Notícia

Malvern Hill - História

Malvern Hill - História

Por W. T. ROBBINS, COLONEL, C.S. A.

A batalha de Seven Pines, "ou Fair Oaks", havia sido travada sem resultado. O sucesso temporário dos confederados no início do combate foi mais do que contrabalançado pelos reveses que sofreram no segundo dia, e os dois exércitos ficaram observando-se passivamente na frente de Richmond. Nesta época, a cavalaria do exército de Lee era comandada pelo General JEB Stuart, e este oficial inquieto concebeu a ideia de flanquear a ala direita do exército Federal perto de Ashland, e se mover para a retaguarda, para cruzar o rio Chickahominy em um lugar chamado Sycamore Ford, no condado de New Kent, marcha até o rio James e retorna às linhas confederadas perto de Deep Bottom, no condado de Henrico. Ao levar a cabo este plano, Stuart cercaria completamente o exército do General McClellan. Na época desse movimento, o escritor era ajudante da 9ª cavalaria da Virgínia. Quando as ordens foram emitidas da sede dirigindo os vários comandos destinados a formar a expedição para preparar rações para três dias, e os oficiais de artilharia para emitir sessenta cartuchos de munição para cada homem, lembro-me das suposições e conjecturas quanto ao nosso destino. Os oficiais e os homens estavam de bom humor na expectativa de uma luta, e quando os clarins tocaram "Botas e selas", todos estavam prontos. Os homens deixados para trás no acampamento lamentavam sua sorte, e os que formavam a turma da expedição estavam exultantes com a perspectiva de alguma agitação. "Adeus, meninos; vamos ajudar o velho Jack a levar os ianques para o Potomac", ouvi um deles gritar para os que ficaram para trás.

Na tarde do dia 12 de junho saímos para o pedágio de Brooke, preparatório para a marcha. A coluna de cavalaria era a 9ª Virginia, comandada pelo Coronel W. H. F. Lee, a 1ª Virginia, liderada pelo Coronel Fitz Lee, e a Legião Jeff Davis, sob o comando do Coronel Martin. Uma seção da Artilharia Montada Stuart, comandada pelo Capitão Pelham, acompanhou a expedição. O total era de mil e duzentos homens. A primeira noite foi passada em acampamento nas proximidades de Ashland, e ordens foram emitidas impondo silêncio estrito e proibindo o uso de fogos, já que o sucesso da expedição dependeria de sigilo e celeridade. Na manhã seguinte, ao romper da madrugada, os soldados foram montados e a marcha foi iniciada sem o toque de clarim, e a coluna dirigiu-se diretamente para a Casa do Tribunal de Hanover, distante cerca de duas horas de viagem. Aqui tivemos a primeira visão do inimigo. Um grupo de batedores da 5ª Cavalaria dos EUA estava na aldeia, mas rapidamente se retirou quando nossas tropas foram consideradas confederadas. Um prisioneiro foi levado após uma perseguição violenta pelo país. Agora nos movemos rapidamente para a Hawes's Shop, onde um piquete federal foi surpreendido e capturado sem disparar um tiro. Mal os prisioneiros foram desarmados e entregues à guarda do reitor, quando o avanço confederado foi conduzido sobre o corpo principal por um esquadrão de cavalaria federal, enviado da Igreja Velha para verificar por reconhecimento se o relatório de um avanço confederado era verdadeiro ou falso. O general Stuart ordenou imediatamente que o coronel W. H.F. Lee, comandando o regimento que liderava a coluna, lançasse um esquadrão para enfrentar o inimigo. O coronel Lee ordenou que o capitão Swann, chefe do esquadrão líder de seu regimento, atacasse com o sabre. Swann partiu a trote e, virando a esquina do sapo, viu o esquadrão inimigo a cerca de duzentos metros à sua frente. A ordem para atacar foi dada e os homens avançaram em grande estilo. O início foi tão repentino que a cavalaria federal se dispersou e se espalhou em confusão. Este último teve uma largada de apenas duzentos metros, mas o grito confederado que estourou no ar emprestou-lhes asas, e apenas alguns caíram em nossas mãos. O resto escapou depois de uma perseguição de um quilômetro e meio. Agora a estrada se tornava muito estreita e os arbustos dos dois lados eram um lugar tão favorável para uma emboscada que o capitão Swann julgou prudente puxar as rédeas e soar a corneta para chamar de volta seus homens. Stuart, que vinha marchando firmemente para a frente com o corpo principal da coluna confederada, logo chegou à frente, e a guarda avançada, que eu havia comandado o tempo todo, foi instruída a avançar novamente. Eu imediatamente desmontei os homens e empurrei uma colina

na minha frente. Um pouco além da colina, encontrei uma força de cavalaria federal formada em uma coluna de quatro, pronta para atacar. Quando minha guarda avançada estava prestes a dar de cara com ele, ouvi seu oficial comandante dar a ordem de atacar. Recuei e imediatamente notifiquei o General Stuart da presença do inimigo. O capitão Latan, comandando um esquadrão da 9ª Virgínia, foi instruído a avançar e limpar a estrada. Ele subiu a colina a trote e, quando avistou o inimigo na estrada, deu a ordem de atacar e, com um grito, os homens avançaram. No topo da colina, simultaneamente com a ordem de Latané 'para atacar, uma companhia de cavalaria federal, posicionada como escaramuçadores na floresta à direita do read, foi debandada e correu de volta para a floresta para fazer sua retirada para seu amigos. O chefe da esquadra de Latané, então bem no alto da colina, estava na linha de sua retirada e foi separada do resto da esquadra, isolada pela investida dos Federados e carregada junto com eles estrada acima em direção ao inimigo . Eu estava cavalgando ao lado de Latan e bem na hora em que a empresa federal voltou correndo para a estrada. O capitão Latané caiu do cavalo, morto a tiros. A corrida dos Federados separou a mim e a seis dos principais arquivos do esquadrão de nossos amigos, e fomos carregados pelos Federais em vôo. Embora a cavalaria federal tanto na frente quanto na retaguarda estivesse em retirada total, nossa situação era perigosa ao extremo. Logo fomos empurrados por inimigos em nossa retaguarda para as fileiras daqueles em nossa frente, e uma série de combates corpo a corpo se seguiu. Atirar ou nos abater era o objetivo de cada Federal ao se aproximar de nós, mas fizemos o que podíamos para nos defender. Todos os meus camaradas foram baleados ou cortados, e só eu escapei ileso. Depois de ter sido carregado pelo inimigo em retirada por talvez um quarto de milha, saltei meu cavalo por cima da cerca para o campo e, assim, fugi.

Agora veio a investida da coluna confederada limpando a estrada e capturando muitos prisioneiros. Nesse ponto, meu regimento foi substituído pelo 1º da Virgínia e o coronel Lee continuou a perseguição. Os Federados não tentaram fazer uma resistência até chegarem à Velha Igreja. Aqui, seus oficiais pararam e fizeram uma tentativa de se reunir para defender seu acampamento. Fitz Lee logo os varreu e queimou seu acampamento. Eles não fizeram nenhuma outra tentativa de se levantar e não ouvimos mais falar deles como um corpo organizado, mas muitos prisioneiros foram levados à medida que passávamos. Nós os havíamos surpreendido, examinado em detalhes e muito maior que eles em todos os pontos. As forças federais, como soubemos depois, eram comandadas pelo general Philip St. George Cooke, sogro do general Stuart, a quem este enviou uma mensagem educada. As baixas nessa escaramuça foram leves - um homem morto de cada lado e cerca de quinze ou vinte feridos do lado confederado, principalmente cortes de sabre.

Paramos por um breve momento na Igreja Velha, e as pessoas da vizinhança, sabendo de nossa chegada, vieram se aglomerar para nos cumprimentar e nos desejar boa sorte. Eles não vieram de mãos vazias, mas trouxeram tudo o que puderam arrebatar no calor do momento, corretamente no calor do momento, supondo corretamente que qualquer coisa para acalmar a fome ou a sede seria aceitável para nós. Algumas das senhoras trouxeram buquês e os apresentaram aos oficiais enquanto eles marchavam. Um deles foi dado ao general Stuart, que, sempre galante, jurou preservá-lo e levá-lo para Richmond. Ele manteve sua promessa.

