Descoberto o segundo maior mosaico da Síria, pertencente a uma antiga igreja bizantina
Os restos de um grande mosaico pertencente ao início do período bizantino foram descobertos no sítio arqueológico de Uqayribat, cerca de 65 quilômetros ao norte da província de Hama, no centro da Síria. Medindo sobre 450 metros quadrados de área, acredita-se que seja o segundo maior fragmento de mosaico encontrado no país, após o descoberto em Taybat al-Imam.
Conforme Direcção-Geral de Antiguidades e Museus (DGAM), o mosaico já fez parte do chão de uma igreja que remonta a cerca do século 5 DC. O edifício da igreja de pedra calcária, cujas partes existem até hoje, consiste em três seções principais: uma área principal no meio flanqueada por dois pavilhões, um de cada lado.
Feito de pequenos pedaços de pedras coloridas, o mosaico descoberto retrata uma variedade de figuras que parecem ter significado religioso. Elaborando ainda mais, Diretor do DGAM, Mahmoud Hamoud disse -
As cenas mostram uma variedade de formas geométricas, vegetativas e animais raras com conotações religiosas conhecidas, incluindo pavões, hipopótamos, pombos terrestres, ovelhas e veados, bem como as cenas de árvores vitais de fertilidade e renovabilidade.
Além da obra de arte, o mosaico bizantino da igreja também apresenta 14 peças de texto, escritas na língua grega e colocadas dentro de estruturas geográficas. Os textos, segundo Hamoud, referem-se aos nomes das pessoas que financiaram a obra.
Situado no distrito de Salamiyah do governadorado de Hama da Síria, Uqayribat (também chamado de Uqeirbat ou Uzeiribat) é considerado o local da cidade romana de Occaraba. Capturada pelo ISIS em 2014 como parte da Guerra Civil Síria, a cidade foi recuperada pelo Exército Árabe Sírio em setembro de 2017.
O sítio arqueológico em Uqayribat foi descoberto há três meses pelo exército sírio, com trabalhos de escavação em andamento. Conforme afirmado por Hamoud, os artefatos descobertos no local estão sendo transferidos para o Museu Nacional de Hama.
Síria: lar de alguns dos mosaicos mais antigos do mundo
Deve-se observar que a Síria é o lar de alguns dos mosaicos mais antigos do mundo, alguns datando de cerca de 1500 aC. Embora criados com materiais diferentes, que vão desde pedras coloridas a vidros e até conchas, os mosaicos sírios podem ser classificados em dois tipos: mosaicos de pedra e mosaicos de madeira. Evidências arqueológicas apontam para o trabalho em pedra como a tradição original.
Por outro lado, acredita-se que os mosaicos de madeira mais recentes datem de cerca de 300 anos. Muitos dos fragmentos de mosaico descobertos ao longo dos anos agora são mantidos no Museu Maarrat al-Numan da Síria, que aliás é o maior museu de mosaico do Oriente Médio. Como resultado da Guerra Civil Síria em curso, no entanto, muitos dos famosos mosaicos do país foram destruídos.
Em março do ano passado, por exemplo, um grupo de arqueólogos tropeçou em um Entrada do palácio de 2.600 anos debaixo de um santuário que foi demolido pelo ISIS (em 2014). O santuário Nabi Yunus do século 12 foi um dos nomes em ruínas em uma lista deploravelmente longa de baixas históricas causadas pelo ISIS. Esta mesquita, que antes servia como igreja, era venerada localmente como o local de descanso final do profeta Jonas, conhecido como Yunas no Alcorão.
Para sua surpresa, ao avaliar os danos causados pelos terroristas do Daesh, os arqueólogos descobriram um templo até então desconhecido e (possível) entrada de palácio, datando de um período de cerca de 2.600 anos atrás, correspondendo assim à época do Império Neo-Assírio.
Registros e documentos do trabalho de campo do Instituto Bizantino e de Dumbarton Oaks
Esta coleção contém registros de trabalho de campo e documentos produzidos pela equipe do Instituto Bizantino e Dumbarton Oaks, bem como Thomas Whittemore e Paul Underwood, entre as décadas de 1920 e 2000. É composto por correspondência, atas, registros financeiros, diários de bordo, cadernos de trabalho de campo, notas de pesquisa, plantas, mapas, desenhos grandes, traçados, pinturas, fotografias, filmes, recortes de jornais e materiais de publicação. A coleção é organizada pelo método de criação e meio em ordem cronológica ou de trabalho de campo. Está dividido em 2 subgrupos principais: Registros Administrativos e Documentos de Trabalho de Campo.
