Notícia

USS Gamble (DD-123 / DM-15)

USS Gamble (DD-123 / DM-15)

USS Gamble (DD-123 / DM-15)

USS Jogar (DD-123 / DM-15) foi um contratorpedeiro da classe Wickes que entrou em serviço tarde demais para a Primeira Guerra Mundial, mas que estava presente em Pearl Harbor e serviu como minelayer durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial.

o Jogar recebeu o nome de dois irmãos, o tenente Peter Gamble e o tenente-coronel John M. Gamble, ambos os quais lutaram na Guerra de 1812. Peter Gamble foi morto na batalha do Lago Champlain, enquanto John Gamble participou do evento extraordinário do Capitão Porter viagem para o Pacífico.

o Jogar foi lançado em Newport News em 11 de maio de 1918 e comissionado em 29 de novembro de 1918 com o comandante H. J. Abbet no comando. Seu treinamento de shakedown a levou ao Virginia Capes, e no início de 1919 ela se juntou à frota para as manobras de inverno em águas cubanas. Ela então foi baseada na nova Inglaterra até junho de 1919, quando foi alocada para a Frota do Pacífico.

o Jogar alcançou sua nova base em San Diego em 7 de agosto de 1919, mas foi colocada na reserva em 1 de dezembro de 1919.

o Jogar foi recomissionado pela primeira vez em outubro de 1920. Foi usado como navio de treinamento para reservistas e operou com a Força de Batalha, antes de ser novamente descomissionado em 17 de junho de 1922.

o Jogar foi recomissionado pela segunda vez em 24 de maio de 1930. Em 13 de junho, ela foi reclassificada como uma camada de minério leve (DM-15), e foi convertida em sua nova função na Ilha de Mare. Assim que a conversão foi concluída, ela se mudou para Pearl Harbor, onde em julho se tornou a nau capitânia do Mine Squadron 2. Mais tarde, ela foi usada como a capitânia da Mine Division 1, Mine Squadron 1. Ela foi usada como guarda de avião e rastreadora de rádio para hidroaviões, como navio de treinamento para reservistas da Marinha e participou dos problemas da Frota. Ela foi desativada mais uma vez em San Diego em 22 de dezembro de 1937.

o Jogar foi recomissionado pela terceira e última vez em 25 de setembro de 1939. Ela se juntou à Divisão 5 da Mina e foi usada em patrulhas e como navio-escola em sua nova base em San Francisco.

1941

Em abril de 1941 o Jogar mudou-se para Pearl Harbor, onde ingressou na Divisão de Minas 2.

o Jogar estava atracado no cais D-3 do Middle Loch quando os japoneses atacaram Pearl Harbor. Ela era a nau capitânia da Divisão 2 da Mina na época, e estava na extremidade norte da linha de contratorpedeiros. Ela abriu fogo com suas metralhadoras .50in em 0758, visando aeronaves japonesas voando diretamente sobre sua cabeça. Suas armas antiaéreas de 3 "/ 23 abriram fogo um minuto depois e suas metralhadoras .30in em 0805. Às 8h10 ela se preparou para partir. Às 9h25 ela reivindicou uma aeronave japonesa. Com cinco minutos de atraso ela conseguiu partir, mas com 0955 ela teve que ancorar brevemente perto do Medusa. Ela estava de volta em 1005 e em 1021 começou patrulhas anti-submarino. Em 1204, ela lançou três cargas de profundidade. Em 1632 ela avistou um submarino e abriu fogo com seus canhões de 4 ", mas felizmente errou, pois o submarino era americano. Em 1732 ela avistou o porta-aviões Empresa e foi ordenada a se juntar às suas forças de escolta, atuando como guarda de avião.

Na sequência do ataque, o Jogo de azar O posto de vestimenta de batalha foi transferido da sala dos oficiais, que pode ser cortada por medidas de controle de danos, para a área da cozinha mais acessível.

1942

Em meados de fevereiro de 1942, o Jogar fez parte da escolta de um comboio com destino a Pago Pago, Samoa. Ela trabalhou com a USS Ramsay (DD-124) para estabelecer um campo minado defensivo fora de Tutuila. No final de março, os dois navios se mudaram para Fiji e colocaram um campo minado em torno de Nandi (7 a 14 de abril). Ela então voltou a Pearl Harbor para ter seu armamento atualizado. Durante o verão, ela foi usada em tarefas de escolta de comboio e, em seguida, colocou um campo minado defensivo na entrada do Segundo Canal, Espiritu Santo nas Novas Hébridas (com Breese e Tracy).

Em 27 de agosto o Jogar e quatro outros contratorpedeiros (uma camada de minas e três transportes rápidos) juntaram-se a um comboio que se dirigia para Guadalcanal.

Durante a manhã de 29 de agosto, os mirantes do Jogar avistou o submarino japonês I-123. o Jogar ainda carregava suas cargas de profundidade e executou um ataque bem-sucedido ao submarino. Manchas de óleo e tábuas do convés vieram à superfície, assim como uma grande bolha de ar. A última mensagem do submarino, 'sob forte ataque inimigo', também foi interceptada.

Logo depois do meio-dia, o comboio foi atacado por aeronaves japonesas e abateu dois sem sofrer nenhum dano.

Na tarde de 29 de agosto o Jogar resgatou quatro aviadores caídos do Saratoga, que se refugiou na Ilha Nura.

o Jogar desembarcou 158 fuzileiros navais em Guadalcanal em 31 de agosto. Ela então se moveu para ajudar o William Ward Burrows, que encalhou a caminho de Tulagi. Em 2 de setembro o Jogar ajudou dois outros navios a rebocá-la para fora. o Jogar então avistou um submarino japonês, e na confusão o Jogar encalhou mais uma vez. o Jogar ajudou a libertá-la mais uma vez em 3 de setembro. o Jogar então escoltou o William Ward Burrows para Espiritu Santo. o Jogar então voltou para a batalha em torno de Guadalcanal.

1943

Um dos Jogo de azar as missões de maior sucesso vieram na noite de 6 de maio de 1943, quando junto com o Preble e Breese ela colocou 250 minas no Estreito de Blackett, na entrada oeste do Golfo de Kula. Este campo minado logo valeu a pena. Na noite de 7 a 8 de maio, quatro destróieres japoneses do Tokyo Express correram para as minas. Kuroshio afundou imediatamente. Oyashio e Kagero foram danificados e convocaram o Michishio ajudar. Os observadores da costa avistaram os navios japoneses em dificuldades e convocaram aeronaves aliadas. Os dois destróieres danificados foram afundados, e o Michishio forçado a se retirar.

Em 30 de junho, o primeiro dia da Operação Toenails (a invasão da Nova Geórgia), o Jogar colocou um campo minado defensivo na cabeça de praia.

Em julho, ela voltou aos Estados Unidos para uma reforma, retornando à zona de guerra no início de outubro. De 2 a 8 de outubro, ela escoltou o navio de carga de ataque USS Thuban (AKA-19) de Pearl Harbor às Ilhas Ellice. Ela então retornou às Salomão e apoiou a Operação Flor de Cerejeira, a invasão de Bougainville. Ela apoiou os desembarques na Baía da Imperatriz Augusta em 1-2 de novembro, operado no Estreito de Bougainville em 7-8 de novembro. Ela então voltou para Purvis Bay, Ilha da Flórida no final de novembro, e depois para as Ilhas New Hebrides.

1944

o Jogar passou a maior parte de 1944 realizando tarefas de escolta entre as Ilhas Salomão. Ela voltou a São Francisco para uma reforma em 12 de outubro de 1944.

1945

o Jogar deixou San Diego em 7 de janeiro de 1945 e navegou para Iwo Jima. Ela chegou em 17 de fevereiro e foi designada para fornecer suporte de fogo para varredores de minas e explodir qualquer mina solta. No entanto, ela não sobreviveria por muito tempo em Iwo Jima.