Logo estávamos bem na retaguarda do exército de McClellan, que ficava diretamente entre nós e Richmond. Parecia provável que a cavalaria federal estivesse se concentrando em nossa retaguarda para impedir nossa retirada. Seguimos em frente, passando pela loja de Smith, pelo condado de New Kent até a estação de Tunstall, na York River Railroad. Eu estava no comando da guarda avançada confederada até o momento em que o Coronel Fitz Lee veio para a frente com o 1 ° Virgínia, dispensando o 9 ° dessa função. Quando já estava bem no condado de New Ken, o general Stuart mandou me chamar de novo para o front. Apressando-me, logo cheguei ao topo da coluna, onde encontrei o general, e fui instruído por ele a tomar trinta homens como guarda avançada e a preceder a coluna em cerca de meia milha. Além disso, fui orientado a parar na estrada que ligava as fábricas à Casa Branca por tempo suficiente para cortar o fio do telégrafo naquela estrada; dali para prosseguir para a estação de Tunstall na ferrovia do rio York, local em que, os prisioneiros mal informaram o general, uma companhia de infantaria federal foi postada. Na estação de Tunstall, fui instruído a atacar a infantaria, dispersá-los ou capturá-los, cortar o telégrafo e obstruir a ferrovia. Aqui estava nosso ponto de perigo. Depois de cruzar a ferrovia, estávamos relativamente seguros. Mas, de posse da ferrovia, com seu material rodante, o inimigo poderia facilmente lançar tropas ao longo de sua linha para qualquer ponto determinado. No entanto, nenhuma informação oportuna foi fornecida ao general federal. Movemo-nos com tanta rapidez que levamos conosco as primeiras notícias de nossa chegada. Avançando a trote e recolhendo prisioneiros dispersos a cada poucas centenas de metros, a guarda avançada finalmente alcançou a estrada do telégrafo. Nesse ponto, ultrapassamos um vagão de munição, carregado de cantis e revólveres Colt. Os cavalos pararam em um buraco de lama, e o cocheiro, cortando-os para fora da carroça, escapou. O sargento responsável manteve sua posição e foi capturado. Ali estava um prêmio de fato, pois naquela época estávamos mal armados. Para economizar tempo, um homem munido de um machado foi enviado para cortar o fio do telégrafo, enquanto o resto do grupo se ocupava em saquear a carroça. Enquanto essas operações estavam em andamento, um corpo de cavalaria federal, repentinamente fazendo uma curva na estrada, apareceu. Assim que o oficial federal em comando nos viu, ele deu uma parada e, parado na estrada, parecia não saber o que fazer. Seus homens desembainharam os sabres, como se fossem atacar, mas não avançaram. A essa altura, o telégrafo foi cortado e a carroça descartada. Nossos homens foram montados às pressas e formados em colunas de quatro, com sabres desembainhados, prontos para qualquer emergência. Lá ficamos, olhando um para o outro, a cerca de duzentos metros um do outro, até que o chefe da coluna principal dos confederados apareceu, quando os federais recuaram pela estrada que levava à Casa Branca. Um homem do Partido Federal foi mandado de volta ao longo da estrada para a estação de Tunstall, agora a apenas meia milha de distância. Suponho, é claro, que esse mensageiro tenha sido enviado para avisar as tropas federais em Tunstall sobre nossa aproximação. Fui, porém, posteriormente informado de que ele galopou pelo Tunstall's, mas nunca parou, e quando alguém o chamou: "Quanto vou pagar?" Ele correu, gritando, no topo de sua voz, '' O inferno vai pagar! '

Com a estrada agora limpa, marchamos rapidamente e, chegando perto da estação, avançamos sobre ela com um grito. Pudemos ver o inimigo espalhado pelo prédio e vagando antes de atacá-lo. A maior parte se espalhou para se proteger e foi perseguida por nosso povo. Fui direto para a delegacia, onde encontrei o capitão da companhia de infantaria, com treze de seus homens, de pé em frente ao prédio, mas sem armas nas mãos. Apenas um deles parecia disposto a mostrar luta. Ele correu para a plataforma onde os mosquetes estavam empilhados e, agarrando um deles, começou a carregar. Antes que pudesse acertar o cartucho, um golpe do sabre, bem perto de sua cabeça, fez com que ele jogasse a arma no chão e, pulando em uma vala, passou por baixo da ponte sobre a ferrovia e fugiu. Não tive tempo para persegui-lo; mas, voltando-se para cuidar dos demais, encontrou o capitão, que, com a espada na mão, avançou e se rendeu e a sua companhia como prisioneiros de guerra. Então, comecei a obstruir a ferrovia. Para fazer isso com eficácia, fiz cair uma árvore que estava à beira da estrada. Caiu na ferrovia. Além disso, coloquei sobre o peitoril de um carvalho com cerca de trinta centímetros quadrados e quatorze metros de comprimento. Mal tive tempo de fazer isso antes que um trem vindo da direção de Richmond descesse com estrondo. Neste momento o General Stuart, com o corpo principal, chegou à estação. O maquinista do trem que se aproximava, provavelmente vendo os obstáculos nos trilhos e uma grande tropa de cavalaria ali, suspeitou do perigo e, sendo um sujeito corajoso, pôs toda a força e desceu correndo. O motor, batendo nos obstáculos, tirou-os do caminho e passou sem acidentes. O general Stuart bad desmontou de vários de seus homens e os colocou em uma margem alta com vista para um corte na estrada, logo abaixo da estação, por onde o trem estava prestes a passar. Eles lançaram um fogo certeiro e eficaz contra o trem que passava, carregado com tropas. Muitos deles foram mortos e feridos.

Já era a segunda noite desde que deixamos o acampamento, e as mochilas bem cheias com as quais partimos do acampamento há muito estavam vazias. A marcha tinha sido tão rápida que havia poucas oportunidades de procurar homens ou animais. Exceto um pouco de pão e carne, trazidos à coluna pelos camponeses à medida que passávamos, não tínhamos comido nada desde o amanhecer. Os homens estavam cansados ​​e famintos, e os cavalos quase exaustos pelo longo exercício rápido e severo. Assim que uma disposição adequada foi feita dos prisioneiros e dos cavalos e mulas capturados, a coluna seguiu em frente. Atravessando o condado de New Kent, até um lugar chamado New Baltimore, marchamos o mais rápido que nossas condições permitiam. Eu ainda estava no comando da guarda avançada, marchando alguma distância à frente da coluna, e tinha ordens para parar neste ponto e aguardar a subida do corpo principal. Felizmente, um ianque empreendedor havia estabelecido uma loja aqui, para receber o comércio de todas as pessoas que passassem do exército de McClellan para sua base de suprimentos na Casa Branca. Ele tinha biscoitos, queijo, frutas em lata, sardinhas e muitas outras iguarias caras ao cavaleiro; e na breve hora que passamos com ele, nós do avanço fomos feitos novos homens. Temo que pouco tenha sobrado para torcer e revigorar os que estão na retaguarda. O corpo principal chegando, "para a frente", foi a ordem - direto através de New Kent para Sycamore Ford no Chickahominy.

Uma linda lua cheia iluminou nosso caminho e lançou sombras estranhas em nosso caminho. Esperando a cada momento encontrar o inimigo, cada arbusto ao longe parecia uma sentinela e cada árvore irregular curvando-se sobre a estrada como uma vidette. Marchando a noite toda, chegamos ao vau entre o amanhecer e o nascer do sol; e aqui nossos verdadeiros problemas começaram. Para nossa tristeza, encontramos o riacho cheio de chuvas recentes quase saindo de suas margens e correndo como uma torrente. Nenhum homem ou cavalo poderia passar sem nadar, e aconteceu que a entrada do vau do nosso lado ficava abaixo do ponto em que tínhamos que sair do outro lado. Portanto, tivemos que nadar contra a corrente. Devido à lama e ao lodo, não era praticável para qualquer número de cavalos se aproximar do rio em qualquer ponto, exceto pela estrada que levava ao vau. Portanto, tentamos lá por duas longas horas. A 9ª Cavalaria fez o julgamento. Depois de repetidos esforços para nadar com os cavalos, desistimos, pois havíamos cruzado apenas setenta e cinco homens e cavalos em duas horas. Enquanto tentávamos chegar à margem oposta, Stuart apareceu e, achando a travessia neste ponto impraticável, partiu para encontrar outra mais adiante no rio. Em um ponto cerca de uma milha abaixo, conhecido como Ponte da Forja, ele conseguiu lançar através de um braço do rio uma ponte forte o suficiente para suportar a artilharia, e sobre a qual os homens, tendo sido desmontados, puderam caminhar. Aqui, a abordagem do nosso lado era mais alta rio acima do que o ponto em que sairíamos do outro lado. Assim, os cavalos foram formados em uma coluna de quatro, empurrados para a água e, nadando rio abaixo, eles facilmente elogiaram do outro lado. Depois que alguns cavalos foram cruzados dessa maneira, não encontramos dificuldade, os outros o seguiram prontamente. A coluna estava agora sobre uma ilha formada pelos dois braços do Chickahominy, e para chegar ao continente era necessário cruzar o outro braço desse rio.