A maior parte da coleção abrange as décadas entre as décadas de 1930 e 1980, com a maior parte dos materiais relacionados a projetos conduzidos em Hagia Sophia e Kariye Camii em Istambul, bem como projetos posteriores na Turquia, Chipre e na atual Macedônia. O arranjo desta coleção ilustra as primeiras operações e desenvolvimento do Instituto Bizantino através da morte de Thomas Whittemore em 1950, a dissolução do Instituto em 1962 e as operações de trabalho de campo apoiadas por Dumbarton Oaks dos anos 1960 a 2000. Ele também captura os assuntos administrativos e as atividades de trabalho de campo do dia-a-dia centradas nas técnicas de conservação e restauração empregadas pelos pesquisadores de campo.
Existe um Adendo de materiais de pesquisa disponíveis compilados pela equipe do ICFA.
Linguagem de Materiais
Condições que regem o acesso
Condições que regem o uso
O Instituto Bizantino (comumente conhecido como Instituto Bizantino da América) foi fundado por Thomas Whittemore em 1930. Em 23 de maio de 1934, o Instituto Bizantino tornou-se oficialmente o Instituto Bizantino, Inc. quando foi emitido um alvará do Estado de Massachusetts. Sua missão era conservar, restaurar, estudar e documentar os monumentos, locais, arquitetura e artes bizantinos do antigo Império Bizantino. O primeiro projeto oficial realizado pelo Instituto foi o exame e documentação de pinturas murais nos mosteiros do Mar Vermelho no Egito, que ocorreu entre 1929 e 1931. Ao capturar iconografia bizantina selecionada das paredes de Santo Antônio e São Paulo, Vladimir Netchetailov produziu pinturas em aquarela de grandes dimensões de santos (Saints George, Mercurius e Theodore Strateletes) e cenas religiosas (A Ressurreição e Deësis).
Em junho de 1931, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, o primeiro Presidente da República da Turquia, permitiu que Whittemore e o Instituto Bizantino descobrissem e restaurassem os mosaicos originais em Hagia Sophia, que haviam sido cobertos com motivos islâmicos quando a igreja foi convertida em mesquita em 1453 pelos turcos otomanos. Com a aprovação do governo turco, o Instituto iniciou a campanha de conservação e restauração em dezembro de 1931. Enquanto o trabalho de campo se concentrava principalmente em locais dentro de Istambul, como Hagia Sophia e Kariye Camii, os esforços de conservação também foram expandidos para Chipre e a atual Macedônia.
Em junho de 1950, Thomas Whittemore, fundador do Instituto Bizantino, morreu enquanto a caminho do escritório de John Foster Dulles no Departamento de Estado. Posteriormente, Paul Atkins Underwood foi nomeado Diretor de Trabalho de Campo do Instituto Bizantino, cargo que ocupou até sua morte em 22 de setembro de 1968. Embora isso tenha marcado um período de transição para o Instituto, Underwood assumiu a supervisão de reparos e restauração em Hagia Sophia e Kariye Camii. Esses esforços resultaram na descoberta do pavimento do século 7 na Igreja do Pantocrator (Molla Zeyrek Camii), na restauração de mosaicos em Fethiye Camii (Igreja de Theotokos Pammakaristos) e, finalmente, na reforma em Fenari Isa (Mosteiro dos Lábios). Os projetos também levaram a várias publicações, como Os mosaicos de Hagia Sophia em Istambul, o retrato do Imperador Alexandre: um relatório sobre o trabalho realizado pelo Instituto Bizantino em 1959 e 1960 por Paul A. Underwood e Ernest J. W. Hawkins. Devido ao financiamento insuficiente, o Instituto Bizantino encerrou oficialmente suas operações administrativas e de campo em 1962 e transferiu seus ativos para Dumbarton Oaks. Em janeiro de 1963, Dumbarton Oaks e os curadores da Universidade de Harvard assumiram todas as atividades de trabalho de campo anteriormente iniciadas pelo Instituto. Dumbarton Oaks dirigiu e patrocinou novos projetos de trabalho de campo na Turquia (Igreja de St. Polyeuktos), Chipre (Igreja de Panagia Amasgou em Monagri), Síria (Dibsi Faraj) e na atual Macedônia (Bargala).