Em 18 de fevereiro o Jogar foi atingido por duas bombas de 250 libras. Eles atingiram logo acima da linha da água e fizeram dois furos em seu traseiro. Ambas as salas de incêndio foram inundadas e ela estava morta na água. Cinco homens morreram, um estava desaparecido e oito feridos. O controle de danos habilidoso significava que o Jogar permaneceu flutuando, e no dia seguinte ela foi rebocada para relativa segurança pelo Dorsey (DD-117 / DMS-1). Ela foi então rebocada para Saipan, onde chegou em 24 de fevereiro de 1945. No entanto, a essa altura da guerra, os antigos decks de descarga estavam cada vez mais obsoletos e decidiu-se que não valia a pena consertar o Jogar. Ela foi desativada em 1 ° de junho de 1945 e, em 16 de julho, foi afundada nos arredores do porto de Apra, em Guam.

o Jogar ganhou sete estrelas de batalha durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, por Pearl Harbor, por afundar o submarino I-123, Ilhas Salomão, Nova Geórgia, Guadalcanal, Tesouro-Bougainville e Iwo Jima.

Deslocamento (padrão)

1.160 t (design)

Deslocamento (carregado)

Velocidade máxima

35kts (design)
35,34kts a 24.610shp a 1.149t em teste (Wickes)

Motor

2 turbinas Parsons de eixo
4 caldeiras
24.200shp (design)

Faixa

3.800 nm a 15kts em teste (Wickes)
2.850 nm a 20kts em teste (Wickes)

Armadura - cinto

- área coberta

Comprimento

314 pés 4 pol.

Largura

30 pés 11 pol.

Armamentos (conforme construído)

Quatro armas 4in / 50
Doze torpedos de 21 pol em quatro tubos triplos
Duas trilhas de carga de profundidade

Complemento de tripulação

114

Lançado

11 de maio de 1918

Comissionado

29 de novembro de 1918

Descomissionado

1 de junho de 1945

Afundado

16 de julho de 1945


USS Gamble (DD-123 / DM-15) - História

Sub-História
Construído pela Kawasaki em Kobe. Comissionado como SS-50, baseado no Distrito Naval de Yokosuka em 28 de abril de 1928. Em 1 de junho de 1938 redesignado I-123.

História da Guerra
No início da Guerra do Pacífico, I-123 colocou 40 minas no Estreito de Balabac entre o norte de Bornéu e o sul da Ilha de Palawan nas Filipinas. Um defeito em seu casco faz com que o submarino se retire para a Baía de Camranh para reparos. Em 18 de dezembro, o submarino foi reparado e segue para o mar de Java.

Em 7 de agosto de 1942, partiu de Rabaul para bombardear Guadalcanal e fazer o reconhecimento do Lunga Point Anchorage. Em 11 de agosto de 1942 chegou ao largo de Savo.

História de Afundamento
Em 29 de agosto de 1942, o submarino enviou um sinal de socorro de que estava sendo seguido por aeronaves inimigas. Mais tarde naquela manhã, vigias a bordo do USS Gamble DM-15 com destino a Guadalcanal avistaram um grande submarino inimigo e fizeram vários ataques de carga de profundidade contra o submarino. Posteriormente, a tripulação observou grandes manchas de óleo e encontrou tábuas do convés e grandes bolhas de ar rompendo a superfície onde se presume que o I-123 tenha afundado cerca de 60 milhas a leste de Savo.

Referências
Em relatórios, o naufrágio do I-1 foi reivindicado pelo USS Gamble DD-123. Parece que de alguma forma os submarinos foram misturados e o que o relatório de Gamble queria dizer era que ele afundou o I-123.

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Encouraçados

O desenho para o Measure 32 Design 7D desenhado para o Colorado navios de guerra de classe modernizados datados de 18 de março de 1944. Este desenho usou as três cores Measure 32 de preto fosco (BK), cinza oceano (5-O) e cinza claro (5-L) verticalmente com um padrão de azul de convés (20- B) e cinza oceano nas superfícies horizontais. Este perfil e plano era realmente do Tennessee classe como modernizada que carregava armas de 14 polegadas em torres triplas contra o Colorado classe USS West Virginia que carregava armas de 16 polegadas em torres gêmeas.

Um desenho do Design 7D foi anexado ao memorando de 15 de julho de 1943 para a PacFleet para o DD-381 Somers classe de destruidores. Em 19 de agosto de 1943, apareceu para o Fletcher destruidores de classe. Design 7D foi redesenhado para o Farragut destruidores de classe, o Jogar classes minelayers leves e para o Chandler caça-minas de alta velocidade de classe foi usado por, pelo menos, USS Gamble (DM-15), USS Sicard (DM-21) e USS Hamilton (DMS-18). Este design também foi ligeiramente modificado e desenhado para o Portland cruzadores pesados ​​de classe em 21 de março de 1944, usando três cores e usados ​​pelos cruzadores USS Portland (CA-33) e USS Indianapolis (CA-35) e foi usado pelo encouraçado USS West Virginia (BB-48).


USS Gamble (DD-123 / DM-15) - História

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USS Gamble (DD-123 / DM-15) - História

Nomeado conjuntamente em homenagem a dois irmãos, heróis da Guerra de 1812.

Tenente Peter Gamble, nasceu em Bordentown, NJ nomeado aspirante em 16 de janeiro de 1809, serviu na nau capitânia de Macdonough, Saratopa, na Batalha do Lago Champlain, sendo morto em ação enquanto apontava sua arma em 11 de setembro de 1814. Macdonough lamentou sua perda e elogiou sua bravura em ação.

O tenente-coronel John M. Gamble, USMC, nasceu no Brooklyn, N. Y., em 1791 nomeado 2o tenente 16 de janeiro de 1809 e se distinguiu pela frieza e bravura em muitos empreendimentos, incluindo encontros críticos com nativos hostis das Ilhas Sarquesa durante a ausência da fragata Essex em 1813, e navegando como um prêmio de Essex, com apenas uma tripulação de quatro homens e sem o benefício de uma carta em uma notável viagem de 17 dias às ilhas havaianas. Ele foi promovido a tenente-coronel em 3 de março de 1827 e morreu em Nova York em 11 de setembro de 1836.

(DD-123 dp. 1090 1. 314'5 "b. 31'9" dr. 8'8 "s. 35 k.

cpl. 113 a. 4 4 ", 2 3", 2,30 cal. mg., 12 21 "tt., 1 dcp, 2

Gamble (DD-123) foi lançado em 11 de maio de 1918 pela Newport News Shipbuilding & amp Dry Dock Co., Newport News, VA., Patrocinado pela Srta. Evelyn H. Jackson, parente do Secretário da Marinha Josephus Daniels, e comissionado em Norfolk 29 Novembro de 1918, Comdr. El. J. Abbett no comando.

Depois de treinar no Virginia Capes, Gamble partiu de Nova York em 13 de janeiro de 1919 para participar de manobras ao largo de Cuba Key West, Flórida e do litoral da Nova Inglaterra até junho de 1919. após a revisão em Norfolk, ela se juntou à Frota do Pacífico em San Diego em 7 de agosto de 1919 e operou ao longo da costa do Pacífico até ser colocado em status de reserva no Estaleiro Marinha da Ilha Mare em 1º de dezembro de 1919. Em outubro de 1920, ela saiu da reserva e ajudou a flotilha na prática de torpedos manobrada com a Força de Batalha e cruzou a costa da Califórnia como um navio de treinamento para reservistas. Ela foi desativada em San Diego em 17 de junho de 1922.

Gamble foi recomissionado em 24 de maio de 1930, foi reclassificado (DM-15) em 13 de junho e convertido em uma camada de minério leve no estaleiro naval da Ilha Mare. Chegando a Pearl Harbor da costa oeste, ela se tornou o navio-almirante do Mine Squadron 2 em julho de 1930 e mais tarde serviu como o navio-almirante da Mine Division 1, Mine Squadron 1. Ela cruzou as águas do Havaí instruindo os reservistas da Marinha na guerra de minas e atuou como guarda de avião e rastreador de rádio para hidroaviões, a cada ano participando da preparação da frota e problemas da frota até que ela retornou a San Diego, onde ela descomissionou em 22 de dezembro de 1937. Retornando em 25 de setembro de 1939 quando a Europa mergulhou na Segunda Guerra Mundial, ela se juntou à Divisão de Minas 5 em patrulhas e deveres escolares fora de São Francisco. Em abril de 1941, ela seguiu para Pearl Harbor para patrulha de prontidão para guerra em águas havaianas como uma unidade da Divisão de Minas 2.