Isso foi, no entanto, realizado, mas com alguma dificuldade. O vau nesta travessia era naquela época muito profundo, e o rio saía de suas margens e transbordava as planícies a uma profundidade de cerca de dois pés por pelo menos meia milha. Neste local, o limbo para um caixão ficou preso na lama e nós o deixamos.

Ao deixar o rio, o general Stuart me instruiu a assumir o comando da retaguarda e, quando todos tivessem cruzado, a queimar a ponte. De acordo com essas ordens, ordenei aos homens que juntassem pilhas de trilhos da cerca, empilhei-os na ponte e os incendiasse. Por minhas ordens, os cavalos foram conduzidos a alguma distância do rio para o mato, onde ficaram ocultos da vista. Os homens estavam descansando no chão quando a ponte caiu. Eu estava sentado sob uma árvore na margem do rio, e no momento em que o assobio das madeiras queimadas da ponte me fez saber que ela havia caído no água, um tiro de rifle ecoou do outro lado, e a bala sibilante cortou um pequeno galho acima da minha cabeça, que caiu no meu colo. O tiro provavelmente foi disparado por algum batedor que estava nos seguindo, mas que estava com medo de atirar até que a ponte fosse destruída. Com o coração agradecido por sua má pontaria, imediatamente retirei os homens e empurrei-os atrás da coluna. Quando cheguei ao vau, achei necessário nadar os cavalos uma curta distância, tendo sido aprofundada pela travessia de tais um 1 grande corpo de cavalo. Logo a coluna estava à vista, e a marcha através do condado de Charles City até o rio James foi feita com o vigor que os cavalos cansados ​​eram capazes de suportar. Os homens, embora cansados ​​e famintos, estavam em espírito de inimigo e jubilosos] com a travessia bem-sucedida do Chickahominy. Perto do pôr do sol, nos aproximamos do James, na plantação do Coronel Wilcox. Aqui nós descansamos por cerca de duas horas, tendo marchado em um campo de trevos, onde os cavalos comeram até se fartar. No crepúsculo, fogueiras foram acesas para cozinhar as rações recém-trazidas por nossas forrageadoras.

Estávamos agora a vinte e cinco milhas de Richmond, na "James River Road". Se o inimigo soubesse de nossa posição, teria sido fácil para ele lançar uma força entre nós e Richmond, e assim nos isolar. Mas o general federal não foi bem servido por seus batedores, nem sua cavalaria lhe forneceu informações precisas sobre nossos movimentos. Confiando nos erros do inimigo, Stuart resolveu marchar direto para Richmond pela estrada do rio onde agora estávamos. Para conseguir isso com maior segurança, era necessário que ele marchasse imediatamente. Conseqüentemente, recebi ordens de pegar a guarda avançada e partir. Assim que os desejos da fome foram aplacados, o sono tomou conta de nós. Embora na sela e em movimento, e ciente de que a segurança da expedição dependia de grande vigilância para o caso de o inimigo ser encontrado, era difícil manter-se acordado. Eu adormecia constantemente, e acordava assustado quando quase descia do cavalo. Essa era a condição de cada homem na coluna. Ninguém fechou os olhos durante o sono por quarenta e oito horas.

A lua cheia nos iluminou em nosso caminho enquanto passávamos ao longo do rio read, e freqüentemente as curvas da estrada nos traziam para perto e à vista do rio James, onde estava a frota inimiga. No crepúsculo cinzento da madrugada de domingo, passamos sucessivamente pelos "Portões Duplos", "Strawberry Plains" e pelo "Portão de Tighlman". No "Tighlman's" podíamos ver os mastros da frota, não muito longe. Felizmente para nós, as margens eram altas e imagino que eles não tivessem vigia no cordame e passamos despercebidos. A visão da frota inimiga havia nos excitado um pouco, quando "Quem vai lá?" soou na quietude do início da manhã. O desafiante provou ser uma videta da 10ª Cavalaria da Virgínia, comandada pelo Coronel J. Lucius Davis, que estava fazendo piquete naquela estrada. Logo eu estava apertando a mão do coronel Davis e recebendo seus parabéns. Em seguida, cruzamos o riacho pela fábrica de jarros, subindo em direção às alturas do "Novo Mercado", perto da casa de perfuração e, cerca de um quilômetro e meio depois, pedimos uma parada para um pouco de descanso e comida. A partir deste ponto, os vários regimentos foram dispensados ​​para seus respectivos acampamentos.

Perdemos um homem morto e alguns feridos, e nenhum prisioneiro. O resultado mais importante foi a confiança que os homens conquistaram em si mesmos e em seus líderes. O país ecoou em elogios aos homens que atacaram inteiramente ao redor do poderoso exército do general McClellan, trazendo prisioneiros e saques bem debaixo de seu nariz. Os jornais sulistas estavam repletos de relatos da expedição, nenhum preciso, e a maioria deles maravilhosos.


10 fatos: Malvern Hill

Fato nº 1: Malvern Hill foi a última das batalhas dos Sete Dias.

Em 26 de junho de 1862, menos de um mês depois de assumir o comando do recém-batizado Exército da Virgínia do Norte, o general Robert E. Lee colocou suas tropas na ofensiva. Durante a próxima semana, os confederados atacantes expulsaram seus colegas vestidos de azul de posições fortes fora de Richmond, desvendando o esquema do general George B. McClellan para capturar a capital confederada. Lutas sangrentas em lugares como Beaver Dam Creek, Gaines 'Mill, Savage's Station e, em 30 de junho, Glendale alteraram o ritmo e o teor da guerra na Virgínia.

Na manhã de 1º de julho de 1862, o exército de Lee mais uma vez ameaçou o Exército do Potomac em retirada. Os Yankees, no entanto, mantinham uma forte posição defensiva em uma eminência suavemente inclinada a apenas três quilômetros ao norte do rio, chamada Malvern Hill, convidando Lee para atacar. Os confederados lançaram uma série de ataques descoordenados que se precipitaram contra a bem posicionada artilharia federal. Quando a escuridão caiu, os homens de Lee não conseguiram desalojar os Yankees, que se retiraram naquela noite. Lee não perseguiu o fim das batalhas dos Sete Dias.

Fato # 2: A Batalha de Malvern Hill foi a primeira vez durante os Sete Dias que todo o Exército do Potomac se uniu no mesmo campo.

Os ataques inesperados e violentos de Lee na última semana de junho de 1862 pegaram o general George B. McClellan completamente desprevenido. Quase imediatamente, "Little Mac" determinou que não poderia mais tomar Richmond, e colocou seu exército em plena retirada para o James. Ao longo do caminho, elementos do Exército do Potomac tomaram medidas corajosas, tentando retardar o avanço de Lee - mas McClellan nunca desdobrou o grosso de seu exército para conter a ofensiva rebelde.

Em 1o de julho de 1862, todos os cinco corpos federais estavam no mesmo lugar ao mesmo tempo pela primeira vez naquela semana. A natureza aberta da própria Malvern Hill permitiu aos Yankees desdobrar todo o seu imenso exército de uma forma que não acontecia desde o início dos sete dias. No entanto, elementos de três corpos foram destacados para proteger o flanco direito dos Federados e, conseqüentemente, não viram ação. Mesmo com todas as suas tropas em um só lugar, McClellan não utilizou todo o seu exército.

Fato nº 3: o General McClellan não comandou seu exército durante a batalha.

Assim que McClellan decidiu se retirar, o comandante federal aparentemente abdicou de toda a responsabilidade de administrar seu exército enquanto eles lutavam para lidar com o avanço implacável de Lee. Ele passou a maior parte do dia 30 de junho a bordo da canhoneira Galena enquanto o Exército do Potomac evitava o desastre em Glendale.

Enquanto McClellan estava em campo durante a maior parte da Batalha de Malvern Hill, seu papel não era muito mais ativo do que antes. Nas primeiras horas de 1º de julho, McClellan se reuniu com seu subordinado favorito, o general Fitz John Porter para discutir a disposição de suas tropas, antes de se retirar novamente para Galena - presumivelmente para preparar a base de suprimentos do exército em Harrison's Landing. O general comandante voltou ao campo mais tarde, mas ficou satisfeito em deixar Porter e seus outros comandantes de corpo gerirem a batalha por conta própria. Ao contrário da batalha do dia anterior, no entanto, os subordinados de McClellan tinham uma visão clara do plano de batalha e, com Porter servindo como comandante do exército de fato, o Jovem Napoleão poderia ter certeza de que o plano seria executado.