Outras ajudas de descoberta
História da Custódia
Os registros e papéis do trabalho de campo do Instituto Bizantino foram transferidos para Dumbarton Oaks em duas remessas na década de 1950 e foram inicialmente armazenados em vários locais, como o escritório de Paul Underwood, os Arquivos de Dumbarton Oaks e a Biblioteca de Pesquisa. Da Biblioteca do Instituto Bizantino de Paris, a primeira remessa em maio de 1952 incluía papéis arqueológicos, cadernos, fotografias, negativos, diagramas e desenhos. Em janeiro de 1957, a segunda remessa continha plantas e desenhos gigantescos dos mosteiros do Mar Vermelho, gráficos de cãibras de Hagia Sophia, filmes, negativos, tecidos coptas e espécimes de cubos de mosaico. Em dezembro de 1995, foi descoberto que 14 cadernos de trabalho de campo estavam armazenados no American Research Institute na Turquia (ARIT-Istanbul). A transferência dos cadernos do ARIT para o ICFA foi finalmente aprovada em janeiro de 1997 pelo Conselho de Administração e Anthony Greenwood, Diretor do ARIT-Istambul.
Em meados da década de 1990, o Professor Bentley Layton, Professor Goff de Estudos Religiosos (Cristianismo Antigo) e Professor de Línguas e Civilizações do Oriente Próximo (Cóptico) na Universidade de Yale, devolveu as cópias em aquarela do Mosteiro de Santo Antônio do Egito, que ele possuía solicitada a fim de realizar um levantamento fotográfico das pinturas coptas nas igrejas com o pe. Leroy e o professor Paul van Moorsel no Egito.
Fonte Imediata de Aquisição
Entre 1993 e 2012, o ICFA recebeu o restante dos arquivos do trabalho de campo do Instituto Bizantino e do Dumbarton Oaks dos Arquivos e Biblioteca de Pesquisa de Dumbarton Oaks. Os itens foram organizados em pastas pelo nome do indivíduo, instituição ou projeto em ordem alfabética no momento do recebimento. No geral, porque há pouca documentação, é difícil determinar o histórico geral de aquisição da coleção.
ICFA recebeu materiais Kariye Camii adicionais de Robert Ousterhout em setembro de 2012. Os materiais incluem desenhos grandes, planos de construção arquitetônicos, notas e relatórios.
Existência e localização de cópias
- Monastérios do Mar Vermelho, Egito (fotografias) - Veja a exposição online intitulada & quotBefore Byzantiium: The Early Archaeological Activities of Thomas Whittemore (1871-1931), & quot http://www.doaks.org/library-archives/icfa/special-projects / online-exposições / before-byzantium / red-sea-monasteries-gallery
- Monastérios do Mar Vermelho, Egito (filme cinematográfico) - http://www.doaks.org/library-archives/icfa/moving-image-collections/red-sea-monasteries e a exposição online intitulada & quotA Truthful Record: The Byzantine Institute Filmes, & quot http://www.doaks.org/library-archives/icfa/special-projects/online-exhibitions/a-truthful-record/history/red-sea-mon sinto
- Conservação de Mosaicos em Hagia Sophia, Istambul (fotografias) - http://via.lib.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepLinkResults?kw2=byzantine%20institute%20of%20america&kw1=hagia%20sophia&bool1=and&index2=Name&bool1=pre&index2=Name&index=prepository Dumbarton% 20Oaks
- Trabalho de conservação em Hagia Sophia e Kariye Camii, Istambul (filmes cinematográficos) - http://www.doaks.org/library-archives/icfa/moving-image-collections e a exibição online intitulada & quotA Truthful Record: The Byzantine Institute Films , & quot http://www.doaks.org//icfa/truthful-record
Unidades de descrição repetidas em Dumbarton Oaks
- Arquivos de Dumbarton Oaks. http://www.doaks.org/library-archives/dumbarton-oaks-archives.
- Museu Dumbarton Oaks. http://www.doaks.org/museum.
- Primeiros projetos arqueológicos associados a Thomas Whittemore, 1910-1930, MS.BZ.017. Coleções de imagens e arquivos de trabalho de campo.
- Coleções de imagens e arquivos de trabalho de campo (ou seja, coleção de fotografias em preto e branco, livros do site, pastas da Leica e arquivos do escritório do curador). http://www.doaks.org/library-archives/icfa.