Em 7 de dezembro de 1941, Gamble havia retornado da patrulha offshore, quando sua rotina pacífica de domingo de manhã foi quebrada pelo primeiro dos aviões japoneses baseados em porta-aviões que atacaram navios americanos no porto. Os artilheiros de Gamble se juntaram ao fogo de outros navios de guerra e tiveram a satisfação de ver um avião inimigo cair na água em seu feixe de bombordo. Após o ataque, ela pegou a estação de patrulha anti-submarino na tela do porta-aviões Enterprise (CV-6), e mais tarde guardou os acessos a Pearl Harbor. Em meados de fevereiro de 1942, ela seguiu para o sul na escolta de um comboio para Pago Pago, Samoa, em seguida, juntou-se a Ramsey na construção de um campo minado de proteção ao largo de Tutuila. No final de março, as duas camadas de minas mudaram para as Ilhas Fiji, para colocar um campo minado nas águas de Nandi de 7 a 14 de abril. Retornando a Pearl Harbor para um armamento mais pesado, Gamble ajudou a proteger comboios para Midway durante o tempo daquela batalha histórica e crucial, então se dirigiu ao sul com Breese e Tracy para estabelecer um campo de minas defensivo na entrada do Segundo Canal, Espiritu Santo, Ilhas New Hébrides .

Em 27 de agosto de 1942, Gamble juntou-se a uma unidade-tarefa com destino a Guadalcanal. Embora designado como um contratorpedeiro-minelayer, o velho quatro-piper ainda carregava um equipamento anti-submarino. Na manhã de 29 de agosto, quando seus vigias avistaram um grande submarino inimigo, ela imediatamente entrou em ação. Após vários ataques de carga de profundidade, Gamble percorreu grandes manchas de óleo, encontrou tábuas do convés e observou uma grande bolha de ar romper a superfície. Mais tarde, sua vítima foi identificada como submarino japonês 1-128, cujo rádio morrendo havia sinalizado "sob forte ataque inimigo". Naquela tarde, ela seguiu a toda velocidade para a Ilha Nura, onde resgatou quatro aviadores presos do porta-aviões Saratoga. Continuando a ajudar na dura luta por Guadalcanal, ela transportou 158 fuzileiros navais para a ilha em 31 de agosto, patrulhou as estradas de Lunga e, em 5 de setembro, ajudou a liberar o transporte terrestre William Ward Burrow '(AP-6) e acompanhou-a até o Espírito Santo, Ilhas das Novas Hébridas. Sua patrulha, escolta e serviço de transporte continuaram enquanto a viagem para Guadalcanal avançava para a vitória.

Cinco minutos depois da meia-noite, 6 de maio de 1943, Gamble, com minelayers Preble e Breese girou simultaneamente em rajadas de chuva que quebraram às vezes para revelar um ao outro em formação perfeita. Fazendo 15 nós, cada navio lançou uma mina a cada 12 segundos, plantando mais de 250 minas em 17 minutos através do Estreito de Blackett, a entrada oeste do Golfo de Kula e diretamente na rota favorita do preocupante "Tokyo Express". Os navios então aceleraram para o norte para se juntar à tela de proteção da força de destruidores de cruzeiros do Contra-almirante Ainsworth antes de reabastecer em Tulafi. Na noite de 7 a 8 de maio, quatro destróieres japoneses entraram nas águas minadas. Um, Kurshio, caiu, dois outros Ogashio e Kagero, foram seriamente danificados e enviaram pedidos de ajuda que trouxeram o quarto contratorpedeiro Michishio ao local. Aeronave, alertada por um guarda costeiro, interceptou a operação de resgate, afundando os dois contratorpedeiros e mandando Michishio mancando de volta ao porto, gravemente danificado.

Em 30 de junho de 1943, durante a invasão da Nova Geórgia, Gamble colocou uma série de minas na cabeça de praia, antes de retornar a Tulagi. Em julho, ordens de boas-vindas a enviaram de volta aos Estados Unidos para revisão. Ela seguiu para o oeste novamente em 20 de setembro de 1943. Seus deveres de minelaying então a trouxeram para a Imperatriz Augusta Bay 1-2 de novembro de 1943 para apoiar as operações de desembarque do Estreito de Bougainville, 7-8 de novembro Purvis Bay, Ilha da Flórida, 23-24 de novembro, daí para as Ilhas New Hebrides para serviço de escolta entre as Salomão até retornar a São Francisco em 12 de outubro de 1944.

Após revisão e treinamento de atualização, Gamble partiu de San Diego em 7 de janeiro de 1945, a caminho do Havaí e dos Marshalls para Iwo Jima, onde chegou em 17 de fevereiro para prestar apoio de fogo às várias unidades de varredura e explodir minas flutuantes. Durante o bombardeio, um tiro direto em um depósito de munição explodiu o carregador inimigo como um foguete gigante no sopé do Monte Surabachi.

Em 18 de fevereiro de 1945, Gamble foi atingido logo acima da linha d'água por duas bombas de 250 libras. Ambas as salas de incêndio inundaram imediatamente e ela morreu no. água com dois furos em seu traseiro enquanto todas as mãos lutavam contra incêndios violentos, alijavam o peso da superfície e escoravam anteparas danificadas. Cinco homens foram mortos, um desaparecido em combate e oito feridos. Enquanto os fuzileiros navais atacavam as costas de Iwo Jima no dia seguinte, Gamble foi rebocado por Dorsel, que a entregou ao LSM-126 para passagem para Saipan. Ela chegou a Saipan em 24 de fevereiro e foi ao lado de Hamul para reparos.

Alguma esperança permaneceu para Gamble por muito tempo, mas em 1º de junho de 1945 ela descomissionou e em 16 de julho foi rebocada para fora do porto de Apra, em Guam, e afundada.


Todos nós sabemos que a prática é importante, mas de quanto os alunos precisam para realmente apoiar o domínio das habilidades? Com a Study Island, o trabalho de adivinhação acabou. Pesquisa validada pelo Grupo de Pesquisa Marzano prova que usando a Ilha de Estudo por apenas 30 minutos de prática por semana, os alunos apresentam um crescimento significativo.

"Não há nada mais incrível do que ouvir seu aluno dizer 'Entendi!'"

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"Nossos alunos estavam totalmente preparados para nossos exames estaduais."


Inhaltsverzeichnis

USS Jogar (DD-123) lief am 11. & # X202fMai 1918 bei der Newport News Shipbuilding & amp Dry Dock Co. em Newport News, Virgínia, vom Stapel. Namensgeber des Schiffes waren Leutnant Peter Gamble (1793–1814), gefallen in der Schlacht bei Plattsburgh, und sein Bruder Oberstleutnant John Marshall Gamble (1791–1836), einziger Offizier der Marines der Kommandant eines Schiffes der US Navy wurde. Taufpatin des Schiffes war eine Verwandte des damaligen Marineministers der Vereinigten Staaten. & # 911 e # 93

Die Indienststellung des Zerstörers der Wickes-Klasse erfolgte em Norfolk (Virginia) am 29. & # X202fNovembro de 1918. Nach Trainingsfahrten vor Virginia nahm der neue Zerstörer an Manövern vor Kuba und der Küste Neuenglands teil.

Am 1. & # X202fMai 1919 lief die Jogar zusammen mit Wilkes und Sampson der Sampson-Klasse sowie der Cassin nach Ponta Delgada auf den Azoren aus, um den ersten Trans-Atlantik-Flug zu unterstützen. An der geplanten Flugroute wurden im Abstand von etwa 50 Seemeilen Zerstörer stationiert, um den Flugzeugen als Navigationshilfe zu dienen und dem Kommando des Fluges mitzuteilen, Welches Flugzeug ihren Standort wann passiert hatte. Einige Zerstörer lieferten auch Wetterdaten. Jogar traf am 7. & # x202fMai em Ponta Delgada ein und die Curtiss NC-Flugboote starteten am folgenden Tag em New York. Tenho 15 anos. Verlegte die Jogar aus Ponta Delgada zu ihrer Estação nº & # x202f5 des Abschnitts von den Azoren nach Portugal. Wegen Problemen und Schäden auf der ersten Etappe setzten die Flugboote erst am 17. ihren Flug zu den Azoren von der Trepassey Bay no forte Neufundland, von denen nur NC 4 die Azoren fliegend erreichte. & # 912 e # 93 Jogar verließ am 22. Mai 1919 ihre Station auf der nächsten Etappe wegen eines medizinischen Problemas an Bord und musste Ponta Delgada erneut anlaufen. Morrer Jogar erreichte am frühen Morgen des 27. die ihr neu zugeteilte Estação nº & # x202f6 und startedn um 13,48 mehr Dampf auszustoßen, um die Flieger auf sich aufmerksam zu machen. Gegen 14 & # xa0Uhr wurde das Flugzeug entdeckt es überflog den Zerstörer, der seine Fahrt auf 25 kn erhöht hatte und setzte den Flug fort. Jogar wollte dem verbliebenen Flugboot möglichst lange Unterstützung geben, drehte aber bei, als sie die Meldung erhielt, das die NC-4 die nächste Station überflogen hatte. Die Maschine erreichte am Abend Lissabon und war damit das erste Flugzeug, das den Atlantik überquerte. Jogar hatte ihre Aufgabe erledigt und lief über Ponta Delgada nach Horta. Am 29. & # X202fMai verließ der Zerstörer diese Insel zusammen mit den Schwesterschiffen Ramsay, Lamberton und Hopewell zu einer Werftliegezeit beim Norfolk Navy Yard em Portsmouth (Virginia). Zusammen mit der Hopewell wurde unterwegs Saint George’s (Bermuda) angelaufen und Jogar traf dann am 6. & # x202fJuni in der Werft ein. & # 911 e # 93