Fato # 4: mapas defeituosos atrasaram significativamente a chegada dos confederados em Malvern Hill.

Para atacar os federais em Malvern Hill, Lee precisava reunir os elementos díspares de seu exército. Lee disparou ordens a seus comandantes, orientando-os a se aproximarem de Malvern Hill por dois eixos principais de avanço - Carter’s Mill Road e Willis Church Road. Infelizmente para os confederados, o mapa que seu general comandante usou ao planejar esta manobra relativamente simples rotulou incorretamente a Estrada da Igreja Willis, a "Estrada Quaker". Este, ao que parece, era um nome coloquial para uma série de estradas que, presumivelmente, levam a uma casa de reuniões Quaker próxima. Assim, os guias locais que pastoreavam as tropas de Lee os levaram pela estrada errada e para longe do campo de batalha. A confusão acabou sendo resolvida, mas causou um atraso de horas nos confederados.

Fato # 5: O desempenho "ridículo" da artilharia confederada permitiu que a artilharia da União dominasse a batalha.

Aproveitando o terreno elevado ao norte de Malvern Hill, Robert E. Lee ordenou a colocação de duas "grandes baterias" - matrizes maciças de sua artilharia - em apoio às alas esquerda e direita de seu exército. Lee acreditava que o fogo desses canhões concentrados convergiria para o centro da União e enfraqueceria a capacidade dos Yankees de resistir à força do ataque de infantaria que se seguiria.

A artilharia confederada desarmada quase não desempenhou nenhum papel na Batalha de Malvern Hill. & # 13 Rob Shenk

Infelizmente para os confederados, problemas logísticos impediram que todos, exceto uma fração da artilharia de Lee, chegasse ao campo, e aqueles que o fizeram foram colocados em ação aos poucos. O comandante de divisão amargurado, general Daniel H. Hill, chegou ao ponto de chamar o desempenho das baterias confederadas de "mais farsa". A artilharia da União - até 40 canhões concentrados no centro da posição federal - fez um rápido trabalho de supressão de suas contrapartes rebeldes. Com os canhões confederados não mais sendo um fator importante, os artilheiros ianques dirigiram sua atenção para as linhas de infantaria vestida de cinza avançando nas encostas da Colina Malvern, dominando assim a batalha.

Fato # 6: A natureza do terreno forçou as duas alas do exército de Lee a travar duas batalhas separadas.

O planalto elevado conhecido como Malvern Hill consistia em grandes campos agrícolas abertos que iam desde as encostas íngremes de Malvern Cliffs, no oeste, até a Western Run, no leste. A Willis Church Road, que segue aproximadamente de norte a sul, dividia ao meio a posição da Union no topo da colina. A oeste desta estrada, o terreno é uma subida suave da porção norte do campo até o topo da Colina Malvern, perto da Casa da Tripulação. Os confederados nesta parte do campo sob o comando de Benjamin Huger e John Magruder fizeram seu avanço enquanto eram constantemente expostos à artilharia federal e ao fogo de armas pequenas que devastou suas fileiras.

A porção oriental do campo, a frente de "Stonewall" Jackson, é interrompida por projeções desajeitadas de bosques e vales íngremes. Essas características permitiram que os homens de Jackson avançassem em direção à linha da União, fora da vista dos artilheiros federais no topo da colina, mas também estavam completamente isolados de seus camaradas a oeste da estrada. Incapazes de ver - quanto mais apoiar - um ao outro, as duas alas do exército de Lee foram deixadas para lutar separadamente.

Avançando nesta vala, os confederados de "Stonewall" Jackson foram escondidos da artilharia da União posicionada em frente à Casa Oeste, vista aqui. & # 13 Douglas Ullman, Jr.

Fato nº 7: Apesar do papel dominante da artilharia da União, a infantaria confederada infligiu baixas significativas aos federais.

A artilharia da União bem posicionada do coronel Henry J. Hunt fez grande destruição sobre a infantaria confederada, mas as tropas de Lee continuaram seu avanço, até mesmo ficando em alcance efetivo para seus mosquetes rifled e de cano liso para colocar em perigo os artilheiros da União. Como resultado, a infantaria ianque próxima - como a brigada do Quinto Corpo de exército de Charles Griffin ou a Brigada irlandesa - foi apressada para afastar os rebeldes e proteger seu artilheiro do fogo de armas pequenas.

Isso era especialmente verdadeiro na frente de Stonewall Jackson, onde a topografia permitia que os confederados avançassem fora da vista da artilharia da União. A divisão do general Darius Couch de soldados de infantaria vestidos de azul - incluindo uma brigada de nova-iorquinos sob o comando do general Daniel Sickles - desceu a encosta para impedir o avanço.

Isso desafia a visão simplista de Malvern Hill como meramente uma batalha entre a infantaria confederada e a artilharia da União. No entanto, como o historiador Bobby Krick aponta, dado o papel insignificante desempenhado pela artilharia confederada durante a batalha, é mais do que provável que uma boa parte das mais de 3.000 baixas da União em Malvern Hill foram o resultado dessas lutas de infantaria.

Fato # 8: A tão proclamada Brigada Irlandesa ganhou sua reputação em Malvern Hill.

Desde sua formação, a Brigada Irlandesa do Exército da União recebera grande atenção da imprensa do Norte, em grande parte autopromoção por parte de seu comandante, o general Thomas Francis Meagher. No entanto, com exceção de um punhado de soldados que haviam participado da Primeira Corrida de Touros, a maioria desses soldados irlandeses ainda não tinha visto uma ação significativa. Em 1º de julho de 1862, isso começou a mudar.

Conforme os atacantes confederados se aproximavam cada vez mais dos artilheiros federais em Malvern Hill, a infantaria da União foi enviada para trazê-los de volta. Entre as unidades convocadas para este dever estava a Brigada Irlandesa, que foi lançada à batalha no final do dia para evitar os últimos ataques dos confederados em Malvern Hill. Daquele momento em diante, a Brigada Irlandesa começou a respaldar sua campanha publicitária de guerra com apresentações sólidas no campo de batalha.

Fato # 9: Embora vitoriosos, os Federados se retiraram após a batalha, efetivamente encerrando a campanha de McClellan para tomar Richmond através da Península.

A vitória da União em Malvern Hill, enquanto um impulsionador do moral do Exército do Potomac, não fez nada para alterar as circunstâncias enfrentadas pelos homens nas fileiras do Exército Federal. Eles estavam de costas para o rio James, suas linhas de abastecimento vulneráveis, e eles estavam exaustos de uma semana de marchas e combates pesados. Portanto, apesar de um excelente desempenho, na manhã seguinte os Yankees continuaram sua retirada para Harrison's Landing, a 19 quilômetros de distância. A campanha para tomar Richmond através da península estava encerrada.

Na verdade, George McClellan decidiu abandonar esse movimento contra Richmond já na noite de 26 de junho. McClellan, que chamou o movimento retrógrado de seu exército de uma "mudança de base", elogiou seu exército por seus " sobrevivência contra a adversidade. " Stopping the Confederates at Malvern Hill merely allowed the Yankees the chance to complete their retreat to the safety of their supply base, and deny Lee the chance to destroy the Federals once and for all.

Fact #10: The Civil War Trust has saved hundreds of acres at Malvern Hill.

Over the years, the Civil War Trust and its partners have preserved hundreds of acres of the Malvern Hill battlefield. Add these to the 130 acres previously owned by the National Park Service, and visitors can now walk the entire length of the Confederate attack and appreciate just how greatly the ground itself impacted this important 1862 battle.


Malvern Hill Plantation

Malvern Hill stands on the north bank of the James River in Henrico County, Virginia, USA, about eighteen miles southeast of Richmond. On 1 July 1862, it was the scene of the Battle of Malvern Hill, one of the Seven Days Battles of the American Civil War.

The name referred primarily to the house built by Thomas Cocke in the 17th century, which remained in his family for many years. It was named after the Malvern Hills in England. The historic home was gutted by a fire in 1905 and all that now remains are end gables, including a fireplace. Nevertheless, the ruins are architecturally significant as the remains of one of few known cruciform design houses in Virginia. "The one surviving chimney is perhaps the finest example of seventeenth century diaper brickwork in the state."

The home site figured in three wars. Lafayette camped there twice in 1781 during the American Revolutionary War. Virginia militia also camped there in the War of 1812. However, it is best known as the site of bloody American Civil War Battle of Malvern Hill in 1862.