- Artigos de pesquisa de Paul Atkins Underwood, ca. 1936-1950, MS.BZ.019. Coleções de imagens e arquivos de trabalho de campo.
- Thomas Whittemore Papers, ca. 1875-1966, MS.BZ.013. Coleções de imagens e arquivos de trabalho de campo.
- Arquivos Th. Whittemore. Musée du Louvre, département des antiquités égyptiennes, seção copte. Paris, França.
- Arquivo Bakhmeteff de Cultura Russa e do Leste Europeu. Biblioteca de livros e manuscritos raros, Bibliotecas da Universidade de Columbia. Nova York, NY. http://library.columbia.edu/locations/rbml/units/bakhmeteff.html.
- Artigos de Bernard e Mary Berenson (1880-2002). Biblioteca Berenson, Villa I Tatti, Centro de Estudos do Renascimento da Universidade de Harvard. Florença, Itália. http://oasis.lib.harvard.edu/oasis/deliver/
- Aleksova, Blaga e Cyril Mango. “Bargala: Um Relatório Preliminar.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971): 265-281. doi: 10.2307 / 1291311.
- Belting, Hans, Cyril A. Mango e Doula Mouriki. Os mosaicos e afrescos de Santa Maria Pammakaristos (Fethiye Camii) em Istambul. Dumbarton Oaks Studies 15. [Washington]: Locust Valley, N.Y: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, 1978.
- Boyd, Susan, Richard Anderson, Victoria Jenssen, Lawrence Majewski e Arthur Seltman. “As pinturas da Igreja de Panagia Amasgou, Monagri, Chipre e suas paredes.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 28 (1974): 277-349. doi: 10.2307 / 1291361.
- Instituto Bizantino da América. Os Mosaicos de Haghia Sophia em Istambul, Terceiro Relatório Preliminar, Trabalho Feito em 1935-1938, os Retratos Imperiais da Galeria Sul. Boston, MA: Impresso por J. Johnson na Oxford University Press, 1942.
- Instituto Bizantino da América. Boletim. Vol. 1. Boston, MA: Instituto Bizantino, 1946.
- Instituto Bizantino da América. Estudos coptas em homenagem a Walter Ewing Crum. Boletim. Vol. 2. Boston, MA: Instituto Bizantino, 1950.
- Instituto Bizantino da América. Mosaicos de Hagia Sophia em Istambul. Boston, MA: Instituto Bizantino, 1950.
- Instituto Bizantino da América e (Turquia) Istambul. O Parque Arqueológico do Memorando de Istambul. Boston, MA, 1948.
- Carr, Annemarie Weyl. “Dumbarton Oaks e o Legado do Chipre Bizantino.” Arqueologia do Oriente Próximo 71, no. 1/2 (2008): 95-103. doi: 10.2307 / 20361353.
- Carr, Annemarie Weyl e Andreas Nicolaïdès, eds. Asinou ao longo do tempo: Estudos de Arquitetura e Murais de Panagia Phorbiotissa, Chipre. Dumbarton Oaks Studies 43. Washington, D.C. e Cambridge, MA: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2012.
- Policial, Giles. “Dumbarton Oaks and Byzantine Field Work.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 37 (1983): 171-176. doi: 10.2307 / 1291485.
- Cormack, Robin e Ernest J. W. Hawkins. “Os mosaicos de Santa Sofia em Istambul: os quartos acima do vestíbulo e da rampa do sudoeste”. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 31 (1977): 175-251. doi: 10.2307 / 1291407.
- Galatariotou, Catia. A formação de um santo: a vida, os tempos e a santificação dos neófitos, o recluso. Cambridge e Nova York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
- Harper, Richard P. e Tony J. Wilkinson. “Escavações em Dibsi Faraj, norte da Síria, 1972-1974: Uma nota preliminar sobre o local e seus monumentos com um apêndice.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 29 (1975): 319-338. doi: 10.2307 / 1291379.
- Harrison, R. Martin. “A Capital Constantinopolitana em Barcelona.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 27 (1973): 297-300. doi: 10.2307 / 1291345.
- Harrison, R. Martin. Escavações em Saraçhane em Istambul. 2 vols. Princeton, NJ e Washington, D.C .: Princeton University Press e Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1986.
- Harrison, R. Martin e Nezih Firatli. “Escavações em Saraçhane em Istambul: Primeiro Relatório Preliminar.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 19 (1965): 231-236. doi: 10.2307 / 1291232.