Nach dieser ersten Überholung kam der Zerstörer am 7. & # x202fAgosto de 1919 zur Pazifikflotte em San Diego. Nach einigen Einsätzen an der US-amerikanischen Pazifikküste kam der neue Zerstörer zur Reserve em Mare Island Navy Yard am 1. mit Reservisten an der amerikanischen Westküste durch.

Am 17. & # X202fJuni 1922 wurde die USS Jogar außer Dienst gestellt. & # 911 e # 93

Schneller Minenleger

Am 24. & # X202fMai 1930 wurde das Schiff wieder em Dienst gestellt, um zu einem Leichten Minenleger (DM-15) umgebaut zu werden. Der Umbau erfolgte auf dem Mare Island Navy Yard, wo das Schiff am 13. & # X202fJuni umklassifiziert wurde. Derartige Umbauten hatte die US Navy schon 1920/21 erhalten, als je sieben Schiffe vom Fore River Shipyard em Quincy (DDs 96-102) e von den Union Iron Works em San Francisco (DDs 110-112, 171-174) als DM 1-7 bzw. DM 8-14 umgerüstet wurden. Neben der Jogar Wurde auch das Schwesterschiff Ramsay zu DM-16 umgerüstet. 1931 wurden auch noch die Schwesterschiffe Montgomery und Breese entsprechend umgebaut. Dafür wurden die sechs Minenleger-Zerstörer USS Maury (DM-5), Mahan (DM-7), Haret (DM-8), Ludlow (DM-10), Queimaduras (DM-11) e Rizal (DM-14) der ersten Serie zwischen Oktober 1930 e novembro de 1931 ausgesondert und abgewrackt.

Im Juli & # xa01930 wurde die umgerüstete Jogar em Pearl Harbor Flaggschiff der Mine Squadron 2. Der Minenleger diente dann in verschiedenen Funktionen und trainierte in den Gewässern um Hawaii Reservisten in den Eigenheiten des Minenkrieges, diente Seeflugzeugen als Sicherungs- und Funkbegleitschiff und nahm den jährlichen Übungen der Flotteilichen. & # 913 & # 93

Am 22. & # X202fDezembro de 1937 kam die Jogar wieder nach San Diego, um vorerst außer Dienst gestellt zu werden. Nach dem Kriegsbeginn na Europa wurde die Jogar tenho 25 anos. & # x202fSetembro de 1939 wieder in Dienst gestellt und der Divisão de Minas 5 zugeteilt, die Überwachungs- und Ausbildungsaufgaben von San Francisco aus erledigte. Em abril de 1941 verlegte das Schiff dann wieder nach Pearl Harbor, um dort als Teil der Divisão de Mina 2 Überwachungsaufgaben em den Gewässern um Havaí durchzuführen. Im Herbst 1941 guerra morrer Jogar das Führungsschiff der Divisão de Minas 14, zu der auch die Schwesterschiffe Ramsay, Montgomery und Breese gehörten. Die Division bildete mit den vier Minenleger-Zerstörern der Divisão de Minas 13 morrer Mine Squadron 1. Deren vier Umbauten Tracy, Preble, Sicard und Pruitt gehörten zur Clemson-Klasse und hatten 1936/37 die restlichen acht Minenleger der ersten Lieferung ersetzt. & # 913 & # 93

Kriegseinsätze

Am 7. & # X202fDezembro de 1941 guerra morrer Jogar gerade von einer Patrouillenfahrt zurückgekehrt, als während ihrer sonntäglichen Routine der Angriff japanischer Trägerflugzeuge erfolgte das Schiff beteiligte sich am Abwehrfeuer gegen die japanischen Angreifer und glaubte, e. Nach diesem Kriegsbeginn übernahm der Minenlege (zerstöre) r dann verschiedene Sicherungsaufgaben um den Träger Empreendimento (CV-6) und an den Zufahrten nach Pearl Harbor.
Mitte & # xa0Februar 1942 verlegte der Minensucher dann als Geleitschiff eines Konvois nach Pago Pago / Samoa. Das Schiff arbeitet dort mit dem Schwesterschiff Ramsay zusammen, mit dem einige schützende Minenfelder vor Tutuila und im März / April dann bei den Ilhas Fiji verlegt wurden. Dann kehrte der Minenleger nach zurück de Pearl Harbor, um umbewaffnet zu werden. Die schwerste Artillerie-Bewaffnung bestand dann aus vier 3 in-L / 50-Geschützen zu denen noch vier 20-mm-L / 70-MK.4-Oerlikon-Maschinenkanonen kamen.

Von Mai & # xa0bis Juli & # xa01942 sicherte die Jogar wichtige Konvois nach Midway, guerra aber nicht an der Seeschlacht beteiligt. Im Juli verlegte der Minenleger wieder in den Südpazifik zusammen mit dem Schwesterschiff Breese sob der Tracy, wo sie ein defensives Minenfeld im Segond Channel südlich von Espiritu Santo legten. & # 914 & # 93 Diese Sperre wurden nicht hinreichend bekannt gemacht die eigenen Minen wurden so dem Zerstörer Tucker der Mahan-Klasse noch am gleichen Tag und am 26. Oktober dem Dampfer Presidente da SS Coolidge (21.936 BRT, 1931) mit 5000 Soldaten an Bord zum Verhängnis. Die Enge des Fahrwassers ermöglichte es den Besatzungen und Passagieren sich zu retten, sodass nur drei bzw. zwei Tote zu beklagen waren. Allerdings gingen auf der Coolidge die gesamte Ausrüstung der eingeschifften 5.000 Soldaten sowie viele weitere, dringend benötigte Güter verloren. & # 915 & # 93 Am Morgen des 29. Agosto entdeckte der ehemalige Zerstörer ein großes U-Boot, das er sofort angriff. Es gelang der Jogar das U-Boot zu vernichten. Spätere Recherchen ergaben, das es sich um I-123 gehandelt hatte. & # 916 & # 93 Das Boot war eine 1928 fertig gestellte japanische Weiterentwicklung der deutschen UE II-Klasse aus dem Ersten Weltkrieg. Der japanische Nachbau galt als veraltet und wurde nur noch als Minenleger und Versorger genutzt. Nach diesem Erfolg folgten Einsätze der Jogar als Versorger und gelegentliche Unterstützung von anderen Schiffen. So konnte am 5. & # X202fSeptember der aufgelaufene Transporter William Ward Burrows (AP-6) (4576 BRT, 1929 DK) abgebracht und nach Espiritu Santo geleitet werden.