Malvern Hill

Nearby stood the Malvern Hill manor house built for Thomas Cocke in the 17th century. The Marquis de Lafayette camped here in July-August 1781, and elements of the Virginia militia encamped nearby during the War of 1812. During the Civil War, 1 July 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee attacked Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Union Army of the Potomac here as it retreated to the James River from the gates of Richmond. Although he dealt Lee a bloody defeat, McClellan continued his withdrawal to Harrison's Landing. The Malvern Hill house survived the battle as a Federal headquarters but burned in 1905.

Erected 1999 by Department of Historic Resources. (Número do marcador V-4.)

Topics and series. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Colonial Era &bull War of 1812 &bull War, US Civil &bull War, US Revolutionary. In addition, it is included in the Battlefield Trails - Civil War series list. A significant historical date for this entry is July 1, 1862.

Localização. 37° 23.706′ N, 77° 15.007′ W. Marker is near Granville, Virginia, in Henrico County. Marker is at the intersection of New Market Road (Virginia Route 5) and Malvern Hill Lane, on the right when traveling west on New Market Road. Toque para ver o mapa. Marker is in this post office area: Henrico VA 23231, United States of America. Toque para obter instruções.

Outros marcadores próximos. At least 8 other markers are within 2 miles

of this marker, measured as the crow flies. The Fergusons of Malvern Hill (within shouting distance of this marker) Aggy's Freedom Suit (within shouting distance of this marker) Seven Days Battles (approx. 1.2 miles away) Advantages of Terrain (approx. 1.2 miles away) A Place of Refuge (approx. 1.2 miles away) Battlefield Landscape (approx. 1.2 miles away) The Crew House (approx. 1.2 miles away) Battlefield of Malvern Hill (approx. 1.2 miles away).

Related markers. Click here for a list of markers that are related to this marker. Battle of Malvern Hill by Markers

Veja também . . .
1. Malvern Hill. National Register documentation for Malvern Hill. The entry includes a topographical map indicating the location of the ruins. (Submitted on July 27, 2008, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.)

2. 23rd PA at Malvern Hill - July 1st 1862. This page has pictures of the Malvern Hill House including one photograph of the ruins as they are today. (Submitted on June 2, 2014, by David Graff of Halifax, Nova Scotia.)

Créditos. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016. It was originally submitted on July 27, 2008, by Kathy Walker of Stafford, Virginia. This page has been viewed 1,534 times since then and 30 times this year. Fotos: 1. submitted on July 27, 2008, by Kathy Walker of Stafford, Virginia. 2. submitted on July 9, 2010, by Forest McDermott of Masontown, Pennsylvania. &bull Craig Swain was the editor who published this page.

Editor&rsquos want-list for this marker. Photos of the Malvern Hill ruins. &bull Can you help?


Malvern Hill - History

Sites near Hereford & Worcester

The 2000 year old ramparts are still clearly visible today, making the hill look a little like a giant layered wedding cake.

360 degree panoramic view from the top of British camp

Originally it was thought to have been a purely defensive feature which people retreated to in time of trouble.

Now excavations at the nearby fort on Midsummer Hill suggest that they were occupied permanently.

360 degree panoramic view from Millennium Hill

If this is true it was probably home to 4,000 people, and was occupied for between four and five hundred years.

What did the Romans ever do for us?

The coming of the Romans meant the end of hill forts, but the start of one of the great Malvern legends.

Popular folklore has it that the Ancient British chieftain Caractacus made his last stand at British Camp.

The legend says that he was captured after a heroic fight and transported to Rome, where he so impressed the Emperor Claudius that he was given a villa and a pension.

Unfortunately, like many legends, it's unlikely to be true.

Caractacus was captured by the Romans, but if the account of his final battle by the Roman historian Tacitus is accurate then it's unlikely to have taken place at British camp.

Caracticus played his final card and chose a site for a battle so that the approaches, the escape routes, everything, was awkward for us and to his sides advantage. On one side there were steep hills. Where ever approaches were gentle he piled boulders into a sort of rampart. In front of him flowed a river of doubtful fordability and squadrons of armed men were in position on the defences.
Tacitus: Histories

Even given the River Severn's habit of flooding it takes a huge stretch of the imagination to describe it as being in front of British camp.

Experts now generally agree that Caractucus's last stand took place near Church Stretton.

As any good journalist knows the facts never get in the way of a good story, and the legend still continues to this day.

Elgar was sufficiently taken with it to compose his cantata Caractacus in 1898.

Even if they didn't make a last stand their the Ancients Britains are probably responsible for the name Malvern, or moel-bryn meaning "the bare hill".

The top most layer of British camp is however not Iron Age, but a Norman motte fortification.

On the ridge of the hills running north to south is the Shire Ditch, which dates to the 13th century.

If you make the walk along the ridge you will also come to Clutter's Cave, also known as Giant's Cave or Waum's Cave, after the spring that once lay beneath it.


E The Irish Brigade

In the spring of 1861, Colonel Michael Corcoran, an Irishman commanding the 69th New York State Militia, was in the process of being court-martialed by the state for refusing to parade his regiment before the visiting Prince of Wales in New York City. While he waited, Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter and the Civil War began. Needing every available man, the state dropped the charges and Corcoran led his men to Virginia and the Battle of First Bull Run.

Although the battle was a Union defeat, the 69th N.Y.S.M. served gallantly and provided a strong rear guard during the retreat to Washington.

Unfortunately, among the casualties was Colonel Corcoran, who was captured and spent about a year in a Confederate prison before being paroled.

After Bull Run and President Lincoln’s call for 300,000 men to quell the rebellion Captain Thomas Francis Meagher of the 69th N.Y.S.M.’s Company K, (who was an agitator for Irish independence and had been transported to Tasmania by the English for his part in the Irish Rebellion of 1848 but had escaped and made his way to New York) decided to create a purely ethnic Irish brigade with the newly formed 69th New York State Volunteers, commanded by Colonel Robert Nugent, as its core regiment.

As the 69th Volunteers were the first regiment to reach it’s quota of men, with many joining from the old 69th Militia, it was designated the First Regiment of the Irish Brigade and was joined in November 1861 by the 63rd and the 88th New York Regiments at Camp California near Alexandria, Virginia.

These regiments were made up mainly of the poor and working class immigrant Irishmen, some fresh “off the boat”, who were trying to create a new life for themselves in their adopted country.

They enlisted for many reasons. Some joined out of patriotic fervor to help preserve the Union, for Old Ireland and New America, some joined to gain military knowledge to take back to Ireland to fight the English and gain Irish independence, some just enlisted for the chance of regular pay and food in hard economic times, or later in the war, for the large bounties that were offered and could reach as much as $700, which was about ten years wages for a laborer back in Ireland, and some just joined for the craic, for the fun of it and a chance for some adventure and excitement.

But not many joined up to free the slaves as the freed blacks who would come north would be in direct competition with the Catholic Irish who were at the bottom of the social / economic ladder in a predominantly Protestant and, some would say, anti-immigrant America.

As 1861 came to an end and the newly formed regiments went into winter camp, the Union army was reorganized and the Irish Brigade became the 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 2nd Corps of the Army of the Potomac.

Over the course of the war the 69th and the Irish Brigade fought with distinction in every campaign of the Army of the Potomac, all too often with devastating consequences.

During the spring of 1862 they were heavily involved in the Peninsular Campaign and the Seven Days Battles, where they gained a reputation as fierce fighters at Fair Oaks Station and Malvern Hill and helped provided a solid rear guard for the whole army during the retreats to the James River.

It has been said that it was Confederate General Robert E. Lee, after enquiring about the green flag he saw in the Union ranks at Malvern Hill, and being told it belonged to the 69th New York, allegedly stated, “Ah yes..that Fighting 69th.” The nickname stuck and the Regiment has carried it proudly ever since.

In June 1862 the Brigade was strengthened when it was joined by a new regiment, the 29th Massachusetts.

On September 17th 1862, at the Battle of Antietam, still mainly armed with .69 smooth bore muskets, firing “buck and ball”, and rallying to General Meagher’s cry of ”Raise the colors, boys, and follow me!” the Brigade assaulted the Sunken Road taking heavy losses, with the 69th loosing about 60% of their numbers.

Gen. Meagher was injured when his horse was shot from beneath him, but the Brigade held its ground on the field until relieved by General Caldwell’s brigade.

After Antietam the Brigade camped near Harpers Ferry where it was refitted and was joined in October by it’s fifth regiment, the 116th Pennsylvania. While not wholly Irish by any means, many were of Dutch origin, the men of the 116th were a welcome addition to the ranks of the Brigade.