- Harrison, R. Martin e Nezih Firatli. “Escavações em Saraçhane em Istambul: Segundo e Terceiro Relatórios Preliminares.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 20 (1966): 223-238. doi: 10.2307 / 1291247.
- Harrison, R. Martin e Nezih Firatli. “Escavações em Saraçhane em Istambul: Quarto Relatório Preliminar.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 21 (1967): 273-278. doi: 10.2307 / 1291267.
- Harrison, R. Martin, Nezih Firatli e John W. Hayes. “Escavações em Saraçhane em Istambul: Quinto Relatório Preliminar, com uma Contribuição sobre um Grupo de Cerâmica do Sétimo Século.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 22 (1968): 195-216. doi: 10.2307 / 1291282.
- Hawkins, Ernest J. W. "Outras observações sobre o mosaico Narthex em Santa Sofia em Istambul." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 22 (1968): 151-166. doi: 10.2307 / 1291278.
- Hayes, John W. Escavações em Saraçhane em Istambul. 2 vols. Princeton, NJ e Washington, D.C .: Princeton University Press e Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1992.
- Hjort, Øystein. “A escultura de Kariye Camii.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 33 (1979): 199-289. doi: 10.2307 / 1291438.
- Kitzinger, Ernst. “Paul Atkins Underwood: (1902-1968).” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23/24 (1969): 1-6. doi: 10.2307 / 1291287.
- Labrusse, Rémi e Nadia Podzemskaia. “Naissance d'une vocation: aux sources de la carrière byzantine de Thomas Whittemore.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 54 (2000): 43-69. doi: 10.2307 / 1291832.
- MacDonald, William L. “The Uncovering of Byzantine Mosaics in Hagia Sophia.” Arqueologia 4, no. 2 (1951): 89-93.
- Macridy, Theodore. “O Mosteiro dos Lábios e os Enterros dos Paleólogos.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964): 253-277. doi: 10.2307 / 1291214.
- Mainstone, Rowland J. “A Reconstrução do Tímpano de Santa Sofia em Istambul.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23/24 (1969): 353-368. doi: 10.2307 / 1291296.
- Mango, Cyril. “O Mosteiro de São Abercius em Kurşunlu (Elegmi) na Bitínia.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 22 (1968): 169-176. doi: 10.2307 / 1291279.
- Mango, Cyril e Ernest J. W. Hawkins. "Notas Adicionais." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964): 299-315. doi: 10.2307 / 1291216.
- Mango, Cyril e Ernest J. W. Hawkins. “Relatório sobre o trabalho de campo em Istambul e Chipre, 1962-1963.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964): 319-340. doi: 10.2307 / 1291217.
- Mango, Cyril e Ernest J. W. Hawkins. “Os mosaicos da ábside de Santa Sofia em Istambul. Relatório sobre o trabalho realizado em 1964. ” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 19 (1965): 113-151. doi: 10.2307 / 1291228.
- Mango, Cyril e Ernest J. W. Hawkins. “A Ermida de São Neófitos e suas pinturas de parede.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 20 (1966): 119-206. doi: 10.2307 / 1291245.
- Mango, Cyril e Ernest J. W. Hawkins. “Descobertas adicionais em Fenari Isa Camii, Istambul.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 22 (1968): 177-184. doi: 10.2307 / 1291280.
- Mango, Cyril e Ernest J. W. Hawkins. “Os Mosaicos de Santa Sofia em Istambul. Os Padres da Igreja no Tímpano Norte. ” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 26 (1972): 1-41. doi: 10.2307 / 1291315.
- Mango, Cyril, Ernest J. W. Hawkins e Susan Boyd. “O Mosteiro de São Crisóstomo em Koutsovendis (Chipre) e suas pinturas de parede. Parte I: Descrição. ” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 44 (1990): 63-94. doi: 10.2307 / 1291618.
- Mango, Cyril e Ihor Ševčenko. “Restos da Igreja de São Polieuco em Constantinopla.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 15 (1961): 243-247. doi: 10.2307 / 1291183.
- Mango, Cyril e Ihor Ševčenko. “Algumas igrejas e mosteiros na costa sul do mar de Mármara.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 27 (1973): 235-277. doi: 10.2307 / 1291343.