Ihren erfolgreichsten Einsatz führte die Jogar in der Nacht zum 6. & # x202fMai 1943 zusammen mit den Minenlegern Preble und Breese kurz nach Mitternacht durch, als die drei Minenleger die Blackett Strait verminten, um weitere Fahrten des Tokio-Express vom Kula-Golf nach Südwesten zu verhindern. Trotz heftiger Regenschauer, em denen sich die Schiffe eher selten sahen, brachten die Schiffe über 250 Minen aus. Sie hielten bei einer Marschgeschwindigkeit von 15 kn und der geringen Sicht ihre Positionen zueinander fast perfekt und zogen sich dann auf die Grupo de Tarefas 36.1 unter Konteradmiral Walden L. Ainsworth zurück. Der "Tokyo Express" nutzte die Meeresstraße häufig. Schon in der Nacht zum 8. Mai liefen japanische Zerstörer der Kagerō-Klasse em das Minenfeld. Morrer Kurashio afundou sofort, Oyashio und Kagero wurden schwer beschädigt. Herbeigerufene amerikanische Flugzeuge beschädigten die zur Hilfe eilende Michishio schwer und versenkten die beiden durch Minentreffer schon angeschlagenen Zerstörer. & # 914 & # 93 Während der Rückeroberung von New Georgia ab dem 30. & # X202fJuni sicherte die Jogar den Landungsort der Alliierten durch Minensperren. Im Juli wurde der Minenleger dann nos EUA zurück befohlen, um nochmals gründlich überholt zu werden. Am 20. & # X202fSetembro de 1943 lief die Jogar wieder em den Pazifik, um an den weiteren Kämpfen teilzunehmen. Sie sicherte Landungsoperationen durch Minensperren und teilweise auch durch Artillerieunterstützung und kam in der Kaiserin-Augusta-Bucht am 1./2. Novembro de 1943, em der Bougainville Strait zwischen Bougainville und Choiseul am 7./8. Purvis Bay von Florida Islands, heute Nggela am 23/24. November. Anschließend erledigte die Jogar vorrangig Geleitaufgaben in den Salomonen bis sie am 12. & # x202fOktober 1944 nach San Francisco zurückkehrte. & # 914 e # 93

Das Ende der USS Jogar

Nach Überholung und Training verließ die Jogar am 7. & # x202fJanuar 1945 San Diego. Über Hawaii und die Marshallinseln traf das Schiff am 17. & # X202fFebruar vor ihren nächsten Einsatzort ein: vor Iwo Jima sollte sie den verschiedenen Minenräum-Einheiten Feuerunterstützung geben und treibende Min bringen zur. Bei der Beschießung von Küstenanlagen am Fuß des Mt. Suribachi traf die Jogar überraschend einen Munitionstapel, dessen Explosion weitere Explosionen hervorrief und ein gigantisches Feuerwerk auslöste. & # 914 & # 93 Schon am 18. & # X202fFebruar 1945 wurde die Jogar von zwei 125 kg-Bomben getroffen, die das Schiff durchschlugen. Die Heizungsräume liefen durch Löcher sofort voll und brachten das Schiff zum Stillstand. Sechs Mann verloren ihr Leben, acht Mann wurden schwer verwundet. Morrer Jogar Wurde vom Alten Zerstörer Dorsey, dann LSM-126 nach Saipan geschleppt, wo der Minenleger am 24. & # x202fFebruar eintraf und die notwendige Reparatur vom Tender USS Hamul (AD-20) durchgeführt werden sollte. Diese verzögerte sich dann und schließlich erfolgte am 1. & # X202fJuni 1945 doch die Streichung des schwer beschädigten Schiffes. & # 914 e # 93

Die USS Jogar (DM-15), die sieben estrelas de batalha im Krieg erhalten hatte, wurde am 16. Juli 1945 nahe Apra Harbor / Guam versenkt. & # 914 e # 93


O fuzileiro naval que comandava navios

O primeiro navio americano a levar o nome Essex era uma fragata de 36 armas [Nota 1] construído pelo Sr. Enos Briggs de Salem, Massachusetts, um projeto do Sr. William Hackett, e nomeado em homenagem ao Condado de Essex, Massachusetts [Nota 2]. Estados Unidos Ship Essex was launched on 30 September 1799, presented to the United States Navy in December, and accepted for service on behalf of the Navy by Captain Edward Preble, USN, the ship’s first Commanding Officer. In January 1800, USS Essex departed Newport, Rhode Island in company with USS Congress their mission was to serve as escorts for a convoy of merchant ships. The United States was then engaged in the Quasi-War with France [Note 3] Essex e Congresso were ordered to protect these merchant vessels from assault and confiscation by the French Navy. After only a few days at sea, a storm de-masted Congresso and she was forced to return to the American coast. Essex continued on alone. USS Essex was the first US Navy ship to cross the equator and the first American man-of-war to make a double voyage around the Cape of Good Hope (March, August 1800).

The second cruise of the Essex took her to the Mediterranean under the command of Captain William Bainbridge, serving in the squadron of Commodore Richard Dale [Note 4] During this journey, Essex participated in the Barbary Wars through 1806. Upon return to the United States, Essex underwent refit until 1809 when she was re-commissioned as a patrol vessel along the East Coast of the United States.

The Jay Treaty of 1795, more formally The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation Between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, was the framework of Alexander Hamilton, supported by George Washington, and brokered by John Jay. The Jay Treaty was intended to resolve certain deficiencies in the Treaty of Paris (1783) whose sole purpose was to avoid further confrontations with Great Britain. The goals of the Jay Treaty were mostly fulfilled (withdrawal of British Army forces in the Northwest Territory, cessation of US confiscation of property belonging to British loyalists, etc.) but several issues remained unresolved, such as Great Britain’s impressment of American sailors from ships and ports. From 1803, when Great Britain went to war with Napoleonic France, the British established a naval blockade to choke off trade with France. The United States disputed this blockade, proclaiming it illegal under internationally recognized laws of the sea. But to enforce the British blockade, and to make its point of naval supremacy, the British navy increased its impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy. This behavior, more than any other, inflamed the passions of the American people. Em 1811, USS President closed with a Royal Navy sloop operating off the coast of North Carolina, challenged her, and then fired upon the smaller vessel. Eleven British sailors were killed. So now the passions of the British people were inflamed. As a result of this incident, the British became greatly annoyed and began arming North American Indians and encouraging them to attack American frontier settlements. The United States declared war against the United Kingdom on 18 June 1812. It became known as Mr. Madison’s War.

With the outbreak of war, David Porter [Note 5] was promoted to Captain on 2 July 1812 and assigned to command USS Essex. Sailing his ship to Bermuda, Porter engaged several British transports, taking one of these as a prize of war. On 13 August, Porter captured HMS Alert, the first British warship captured during the conflict. By the end of September, Essex had taken ten British merchantmen as prizes.

In February 1813, Porter sailed Essex into the South Atlantic where he sought to disrupt the British whaling fleet. His first action in the Pacific was the capture of the Peruvian vessel Nereyda. His purpose in seizing this vessel was that it held captive and impressed American whaling crewmen. Over the next year, Porter captured 13 British whalers one of these was a French registry vessel, captured by the Royal Navy, sold to the owner of a British whaling fleet, and re-named Atlantic. In capturing these ships, Porter also took 380 British seamen as prisoners. In June, Porter offered parole to these captives, providing that they would not again take up arms against the United States. Porter renamed Atlantic as Essex Junior and appointed his executive officer, Lieutenant John Downes, to command her.

John Marshall Gamble (1791-1836) was only eight-years old when Essex went into service in 1799. Born in Brooklyn, New York, Gamble received his appointment to second lieutenant of Marines on 16 January 1809 when he was only 17 or 18-years old. At the outbreak of the War of 1812, Gamble commanded the Marine Detachment, USS Essex [Note 6] Gamble was an accomplished Marine Corps officer but he is distinguished as the only Marine officer to command a United States Navy ship of war. Actually, Lieutenant Gamble commanded two ships, both British prizes pressed into United States service — seized and renamed USS Greenwich [Note 7] and USS Sir Andrew Hammond. Gamble also distinguished himself during a land action on an island called Nuku Hiva where Captain David Porter established the first US Navy Base in the Pacific Ocean.

Nuku Hiva is the largest of the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia). Captain Porter arrived at Nuku Hiva at a time when island natives were at war with one another. Shortly after landing his shore party, Porter claimed the island on behalf of the United States and ordered the construction of a fortification and an adjacent village, which he named Fort Madison and Madisonville, respectively, after President James Madison. He also constructed a dock that was needed to facilitate repairs to his growing fleet of ships. For reasons known only to himself, Porter involved himself in the tribal conflict —possibly to curry favor with the majority of the warring natives.

Porter’s first expedition into the interior was led by Lieutenant Downes. He and forty others, with the assistance of several hundred native islanders called Te I’is, captured a redoubt held by as many as 4,000 Happah warriors. Afterwards, the Happah joined the Te I’is and Americans against another island group called Tai Pi. Captain Porter led a second expedition, which involved an amphibious assault against the Tai Pi shoreline. This second expedition, with Captain Porter in overall command, included 30 American sailors and Marines (with artillery), under Lieutenant Gamble, and 5,000 native warriors. From this point on, however, Captain Porter’s fate took an unfortunate turn.

