Sherman’s can outrun and defat a panzer cause 2 can damage but 5 can defeat.

Interestingly enough most American TD’s were M10’s with the 3″ gun, or M18’s with the 76mm gun which fired the same round as the 3″ with similar ballistics (just a separate case. By Arracourt, some 76mm Sherman’s were coming into use, more by the Bulge, including the M4A3 (76mm) HVSS.
76mm Sherman’s were just as capable of taking out Panthers as TD’s, with only the 90mm M36 Gun Motor Carriage being better in the U.S. inventory until the T26E6 Pershing came along.

The big difference was the TD units were more extensively trained to fight tanks.
Ironically, when there were shortages of TD’s some TD units were issued 76mm Sherman’s as replacements. The 76mm Sherman proved to have adequate mobility to hang with the M18 Hellcats, and the same firepower. The Sherman had better protection than the Hellcat, and an armored roof. There was nothing an M10 could do a 76mm Sherman couldn’t either.
The TD’s did an excellent job with what they were given to work with. But ironically, those same men could have been integrated into tank units with 76mm Sherman’s, given similar training, and done the same job.
The German tanks were tough, but there were never enough, their reliability issues kept them out of battles where they were needed, high fuel consumption often meant they retired early before battles were over. The best tank in the world is of no use if it’s not their when you need it.

No, on paper the Sherman was not equal to bigger German tanks. But the honest truth is a properly crewed and handled 76mm Sherman could, and frequently did, deal adequately with Tiger’s or Panther’s. And it was a match or better for Stug’s or MkVI’s that it more typically encountered. And there were plenty of them.

“One reason … George S. Patton … believed his armored corps would beat the Germans was not necessarily the superiority of the Sherman (though underrated in truth) or the M-1, but because American men loved machines, knew how to fix them… A Tiger or Panther might blow apart a Sherman, but not when there were 10 expertly maintained Shermans cruising through France for every unreliable or out-of-commission Panther and Tiger, whose engines and transmissions needed experts to repair or replace.”


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