- Megaw, Arthur H. S. “Arquitetura e Decoração Bizantina em Chipre: Metropolitana ou Provincial?” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 28 (1974): 57-88. doi: 10.2307 / 1291355.
- Megaw, Arthur H. S. “Notas sobre o trabalho recente do Instituto Bizantino de Istambul.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 17 (1963): 333-371. doi: 10.2307 / 1291197.
- Megaw, Arthur H. S. “A forma original da Igreja de Theotokos de Lábios de Constantino.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964): 279-298. doi: 10.2307 / 1291215.
- Megaw, Arthur H. S. “Supplementary Excavations on a Castle Site at Paphos, Cyprus, 1970-1971.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 26 (1972): 323-343. doi: 10.2307 / 1291325.
- Megaw, Arthur H. S. Kourion: Escavações no Precinct Episcopal. Dumbarton Oaks Studies 38. Washington, D.C. e Cambridge, MA: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Distribuída pela Harvard University Press, 2007.
- Megaw, A. H. S. e Ernest J. W. Hawkins. “A Igreja dos Santos Apóstolos em Perachorio, Chipre, e seus afrescos.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 16 (1962): 277-348. doi: 10.2307 / 1291165.
- Megaw, A. H. S. e Ernest J. W. Hawkins. A Igreja da Panagia Kanakariá em Lythrankomi em Chipre: seus mosaicos e afrescos. Dumbarton Oaks Studies 14. Washington, D.C. e Locust Valley, NY: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Trustees for Harvard University, 1977.
- Oates, David. “Um relatório resumido sobre as escavações do Instituto Bizantino em Kariye Camii: 1957 e 1958.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 14 (1960): 223-231. doi: 10.2307 / 1291151.
- Oikonomides, Nicolas. “Leão VI e o mosaico de Narthex de Santa Sofia.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 30 (1976): 151-172. doi: 10.2307 / 1291393.
- Oikonomides, Nicolas. “Algumas observações sobre o mosaico abside de Santa Sofia.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 39 (1985): 111-115. doi: 10.2307 / 1291518.
- Ousterhout, Robert G. A Arquitetura do Kariye Camii em Istambul. Dumbarton Oaks Studies 25. Washington, D.C .: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1987.
- Papacostas, Tassos, Cyril Mango e Michael Grünbart. “A História e Arquitetura do Mosteiro de São João Crisóstomo em Koutsovendis, Chipre.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 61 (2007): 25-156. doi: 10.2307 / 25472047.
- Rosser, John. “Escavações em Saranda Kolones, Paphos, Chipre, 1981-1983.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 39 (1985): 81-97. doi: 10.2307 / 1291516.
- Sheppard, Carl D. “Uma Data de Radiocarbono para as Vigas de Gravata de Madeira na Galeria Oeste de Santa Sofia, Istambul.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 19 (1965): 237-240. doi: 10.2307 / 1291233.
- Atacante, Cecil L. e Doğan Kuban. “Work at Kalenderhane Camii in Istanbul: First Preliminary Report.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 21 (1967): 267-271. doi: 10.2307 / 1291266.
- Atacante, Cecil L. e Doğan Kuban. “Work at Kalenderhane Camii in Istanbul: Second Preliminary Report.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 22 (1968): 185-193. doi: 10.2307 / 1291281.
- Atacante, Cecil L. e Doğan Kuban. “Work at Kalenderhane Camii in Istanbul: Third and Fourth Preliminary Reports.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971): 251-258. doi: 10.2307 / 1291309.
- Atacante, Cecil L. e Doğan Kuban. “Work at Kalenderhane Camii in Istanbul: Fifth Preliminary Report (1970-74).” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 29 (1975): 307-318. doi: 10.2307 / 1291378.
- Atacante, Cecil L., Doğan Kuban, Albrecht Berger e J. Lawrence Angel. Kalenderhane em Istambul: Relatórios finais sobre a exploração e restauração arqueológica em Kalenderhane Camii 1966-1978. Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1997.
- Teteriatnikov, Natalia B. Mosaics of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul: The Fossati Restoration and the Work of the Bizantine Institute. Washington, D.C .: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1998.
- Underwood, Paul Atkins. “Primeiro Relatório Preliminar sobre a Restauração dos Afrescos no Kariye Camii em Istambul pelo Instituto Bizantino 1952-1954.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 9/10 (1956): 253-288. doi: 10.2307 / 1291098.