On or about 13 July 1813, following a sharp naval engagement, Lieutenant Gamble, commanding USS Greenwich, captured the British armed whaler Seringapatam. [Note 8] The engagement was significant because, at the time, Seringapatam posed the most serious British threat to American whalers in the South Pacific. Subsequently, Captain Porter wrote to Lieutenant Gamble, stating, “Allow me to return to you my thanks for your handsome conduct in brining Seringapatam to action, which greatly facilitated her capture, while it prevented the possibility of her escape. Be assured sir, I shall make a suitable representation of these affairs to the honorable Secretary of the Navy.”

Captain Porter reported Gamble’s conduct to the Navy Department: “Captain Gamble at all times greatly distinguished himself by his activity in every enterprise engaged in by the force under my command, and in many critical encounters by the natives of Madison Island, rendered essential services, and at all times distinguished himself by his coolness and bravery. I therefore do, with pleasure, recommend him to the Department as an officer deserving of its patronage.”

During the sea battle between Greenwich e Seringapatam, which took place off the coast of Tumbes, Peru, damage to Seringapatam was not particularly significant, but did necessitate repairs to return the vessel to a state of sea worthiness. There were no human casualties on either side. Once the Americans repaired Seringapatam Captain Porter assigned Masters Mate James Terry of the USS Essex as prize master, and Seringapatam joined Porter’s squadron.

In September 1813, Porter returned Essex to Nuku Hiva (along with four prizes) for repairs. Around mid-December, Porter ordered Essex re-provisioned and readied for sea. Com Essex Junior as an escort Porter began a patrol of the Peru Coast. Seringapatam, Hammond, e Greenwich remained at anchor under the guns of Fort Madison and Gamble assumed command of the garrison. Many of the crewmen of the captured ships were American they and several British crewmen volunteered to serve under Porter. There were also six British prisoners of war who refused to serve the United States. Not long after Porter set sail, local natives became so troublesome that Gamble was forced to land a detachment of men to restore order. At this point, Gamble’s mission was to maintain order, guard the captive ships, guard prisoners of war, and do so with but a hand full of men.

Four months later, Lieutenant Gamble despaired of Porter’s fate [Note 9] and ordered repairs and rigging for sea of Seringapatam e Hammond. When signs of mutiny appeared among the men, Gamble ordered all arms and ammunition placed aboard Greenwich. Despite these precautions, mutineers freed the British prisoners of war and captured Seringapatam on 7 May, wounding Lieutenant Gamble in the scuffle. Mutineers placed Gamble in an open boat and Seringapatam sailed for Australia.

Gamble, returning to Hammond, set sail with a skeleton crew bound for the Caribbean Leeward Islands but was intercepted en route by the British sloop HMS Cherub. As it turned out, Gamble’s capture served the interests of the United States. At the time of his capture, Gamble was in possession of gifts intended for the King of the Leeward Islands. Captain Tucker of HMS Cherub seized these gifts as prizes of war. More than that, Tucker, having discovered several American ships in the Leeward Islands harbor, sent demands to the king to surrender these ships to him at once. When the king refused, Tucker landed a detachment of Royal Marines to enforce his demands.

Upon landing, the Royal Marines discovered that it was literally impossible to enforce their captain’s demands while surrounded by very angry Caribs [Note 10] Captain Tucker wisely withdrew his force and sailed away. Meanwhile, when the king learned that his gifts had been confiscated by the Royal Navy, he was incensed and diplomatic relations between Great Britain and the Leeward Islands deteriorated.

At the conclusion of the War of 1812, Gamble returned to his duties as a Marine officer. He was promoted to captain on 18 June 1814, advanced to Brevet Major on 19 April 1815, and to Brevet Lieutenant Colonel on 3 March 1827.

John M. Gamble died on 11 September 1836 at the age of about 44-45 years. In terms of the family’s legacy, the destroyer USS Gamble (DD-123) and Port Gamble, Washington were named in honor of John Gamble and his brother, Peter, who served as a Navy lieutenant during the War of 1812. USS Gamble served as a destroyer in World War I and a minesweeper in World War II. Owing to the ship’s condition after two world wars, the Navy scuttled the ship in July 1945.

  1. 1.Daughan, G. C. The Shining Sea: David Porter and the Epic Voyage of the USS Essex During the War of 1812. Basic Books, 2013.
  2. 2.Captain David Porter, USS Essex, and the War of 1812 in the Pacific. U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command, 2014. Online.
  3. 3.Porter, D. D. Memoir of Commodore David Porter of the United States Navy. Albany: J. Munsell, 1875.
  4. 4.Toner, R. J. Gamble of the Marines: The Greatest U.S. Marine Corps Stories Ever Told. I. C. Martin, 2017.
  5. 5.Turnbull, A. D. Commodore David Porter, 1740-1843. New York and London: Century Press, 1929.

[1] A frigate in the days of sail was a warship that carried its principal batteries on one or two decks. It was smaller in size than a ship of the line (which is to say, smaller than the warships that were used in the line of battle), but full rigged on three masts, built for speed and maneuverability and used for patrolling and escort duty. They were rated ships having at least 28 guns. The frigate was the hardest-worked warship because even though smaller than a ship of the line, they were formidable opponents in war and had sufficient storage for six-months service at sea. A “heavy frigate” was a ship that carried larger guns (firing 18-24 pound shot) developed in Britain and France after 1778.

[2] Essex County, Massachusetts was created by the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony on 10 May 1643. Named after the county in England, Essex included the towns of Salem, Lynn, Wenham, Ipswich, Rowley, Newbury, Gloucester, and Andover. Essex County was the home of Elbridge Gerry, known for creating a legislative district in 1812 that gave rise to the word gerrymandering, which suggests that politicians in Massachusetts have been corrupt for at least the past 208 years.

[3] An undeclared war between the US and France from 1798 to 1800. John Adams was president. When the US refused to repay its debt for the Revolutionary War, American politicians argued that after the French overthrew their king, the nation to whom this debt was owed no longer existed accordingly, said certain members of the US Congress, the debt was null and void. In response, France began seizing US flagged ships and auctioning them for payment.

[4] After 1794, the US Congress was unwilling to authorize more than four officer ranks in the Navy. These were Captain, Master Commandant, Lieutenant, and Midshipman. Commodore, therefore, was a title only, temporarily assigned to a U.S. Navy captain who, by virtue of seniority, exercised command over two or more U.S. naval vessels, and the rank Master Commandant was later changed to Commander.

[5] David Porter (1780-1843) was a self-assured naval officer who served on active duty with the U.S. Navy from 1790-1825, and as Commander-in-Chief of the Mexican Navy from 1826-1829. He later served as Chargé d’Affaires of the United States to the Ottoman Empire (1831-1840) and United States Minister to the Ottoman Empire (1840-1843). Porter was the adoptive father of David G. Farragut, the U.S. Navy’s first admiral.

[6] Gamble was promoted to Captain USMC in June 1814.

[7] Captain Porter later decided to burn Greenwich to keep the ship from being recaptured by the British South Atlantic squadron it was a sensible decision because destroying the ship deprived the British of valuable whale oil, which at the time, was in high demand in England.

[8] Seringapatam was constructed in 1799 as a warship for Tippu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore. The British stormed his citadel at Seringapatam, and Sultan was killed. The British then sailed the ship to England where it was sold to British a whaling merchant. The ship made six voyages to the Southern Atlantic and Pacific until captured by Greenwich.

[9] Gamble’s concern was well-founded. On 28 March 1814, Royal Navy Captain James Hillyar forced Captain Porter’s surrender at the Battle of Valparaiso. HMS Phoebe e HMS Cherub disabled Essex to the point where he could no longer resist. Following the battle, Captain Hillyar provided care and comfort to Porter’s wounded crew, disarmed Essex Junior, and gave Porter his parole to return to the United States. Captain Hillyar sailed the Essex to England, where it was used as a transport ship, prison ship, and then ultimately sold at public auction for £1,230.

[10] The Caribs (now called Island Caribs) for whom the Caribbean was named, inhabited the Windward Islands of the Lesser Antilles. They were noted for their aggressive hostility and fiercely resisted European colonization. They identified themselves with the Kalina people, or mainland Carib of South America. They continue to exist within the Garifuna people, also known as black Caribs in the Lesser Antilles.