Just before the Battle of Fredericksburg the 29th Massachusetts was replaced by the 28th Massachusetts, and it was the 28th who, on December 13th 1862, carried the only green regimental flag as the Irish Brigade charged up the hill and into the mouths of the Confederate muskets and artillery on Marye’s Heights.

The battle was a disaster for the Union and particularly for the Irish Brigade, who suffered terrible casualties. After the battle only about 260 out of 1200 men of the Brigade were still able to fight.


Malvern, Worcestershire

It is likely that the Ancient Britains were responsible for naming Malvern, or moel-bryn meaning “the bare hill”.

The Malvern Hills that dominate the surrounding Worcestershire and Herefordshire landscape bear testament to their presence in the area with British Camp, an immense Iron Age hill fort whose 2000 year old ramparts remain clearly visible today.

Originally thought to have been a purely defensive feature for people to retreat within in times of trouble, recent discoveries have suggested that the fort was in fact permanently occupied over a period of five hundred years, at any one time the home to a 4,000 strong tribe.

Hill forts continued to dominate the English landscape right up until the arrival of the Romans when, one by one, they fell to the might and persistence of Roman civil engineering siege tactics.

Popular local folklore recalls how the Ancient British chieftain Caractacus made his last stand at British Camp. The legend tells that Caractacus was captured after a heroic fight and transported to Rome, where he so impressed the Emperor Claudius that he was released, given a villa and a pension.

However the legend is unlikely to involve British Camp. Yes, it is recorded that Caractacus was captured by the Romans, taken to Rome and eventually released, but if the account of his final battle by the Roman historian Tacitus is accurate, then it is unlikely to have taken place at British Camp. Tacitus describes “a river of doubtful fordability” in his events of the battle, the likes of which can only be found several miles away from Malvern. The top ramparts of British Camp are not in fact Iron Age, but a Norman motte fortification.

The Normans arrived in Malvern shortly after the Battle of Hastings, and work started on a monastery in what was then known as Malvern Chase in 1085, a chase being an area of unenclosed land where wild animals are kept for hunting purposes. Originally built for thirty monks on land belonging to Westminster Abbey, the Great Malvern Priory evolved over the next few hundred years.

The fortunes of the priory changed however when in the 1530s King Henry VIII, short of cash, decided to plunder the funds of the Popes Catholic monasteries. Any opposition was quickly brushed aside by Thomas Cromwell, and in 1539 the Malvern monks surrendered their lands and buildings. These were subsequently sold on to various people with the exception of the church, which remained the property of The Crown.

Lack of funds over the next couple of centuries resulted in hardly any repairs or maintenance being carried out to the priory. This shortage of funding meant that there was not even enough money to remove and replace the ‘Popish’ medieval glass, which still remains.

In the 1600s the English Civil War raged across the country including nearby Worcester: Malvern however, surrounded by the dense forest of Malvern Chase, emerged relatively unscathed.

Local boy and world renowned composer Sir Edward Elgar, who lived in Malvern for some years, recorded local history and legend for posterity when he released his Cantata Caractacus in 1898.

The town of Malvern prospered significantly during the Victorian era, a key date being 1842, when Doctors James Wilson and Gully set up their water cure establishments in Belle Vue at the centre of town enabling visitors to ‘take the waters’. Both Charles Dickens and Charles Darwin arrived in town to sample the water for themselves.

The reputation of the purity of Malvern water was firmly established when in 1851 J Schweppe & Co. presented it to the world at the Great Exhibition held in Hyde Park, London. More recently, water from the Holywell Spring is now bottled and marketed as Holywell Malvern Spring Water, and is available for sale at cafes, restaurants and shops in the town alternatively you can sample it free of charge at any of the 70 or so natural springs in the area.

The names and locations of the natural Malvern springs can be found at www.malverntrail.co.uk/malvernhills.htm

Museums
View our interactive map of Museums in Britain for details of local galleries and museums.

Castles in England
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Battlefield Sites
Browse our interactive map of the Battlefield Sites in Britain for details of nearby sites.

Chegando aqui
Malvern is easily accessible by both road and rail, please try our UK Travel Guide for further information.


The Mystery of Private Edwin Jemison

This vulnerable young private’s face has long been an icon of the Civil War. For years he was misidentified and the manner of his death remained unknown. The recent discovery of an eccentric veteran’s horrific tale of his demise seemed to bring closure. But was it a lie?

The haunting photograph of Private Edwin F. Jemison, Company C, 2nd Louisiana Volunteers, killed at Malvern Hill,has appeared in countless books and articles.His obvious youthful innocence has conjured up strong emotions in many who had seen the photo.To many, his face is a tragic icon of the Civil War,and a symbol of the lost generations and lives cut short by all wars.But despite the image’s popular use,a mystery surrounds the Confederate soldier.

Details of his life can be found in numerous records—he was born in 1844, one of five children born to Robert and Sarah Jemison the family lived near Monroe,La.and he enlisted in the 2nd Louisiana when he was 16 years old. It is how he died that eludes us.And we want to know—we want to learn his fate.That he died during the Peninsula campaign as his regiment attacked Union positions in the July 1, 1862,Battle of Malvern Hill is an established fact. A misconception perpetrated in 1906, however, has led many scholars astray as to the exact cause of his death.

Two almost identical accounts claim Private Jemison’s life was snuffed out by a cannonball. One report was relayed by his niece,Mamie Jemison Chestney,in a family history she compiled for her own nieces and nephews.In it,Chestney states: “While his [Private Jemison’s] parents knew where he died, it was many years before they knew the details. One day my father introduced himself to a man as they sat before a hotel.The man repeated the name and said it was the first time he had heard that name since 1862 that a young soldier of that name had been fighting beside him at the Battle of Malvern Hill and been decapitated by a cannon ball. Questions proved it was Uncle Edwin.”

The other account appeared first in the Atlanta Constitution on March 26, 1906, headlined as “Soldier’s Blood Spouted on Him, Captain Moseley Meets Brother of Wartime Comrade,” and then again on April 19,1906, in the Tribuna Nacional.The account was retitled “His Head Blown Off, a Former Wearer of the Gray Tells of the Tragic Death of a Comrade During a Desperate Charge on the Union Lines at Malvern Hill.” The article described an old soldier, identified as Captain Warren Moseley,telling the tale of a grisly death at Malvern Hill to a large group of fascinated listeners.While Moseley is speaking, a man emerges from the crowd and says that the soldier whose death is being so graphically detailed was his brother, Edwin F. Jemison.To get at the truth, both the Chestney and the newspaper accounts need to be closely examined.

Mamie Jemison Chestney was a schoolteacher and published author and an avid genealogist who traced and recorded her family history.As both an author and a teacher, she would have understood the importance of fact-finding and the accuracy of sources,and the many letters she wrote to her cousin regarding her family history show attention to detail. Keeping this in mind,we can assume that the source for her story about her Uncle Edwin was reliable.The source,her father R.W.Jemison Jr.,was the younger brother of Private Jemison.In looking at the story relayed to Chestney by her father, and comparing it to the story in the newspaper, it can easily be deduced that the man R.W. Jemison spoke to was Captain Warren Moseley.

Captain Moseley was a longtime resident and police officer of Macon,Ga.,the same town in which the Jemisons lived. Despite his claim that he had not heard “that name since 1862,” it is virtually impossible that a police officer like Moseley had not heard the name Jemison in Macon.To begin with,Private Jemison’s father and his brother Samuel were both prominent attorneys,as well as the city attorneys for Macon.As such,their names appeared countless times in newspapers in both Macon and Atlanta.In 1879 city attorney R.W. Jemison Sr. committed suicide in downtown Macon. The incident was much talked about in the newspapers,and as a police officer,Captain Moseley almost certainly would have known about it.

After R.W.Jemison Sr.’s death,Samuel Jemison took over his father’s position. When Samuel died in 1886,his death and funeral were also well-documented in the local newspaper. Captain Moseley must have heard the name “Jemison” since 1862, on some occasion or another.

R.W.Jemison Jr.stood to gain nothing from the story he related to his daughter about his brother’s death,so we can assume he was telling the truth.The question is whether Captain Moseley was telling the truth when he said he witnessed the death of Private Jemison at Malvern Hill.

Taking a look at the version of the story that appeared in the 1906 newspapers is the first step in uncovering who Captain Moseley was and what his motivation might have been. In part, the story says that during the attack at Malvern Hill, Moseley claimed he was “wondering who it was who stood foremost in a charge of a Louisiana brigade with fixed bayonet,advancing up the hill and across a clover patch,when a shell from a gunboat in the bay took off his head and spattered his brains and blood all about the uniform of Captain Moseley, himself advancing through the thick rain of shot with his Georgia brigade.”