Historique [ modifier | modifier le code ]

Entre-deux-guerres [ modifier | modifier le code ]

Sa formation l’emmène aux caps de Virginie, avant de rejoindre au début de 1919 la flotte pour les manœuvres dans les eaux cubaines. Il est ensuite basé en Nouvelle-Angleterre jusqu'en juin 1919 , date à laquelle il est affectée à la flotte du Pacifique. Le Gamble atteint sa nouvelle base à San Diego le 7 août 1919 , mais est placé dans la réserve au Mare Island Navy Yard le 1 er décembre 1919 .

Il est remis en service pour la première fois en octobre 1920 et utilisé comme navire-école pour les réservistes tout en opérant avec la Force de bataille, avant d'être à nouveau mis hors service le 17 juin 1922 .

Le Gamble est remis en service pour la deuxième fois le 24 mai 1930 . Le 13 juin , il est reclassé comme mouilleur de minex léger (désignation DM-15) et converti au Mare Island Navy Yard. Une fois la conversion terminée, celui-ci déménage à Pearl Harbor, où il devient en juillet navire amiral du Mine Squadron 2. Plus tard, il sert en tant que navire amiral des Mine Division 1 et Mine Squadron 1. Il patrouille dans les eaux hawaïennes afin d'instruire les réservistes dans la guerre des mines et sert comme Pedro et radio-pisteur pour les hydravions, participant chaque année à l'état de préparation de la flotte et aux Fleet problem jusqu'à son retour à San Diego où il est désarmé une nouvelle fois le 22 décembre 1937 .

Remis en service le 25 septembre 1939 alors que l'Europe est plongée dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale, le mouilleur de mine rejoint la Mine Division 5 dans des tâches de patrouille depuis San Francisco. En avril 1941 , il rejoint Pearl Harbor pour une patrouille de préparation à la guerre dans les eaux hawaïennes en tant qu'unité de la Mine Division 2.

Seconde Guerre mondiale [ modifier | modifier le code ]

Le Gamble est amarré au poste D-3 du Middle Loch (se trouvant à l'extrémité nord de la ligne de destroyers) lorsque les Japonais attaquent Pearl Harbor le 7 décembre . Celui-ci ouvre le feu avec ses mitrailleuses de 0,50 pouces à 7 h 58, visant des avions japonais volant directement au-dessus de lui. Après l'attaque, il mène une patrouille ASM et rejoint dans la soirée le porte-avions Empreendimento où il sert d'écran. À la mi- février 1942 , il se dirige vers le sud dans l'escorte pour un convoi à Pago Pago, Samoa, puis a rejoint le Ramsay pour poser un champ de mines au large de Tutuila. Fin mars, les deux mouilleurs naviguent vers les îles Fidji pour poser un champ de mines dans les eaux de Nadi du 7 au 14 avril . De retour à Pearl Harbor pour un armement plus lourd, le Gamble aide à protéger les convois à Midway pendant la durée de cette bataille cruciale et historique, puis se dirige vers le sud avec les Breese et Tracy pour poser un champ de mines défensif à l'entrée de Second Channel, à Espiritu Santo, dans les Nouvelles-Hébrides.

Le 27 août 1942 , le Gamble rejoint une unité opérationnelle dirigée vers Guadalcanal. Bien que désigné comme destroyer-mouilleur de mines, le vieux vaisseau porte toujours un équipement anti-sous-marin. Le matin du 29 août , lorsque ses vigies repère un sous-marin ennemi, celui-ci entre immédiatement en action. Après plusieurs attaques de charges en profondeur, le Gamble traverse une grande marée noire, localise des planches de pont et observe une grosse bulle d'air remonter en surface. Le sous-marin I-123 sera identifié plus tard, dont la radio avait signalé "une forte attaque ennemie". La même après-midi, il rejoint à toute vitesse l'île de Nura où il sauve quatre aviateurs abattus du porte-avions Saratoga. Poursuivant son aide dans la lutte pour Guadalcanal, le navire transporte 158 fuzileiros navais sur l'île le 31 août , patrouille le long de Lunga Roads, puis le 5 septembre , assiste l'USS William Ward Burrows en l'escortant à Espiritu Santo, aux Nouvelles-Hébrides. Ses tâches de patrouille, d'escorte et de transport se poursuivent jusqu'à la victoire américaine à la bataille de Guadalcanal.

L'une des missions les plus réussies du Gamble s'est déroulé dans la nuit du 6 mai 1943 , lorsqu'il pose en compagnie des Preble et Breese 250 mines à travers le détroit de Blackett, à l'entrée ouest du golfe de Kula. Ce champ de mines a vite porté ses fruits. Dans la nuit du 7 au 8 mai , quatre destroyers japonais d'un Tokyo Express ont pénétré dans les mines. Le Kuroshio coule immédiatement, les Oyashio et Kagero sont endommagés et le Michishio est déployé pour leurs portés assistance. Des Coastwatchers repèrent les navires japonais en difficulté et fait appel aux avions alliés. Les deux destroyers endommagés sont coulés et le Michishio contraint de se retirer.

Le 30 juin 1943 , lors de l'invasion de la Nouvelle-Géorgie, le Gamble pose une série de mines au-dessus de la tête de pont, avant de retourner à Tulagi. En juillet, il rejoint les États-Unis pour une révision, avant de reprendre la mer vers l'ouest le 20 septembre 1943 . Ses fonctions de pose de mines l'emmène dans la baie de l'Impératrice-Augusta du 1 er au 2 novembre 1943 pour soutenir les opérations de débarquement  dans le détroit de Bougainville les 7– 8 novembre   la baie de Purvis (îles Florida) du 23 au 24 novembre . Il rejoint ensuite les îles des Nouvelles-Hébrides pour une escorte parmi les Salomon jusqu'à son retour à San Francisco le 12 octobre 1944 .

Après une révision et une formation, le Gamble quitte San Diego le 7 janvier 1945 , via Hawaï et les Marshalls pour Iwo Jima qu'il atteint le 17 février , pour apporter un appui-feu aux différentes unités de ratissage des submersibles et pour exploser les mines flottantes. Au cours d'un bombardement, un coup direct sur un dépôt de munitions fait exploser un chargeur ennemi au pied du mont Surabachi.

Le 18 février 1945 , le Gamble est touché juste au-dessus de la ligne de flottaison par deux bombes de 250 livres. Les chaufferies sont immédiatement inondées et le navire part à la dérive. Cinq hommes sont tués, un est porté disparu disparu et huit autres blessés. Alors que les fuzileiros navais prennent d'assaut les rives d'Iwo Jima le lendemain, le Gamble est remorqué par le Dorsey, puis le LSM-126 jusqu’à Saipan qu'il atteint le 24 février .

Cependant, à ce stade de la guerre, les vieux navires flush-deck sont de plus en plus obsolètes, et il est décidé de ne pas le réparer. Retiré du service le 1 er juin 1945 , le Gamble est sabordé au large du port d'Apra, à Guam.


Introdução

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic progressive metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia mainly due to absolute (Type 1 DM) or relative (Type 2 DM) deficiency of insulin hormone[1]. DM virtually affects every system of the body mainly due to metabolic disturbances caused by hyperglycemia, especially if diabetes control over a period of time proves to be suboptimal[1]. Until recently it was believed to be a disease occurring mainly in developed countries, but recent findings reveal a rise in number of new cases of type 2 DM with an earlier onset and associated complications in developing countries[2𠄴]. Diabetes is associated with complications such as cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy, which can lead to chronic morbidities and mortality[5, 6]. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 346 million people worldwide have DM. This number is likely to more than double by 2030 without any intervention. Almost 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low and middle-income countries[7]. According to WHO report, India today heads the world with over 32 million diabetic patients and this number is projected to increase to 79.4 million by the year 2030[8]. Recent surveys indicate that diabetes now affects a staggering 10-16% of urban population and 5-8% of rural population in India and Sri Lanka[9�].

Addressing needs of diabetic patients

One of the biggest challenges for health care providers today is addressing the continued needs and demands of individuals with chronic illnesses like diabetes[12]. The importance of regular follow-up of diabetic patients with the health care provider is of great significance in averting any long term complications. Studies have reported that strict metabolic control can delay or prevent the progression of complications associated with diabetes[13, 14]. The needs of diabetic patients are not only limited to adequate glycemic control but also correspond with preventing complications disability limitation and rehabilitation. Some of the Indian studies revealed very poor adherence to treatment regimens due to poor attitude towards the disease and poor health literacy among the general public[15, 16]. The introduction of home blood glucose monitors and widespread use of glycosylated hemoglobin as an indicator of metabolic control has contributed to self-care in diabetes and thus has shifted more responsibility to the patient[17, 18]. In a study done in Scotland, it was suggested that the role of the health professional is crucial to patient’s understanding of their blood glucose fluctuations with an appropriate self-care action[19].

Self-care in diabetes

Self-care in diabetes has been defined as an evolutionary process of development of knowledge or awareness by learning to survive with the complex nature of the diabetes in a social context[20, 21]. Because the vast majority of day-to-day care in diabetes is handled by patients and/or families[22], there is an important need for reliable and valid measures for self-management of diabetes[23�]. There are seven essential self-care behaviors in people with diabetes which predict good outcomes. These are healthy eating, being physically active, monitoring of blood sugar, compliant with medications, good problem-solving skills, healthy coping skills and risk-reduction behaviors[26]. These proposed measures can be useful for both clinicians and educators treating individual patients and for researchers evaluating new approaches to care. Self-report is by far the most practical and cost-effective approach to self-care assessment and yet is often seen as undependable. Diabetes self-care activities are behaviors undertaken by people with or at risk of diabetes in order to successfully manage the disease on their own[26]. All these seven behaviors have been found to be positively correlated with good glycemic control, reduction of complications and improvement in quality of life[27�]. In addition, it was observed that self-care encompasses not only performing these activities but also the interrelationships between them[32]. Diabetes self-care requires the patient to make many dietary and lifestyle modifications supplemented with the supportive role of healthcare staff for maintaining a higher level of self-confidence leading to a successful behavior change[33].

Diabetes self management education

Though genetics play an important role in the development of diabetes, monozygotic twin studies have certainly shown the importance of environmental influences[34]. Individuals with diabetes have been shown to make a dramatic impact on the progression and development of their disease by participating in their own care[13]. This participation can succeed only if those with diabetes and their health care providers are informed about taking effective care for the disease. It is expected that those with the greatest knowledge will have a better understanding of the disease and have a better impact on the progression of the disease and complications.

The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists emphasizes the importance of patients becoming active and knowledgeable participants in their care[35]. Likewise, WHO has also recognized the importance of patients learning to manage their diabetes[36]. The American Diabetes Association had reviewed the standards of diabetes self management education and found that there was a four-fold increase in diabetic complications for those individuals with diabetes who had not received formal education concerning self-care practices[37]. A meta-analysis of self-management education for adults with type-2 diabetes revealed improvement in glycemic control at immediate follow-up. However, the observed benefit declined one to three months after the intervention ceased, suggesting that continuing education is necessary[38]. A review of diabetes self-management education revealed that education is successful in lowering glycosylated hemoglobin levels[39].

Diabetes self-care activities

Diabetes education is important but it must be transferred to action or self-care activities to fully benefit the patient. Self-care activities refer to behaviors such as following a diet plan, avoiding high fat foods, increased exercise, self-glucose monitoring, and foot care[40]. Decreasing the patient’s glycosylated hemoglobin level may be the ultimate goal of diabetes self-management but it cannot be the only objective in the care of a patient. Changes in self-care activities should also be evaluated for progress toward behavioral change[41].

Self-monitoring of glycemic control is a cornerstone of diabetes care that can ensure patient participation in achieving and maintaining specific glycemic targets. The most important objective of monitoring is the assessment of overall glycemic control and initiation of appropriate steps in a timely manner to achieve optimum control. Self-monitoring provides information about current glycemic status, allowing for assessment of therapy and guiding adjustments in diet, exercise and medication in order to achieve optimal glycemic control. Irrespective of weight loss, engaging in regular physical activity has been found to be associated with improved health outcomes among diabetics[42�]. The National Institutes of Health[46] and the American College of Sports Medicine[47] recommend that all adults, including those with diabetes, should engage in regular physical activity.

Compliance to self-care activities

Treatment adherence in diabetes is an area of interest and concern to health professionals and clinical researchers even though a great deal of prior research has been done in the area. In diabetes, patients are expected to follow a complex set of behavioral actions to care for their diabetes on a daily basis. These actions involve engaging in positive lifestyle behaviors, including following a meal plan and engaging in appropriate physical activity taking medications (insulin or an oral hypoglycemic agent) when indicated monitoring blood glucose levels responding to and self-treating diabetes- related symptoms following foot-care guidelines and seeking individually appropriate medical care for diabetes or other health-related problems[48]. The proposed regimen is further complicated by the need to integrate and sequence all of these behavioral tasks into a patient’s daily routine.

The majority of patients with diabetes can significantly reduce the chances of developing long-term complications by improving self-care activities. Despite this fact, compliance or adherence to these activities has been found to be low, especially when looking at long-term changes. In the process of delivering adequate support healthcare providers should not blame the patients even when their compliance is poor[49]. In a study conducted among people with diabetes only 30% were compliant with drug regimens and the non-compliance was higher among the lower socioeconomic groups[50]. One of the realities about type-2 diabetes is that only being compliant to self-care activities will not lead to good metabolic control. Research work across the globe has documented that metabolic control is a combination of many variables, not just patient compliance[51, 52]. In an American trial, it was found that participants were more likely to make changes when each change was implemented individually. Success, therefore, may vary depending on how the changes are implemented, simultaneously or individually[53]. Some of the researchers have even suggested that health professionals should tailor their patient self-care support based on the degree of personal responsibility the patient is willing to assume towards their diabetes self-care management[54].

Barriers to diabetes care

The role of healthcare providers in care of diabetic patients has been well recognized. Socio-demographic and cultural barriers such as poor access to drugs, high cost, patient satisfaction with their medical care, patient provider relationship, degree of symptoms, unequal distribution of health providers between urban and rural areas have restricted self-care activities in developing countries[39, 55�]. In a study to identify the barriers from the provider’s perspective in regard to diabetes care factors like affordability by the patient, belief by providers that medications cannot cure patient condition, no confidence in their own ability to alter patient behavior were identified[59]. Another study stressed on both patient factors (adherence, attitude, beliefs, knowledge about diabetes, culture and language capabilities, health literacy, financial resources, co-morbidities and social support) and clinician related factors (attitude, beliefs and knowledge about diabetes, effective communication)[60].

Recommendations for self-care activities

Because diabetes self-care activities can have a dramatic impact on lowering glycosylated hemoglobin levels, healthcare providers and educators should evaluate perceived patient barriers to self-care behaviors and make recommendations with these in mind. Unfortunately, though patients often look to healthcare providers for guidance, many healthcare providers are not discussing self-care activities with patients[61]. Health care providers should begin by taking time to evaluate their patients’ perceptions and make realistic and specific recommendations for self-care activities. Some patients may experience difficulty in understanding and following the basics of diabetes self-care activities. When adhering to self-care activities patients are sometimes expected to make what would in many cases be a medical decision and many patients are not comfortable or able to make such complex assessments. Furthermore, these requirements or modifications should be specific for each patient and should be altered depending on the patient’s response[25]. It is critical that health care providers actively involve their patients in developing self-care regimens for each individual patient. This regimen should be the best possible combination for every individual patient plus it should sound realistic to the patient so that he or she can follow it[62]. Simultaneously, health care providers should fully document the specific diabetes self-care regimen in the patients’ medical record as it will facilitate provider-patient communication and help in assessment of compliance. Also, the need of regular follow-up can never be underestimated in a chronic illness like diabetes and therefore be looked upon as an integral component of its long term management.

Implications for practice

A clinician should be able to recognize patients who are prone for non-compliance and thus give special attention to them. On a grass-root level, countries need good diabetes self-management education programs at the primary care level with emphasis on motivating good self-care behaviors especially lifestyle modification. Furthermore, these programs should not happen just once, but periodic reinforcement is necessary to achieve change in behavior and sustain the same for long-term. While organizing these education programs adequate social support systems such as support groups, should be arranged.

Implications for future research

As most of the reported studies are from developed countries so there is an immense need for extensive research in rural areas of developing nations. Concurrently, field research should be promoted in developing countries about perceptions of patients on the effectiveness of their self-care management so that resources for diabetes mellitus can be used efficiently.


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