Within the article, Moseley is quoted as saying:“I turned suddenly at the terrible concussion caused by the proximity of the shell’s trail of death and saw that man standing headless, with bayonet drawn as in the charge, his blood spurting high in the air from the jugular vein,and it seemed to me an hour before he reeled and fell, still holding on to his gun.To me that was one of the most horrible sights of the period. I went back and looked at him after the fight to assure myself that it was not a dream of frenzy in those exciting moments. He was there as I had seen him fall, and more than 40 years have passed with that picture forever impressed on my memory.”

Captain Moseley then states that he had “long tried to learn who the private was.”A listener in the crowd of gentlemen on the street corner asked where the Louisiana brigade had entered the fight, and when Captain Moseley went over this part of the story again, a little chapter adding another event to the stories of the ’60s was closed.“That was my brother,” claimed the man.

The listener in the crowd is identified as R.W.Jemison.The article states that “it was his brother’s blood that had been mingled with Captain Moseley’s on the uniform of the latter at Malvern Hill when the one was killed and the other was badly wounded in the rain of shells.”The article concludes with the awkward sentence,“Both Captain Moseley and Mr. Jemison have been citizens of Macon many years, but they had not known all of this one of the many unwritten tragedies of the civil war.”

Captain Moseley drew such a vivid picture of a soldier’s battlefield death that not only was he able to convince a crowd of listeners of what he saw but he also managed to persuade R.W. Jemison that the soldier in question was his own brother.He was a gifted storyteller,but was his story of Malvern Hill the truth,or just a means of getting attention?

On August 5,1861,Moseley enlisted in Company H,4th Georgia Infantry.Company H was initially known as the “Baldwin Blues,” a tribute to the infantrymen’s home of Baldwin County.Moseley stated under oath in his pension application, dated September 12,1910,that he was captured near Winchester,Va., in 1862 and held for three months at the prison at Point Lookout,Md.,at which time he was exchanged.

By 1863, Moseley was back in the Army as a member of Company A of the 4th Georgia Reserve Cavalry, a militia unit. He was promoted to captain of Company A,giving him the rank he used with such good effect during the postwar years.He surrendered at Milledgeville,Ga., in April 1865.

The information Moseley gave in his pension application is supported by the information in The Roster of the Confederate Soldiers of Georgia,which states that Moseley was “wounded and captured at Strasburg,VA June 1,1862.Exchanged at Point Lookout, MD, about September 1862. Wounded at Chancellorsville,VA. May 3, 1863.Elected Captain Co.A,4th Regt.Ga. Reserve Cavalry April 1863. Surrendered at Milledgeville, Ga.” Of greatest interest to this story are the dates the Roster gives for Moseley’s capture and release. The Battle of Malvern Hill was on July 1,1862. Moseley had been captured exactly one month before that fight and was not exchanged until two months after. Moseley could not have been at Malvern Hill, for he was enduring the mosquitoes at Point Lookout at that time.

Even if Moseley had been at Malvern Hill, he would not have been positioned close to the unfortunate Private Jemison. Moseley’s 4th Georgia was at least a quarter of a mile from Private Jemison’s 2nd Louisiana.He simply could not have been next to Jemison, getting covered with Jemison’s blood.Moseley,it seems,embellished his wartime record.

But why would he do so? What kind of man was Captain Moseley? It is clear from newspaper accounts of his life as a Confederate veteran that he was a man who reveled in this role,attending numerous reunions and using his veteran status to earn some money. Moseley, in essence, spent a good deal of his postwar life as a “professional veteran.”

For example, in June 1892 it was reported in the Atlanta Constitution that Moseley would be attending the 4 th Georgia annual barbecue and picnic in Jeffersonville.He would be one of the event’s attractions, and the paper said he would “wear the coat which shows by its numerous bullet holes the number of wounds he received during the war in the service of the south.”

In November 1905 there was another Confederate reunion in Macon, this time much larger than the one in Jeffersonville in 1892. The event had been carefully planned for many months. Moseley was given authority to organize the cavalry element of the reunion.Hoping to have 500 cavalrymen attend, he encouraged veterans and sons of Confederate veterans to participate.The newspapers promised that the parade would feature a cavalry charge, and the Atlanta Constitution noted “the fact that Captain Moseley will be in charge is assurance of a most interesting affair.This veteran was engaged in nineteen battles, and was wounded eight times. He will wear a uniform which he possessed during the war.”

When the parade was over, according to the newspaper: “Moseley and his cavalrymen formed at the foot of Cherry Street and charged up to Cotton Avenue. All the old men in this troop rode as in their younger days, and they seemed to warm up to that rugged heat of excitement always evident among the men on the eve of battle.The war whoop sounded and the men were off.At breakneck speed, they dashed down the paved street, flashing old-time sabers. The crowds fell in behind them and yelled themselves hoarse.”

At the reunions Moseley would tell tales of his life during the war. One such story was recorded in various newspapers in December 1900.The incident described by the newspapers occurred at the Augusta veterans’ reunion and revolved around a strange tale told by Moseley concerning a “Hoodoo hat.”At the “battle of Winchester,” said Moseley, a Yankee was shot through the head, the bullet passing through his hat. A soldier of Moseley’s 4th Georgia saw the fine hat,picked it up and wore it. Two hours later that man was killed, shot through the head, the bullet passing through the same hole as the bullet that had killed the Yankee. Despite two men having been killed by shots through the hat,another 4th Georgia infantryman picked it up,and he too was struck in the head by an enemy bullet.Yet another 4th Georgia soldier picked up the hat and was shot in the head the next day.The tale concluded that this hat,despite having four previous wearers shot through the head while wearing it,was still “a fine one,”but no one would pick it up again and it was left on the field.This story sounds far-fetched,but as a great piece of entertainment, it likely captivated all those Moseley told it to.

Moseley also used his status as a Confederate veteran to make some extra money. In newspapers across the country in 1904 and 1905, an advertisement appeared featuring two “famous Confederate Veterans,”along with their photographs, who “use and recommend” Duffy’s Pure Malt Whiskey. Moseley was one of those famous veterans, and he was quoted as saying:“I never felt better in my life,and I owe it all to Duffy’s Pure Malt Whiskey. I was wounded eight times during the war and after General Lee’s surrender returned home completely broken down. My wounds gave me a good deal of trouble, and I had attacks of extreme weakness, with great loss of blood. Doctors said nothing would enrich my blood and build me up so quickly and thoroughly as Duffy’s Pure Malt Whiskey. I took nothing else.Although past 65,I am in perfect physical and mental condition and devote twelve hours a day to my business.”

Moseley’s role as celebrity veteran hit a high note when he was appointed to the staff of General A.J.West, commander of the North Georgia Brigade of the United Confederate Veterans.As recorded in the Atlanta Constitution on December 16, 1906:“Captain Warren Moseley of Macon who was last week made an aide-de-camp on the staff of General A.J.West,is among the few very striking typical Confederate soldiers left to enjoy the annual reunions of the Georgia Division. He entered the war as a private in the fourth regiment Georgia volunteers, from Milledgeville, was engaged in nineteen battles and skirmishes, wounded eight times during the war,was a prisoner many times,and as often exchanged.He was given a captain’s commission by Governor Joseph E.Brown and toward the end of the war operated in north Georgia and Tennessee under Colonel J.J. Findlay,where bushwhackers were fought. Captain Moseley has since the war been a citizen of Macon and has served on the Macon police force for a long period.His devotion to the veterans’reunion and the commemoration of the courage and bravery of southern soldiers make him at once a loyal Confederate. His appointment to the position mentioned is generally appreciated in Macon. He will serve on General West’s staff with the rank of Major.”

In May 1907, there was a national reunion in Richmond,Va.,of both Union and Confederate soldiers who had participated in the 1862 fighting for the Confederate capital.The gathering was held just a year after Moseley’s meeting with R.W.Jemison Jr. Considering the fact that Moseley could not have been at the battles for Richmond, his account reads like a rather grand tall tale.

The June 1,1907,Atlanta Constitution report on the Richmond reunion quotes Moseley as saying:“At that time the ladies of this city gave several church bells in order that they might be broken up and used to make cannon for the Confederate army.There was enough metal in the bells to make three cannon.About twentyfive pounds were left, and the remainder was used in making buckles for the soldiers’ belts.These latter contained the letters ‘C.S.’The price of the belts was $100. We were then operating in the valley of Virginia.I came down here with ten prisoners.A number of beautiful young ladies met me,and told me I might have one of the belts. I wear today the same pair of trousers I had on when I was wounded in the thigh and leg.I was also wounded several other times. I have not been here in forty-four years. I went down to the battlefield of Seven Pines [May 31–June 1, 1862] yesterday, where our brigade first went into the fight.I went to King’s school house,near Frayser’s farm [June 30,1862], where I found a house from which we fought full of bullet holes. I then went down to the swamp and found twelve pounds of shot and shell. I also found a broken saber,which was evidently broken over the head of one of the enemy.”

A few months later,Moseley again appeared in the Atlanta Constitution discussing Frayser’s Farm,another battle fought near Richmond in 1862.In an August 15 article he discusses a photograph that was given to him.The photo is of the “Frazur house, made by the Yankees shortly after the famous battle of the Seven Pines, in June 1862.” It was presented to Moseley by “Ira Watson,one of the Federal soldiers who fought in the trenches before the old house at the time it was held against a large force of Yankees by Warren Moseley,Ace Butts,T.F. Mappin and York Preston, until General Doles reached the point with a sufficient force of men to drive back the enemy.These four men killed more than eighty federal soldiers and officers in the trenches from the attic of this house and lost only one companion,York Preston, who was mortally wounded by parts of the chimney falling upon him when it was knocked away by a shell.”

The reunion at Richmond would be one of Moseley’s last.He died on December 17,1912,and was buried in Rose Hill Cemetery in Macon. Ironically, despite Moseley’s devotion to the Confederacy and avid participation in veteran affairs,he lies in a grave beneath a tombstone that does not indicate his military service.

There is little doubt that Captain Moseley and R.W. Jemison Jr. met on an afternoon in Macon and talked about the Battle of Malvern Hill.And there is little doubt that Captain Moseley gave a graphic account of a young soldier’s death. But it can be easily seen that he made up his story about Malvern Hill.He had become a professional veteran,living in the glory of the past,basking in the attention and adoration he received from younger generations.

It is unlikely that the circumstances of Private Jemison’s death will ever be fully known,and this passage from his obituary will have to suffice to describe his last moments:He “sustain[ed] himself in the front rank of the soldier and gentlemen until the moment of his death. Bounding forward at the order ‘Charge!’ he was stricken down in the front rank, and without a struggle yielded up his young life.” Regardless of details, what we do know for certain is that he was a brave young man who died a soldier’s death on the battlefield,and his photographic legacy of war’s awful cost will resonate forevermore.

For further reading, see: Extraordinary Circumstances: The Seven Days Battles, by Brian K. Burton and Echoes of Thunder: A Guide to the Seven Days Battles, by Matt Spruill III and Matt Spruill IV

Originally published in the May 2007 issue of America’s Civil War. To subscribe, click here.


Willis Church Parsonage

Frustrated by his failure at Glendale, Robert E. Lee gathered his army on July 1, 1862, for a final effort to destroy the Union army. But on this day, unlike his previous efforts during the Seven Days, Lee did not have a Union flank or a strung-out marching column to attack. Before him stood the powerful Union rear guard, arrayed on the plateau of Malvern Hill, about a half mile in front of you.

The Willis Church parsonage (the ruins behind you) became an important landmark on July 1. Before the attacks, division commander D.H. Hill met with his officers near the house. Colonel W. Gaston Meares of North Carolina was killed by a shell in the yard. Confederate artillery attempted to take position in nearby fields. Lee watched from a blacksmith shop that stood across the Willis Church from you.

Erected by Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites, Inc.

Tópicos This historical marker is listed in this topic list: War, US Civil. A significant historical month for this entry is July 1814.

Localização. 37° 25.118′ N, 77° 14.827′ W. Marker is in Glendale, Virginia, in Henrico County. Marker is on Willis Church Road 0.2 miles from Carter Mills Road, on the right when traveling south. Marker is located in the Malvern Hill Battlefield Unit of the Richmond National

Battlefield Park. Toque para ver o mapa. Marker is in this post office area: Henrico VA 23231, United States of America. Toque para obter instruções.

Outros marcadores próximos. Pelo menos 8 outros marcadores estão a uma curta distância deste marcador. The Gathering Storm (here, next to this marker) Battle Commences (a few steps from this marker) Methodist Parsonage (within shouting distance of this marker) Battle of Malvern Hill Trail (within shouting distance of this marker) Malvern Hill Trail (within shouting distance of this marker) Twilight Action (within shouting distance of this marker) The Battle of Malvern Hill (about 500 feet away, measured in a direct line) Infantry Against Infantry (about 500 feet away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Glendale.

Mais sobre este marcador. The bottom left of the marker contains a picture of the Willis Church Parsonage with the caption, “The Parsonage, as it appeared in 1885, was the home of the pastor of the Willis Church. On July 1, 1862, the house stood in plain view of the Union artillery on Malvern Hill. Fire destroyed the parsonage in 1988. (Drawing from Battles and Leaders.) Next to this is a picture of the church with the caption, “The Willis Church is shown here as it appeared shortly after the war. For weeks after the battles in this area the church served as a field hospital. The current church stands on the site of the wartime structure, about a mile north of here. (Drawing from Battles and Leaders.) The right of the marker features a map of a hiking trail of the Malvern Hill Battlefield that passes the site of the marker. It has a caption of “From here a 2 mile trail leads to Malvern Hill, tracking the route of Confederate attacks during the last of the bloody Seven Days battles. The map depicts the open and wooded areas as they appeared in 1862.”

Veja também . . .
1. Malvern Hill. CWSAC Battle Summaries. (Submitted on January 1, 2009, by Bill Coughlin of Woodland Park, New Jersey.)

2. Malvern Hill Battlefield Podcast. National Park Service website. (Submitted on January 1, 2009, by Bill Coughlin of Woodland Park, New Jersey.)


War of the Rebellion: Serial 013 Page 0955 Chapter XXIII. REOCCUPATION OF MALVERN HILL.

3 were reported to me killed and 22 captured, with their horses, arms, and equipments.

First Sergt. James Cahill, Company C, Fifth U. S. Cavalry, was the first to cross the bridge with 5 men. He was quickly followed by Captain White with a squadron of the Third Pennsylvania, who pursued the enemy three-fourths of a mile on the other side. Lieutenant Byrnes and Captain Custer took the road to the left toward Malvern Hill, chasing, shooting, or capturing all the pickets that came from that direction, while Lieutenant McIntosh held the reserve a good position to act in any direction. Learning from the prisoners that the enemy were made aware of our intentions the night before, and that a camp of infantry and artillery, on my right, and the First North Carolina Cavalry, on my left, were within a short distance, I concluded to withdraw, the object of the reconnaissance having been accomplished. This was done without accident. I have no loss to report, excepting 2 horses killed.

I beg leave to commend the gallant and spirited conduct of Captain Custer and Lieutenant Byrnes, also of Lieutenant McIntosh, Fifth United States, and Captain White, of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. First Sergt. James Cahill, before mentioned, with 5 men pursued and captured 7 or 8 prisoners. All the officers and men displayed great steadiness and spirit. I am particularly indebted to Lieutenant King, my acting assistant adjutant-general, and Lieutenant Hess, Third Pennsylvania Cavalry, and Rumsey, First New York Artillery, my acting aides on the occasion, for their readiness in carrying my orders and placing the squadrons and guns in position.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. W. AVERELL,

Coronel, Comandante.

Brigadier General S. WILLIAMS,

Adjutant-General Army of the Potomac.

HEADQUARTERS FIRST CAVALRY BRIGADE, August 6, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report that the cavalry operations of 4th instant were confined to the usual picket duty. Nothing was seen of the enemy on any of the roads. Yesterday I proceeded with 200 men from the Fifth United States and 200 from the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry, accompanied by Gibson's battery, under command of Lieutenant Pendleton, out to Saint Mary's Church, first Long Bridge road. From here I sent a squadron which had been on picket at this point all night to vedette the road that leads past Nance's Mill, at the cross-roads, about 1 mile farther on the road to Long Bridge road. I left one section of this battery with a cavalry support and proceeded with the balance of my command to White Oak Swamp Bridge, leaving Long Bridge on my right going out. The pickets sent out to this bridge report that it is destroyed.

Upon arriving at White Oak Swamp Bridge I posted my artillery in positions commanding the approaches from all sides. One squadron of cavalry crossed the bridge the others were posted at the different positions of advantage. They captured 22 cavalrymen and killed 3. They belonged to the Tenth Virginia, and were on picket duty. After remaining here half an hour, and capturing almost the entire rebel picket, I returned with my command to camp, without again seeing the enemy.

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