- Underwood, Paul Atkins. “Notas sobre o trabalho do Instituto Bizantino em Istambul: 1954.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 9/10 (1956): 291-300. doi: 10.2307 / 1291099.
- Underwood, Paul Atkins. “Segundo Relatório Preliminar sobre a Restauração dos Afrescos no Kariye Camii em Istambul pelo Instituto Bizantino de 1955.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 11 (1957): 173-220. doi: 10.2307 / 1291107.
- Underwood, Paul Atkins. “Terceiro Relatório Preliminar sobre a Restauração dos Afrescos no Kariye Camii em Istambul pelo Instituto Bizantino, 1956.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 12 (1958): 235-265. doi: 10.2307 / 1291122.
- Underwood, Paul Atkins. “Notas sobre o trabalho do Instituto Bizantino em Istambul: 1955-1956.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 12 (1958): 269-287. doi: 10.2307 / 1291123.
- Underwood, Paul Atkins. “Quarto Relatório Preliminar sobre a Restauração dos Afrescos no Kariye Camii em Istambul pelo Instituto Bizantino, 1957-1958.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 13 (1959): 185-212. doi: 10.2307 / 1291133.
- Underwood, Paul Atkins. “Notas sobre o trabalho do Instituto Bizantino em Istambul: 1957.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 13 (1959): 215-228. doi: 10.2307 / 1291134.
- Underwood, Paul Atkins. O Kariye Djami. Vols. 1-4. Bollingen Series 70. New York: Bollingen Foundation, 1966.
- Underwood, Paul A. e Ernest J. W. Hawkins. “Os Mosaicos de Hagia Sophia em Istambul: O Retrato do Imperador Alexandre: Um Relatório sobre o Trabalho Feito pelo Instituto Bizantino em 1959 e 1960.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 15 (1961): 187-217. doi: 10.2307 / 1291180.
- Underwood, Paul A. e Lawrence J. Majewski. “Notas sobre o trabalho do Instituto Bizantino em Istambul: 1957-1959 A Conservação de um Afresco Bizantino Descoberto em Etyemez, Istambul.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 14 (1960): 205-222. doi: 10.2307 / 1291150.
- Wellesz, Egon e Institute of America Byzantine. Elementos Orientais no Canto Ocidental: Estudos na História Antiga da Música Eclesiástica. Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae. Subsidia, v. 2, American Series no. 1. Oxford: Impresso na The University Press, Oxford, para o Instituto Bizantino, 1947.
- Whittemore, Thomas. Os Mosaicos de Santa Sofia em Istambul: Relatório Preliminar sobre a Obra do Primeiro Quarto Ano, 1931 / 1932-1934 / 38. Paris: Impresso na Oxford University Press para o Instituto Bizantino, 1933.
- Whittemore, Thomas. Os Mosaicos de Santa Sofia em Istambul. Segundo Relatório Preliminar. Obra Feita em 1933 e 1934. Os Mosaicos do Vestíbulo Sul. Paris: Oxford University Press para o Instituto Bizantino, 1936.
- Winfield, David C. “Reports on Work at Monagri, Lagoudera, and Hagios Neophytos, Chipre, 1969/1970.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971): 259-264. doi: 10.2307 / 1291310.
- Winfield, David C. Byzantine Mosaic Work: Notes on History, Technique & amp Color. Lefkosia, Chipre: Publicações de Moufflon, 2005.
- Winfield, David C. e Ernest J. W. Hawkins. “A Igreja de Nossa Senhora em Asinou, Chipre. Um Relatório sobre as Estações de 1965 e 1966. ” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 21 (1967): 261-266. doi: 10.2307 / 1291265.
- Winfield, David C. e June Winfield. A Igreja de Panaghia Tou Arakos em Lagoudhera, Chipre: As pinturas e seu significado pictórico. Dumbarton Oaks Studies 37. Washington, D.C: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2003.
Adendo: Materiais de pesquisa acumulados pela equipe do ICFA
- Pasta 1: Formulários de remoção de documentos / itens e formulários de transferência de arquivos
- Pasta 2: Finding aid (black book) de Jeff Schlossberg, ca. 1982 (pasta 1 de 4)
- Pasta 3: Cópia do auxiliar de localização (pasta vermelha) por Jeff Schlossberg, ca. 1982 (Pasta 2 de 4) - Pasta 4: Cópia do auxílio em busca de Jeff Schlossberg, ca. 1982 (pasta 3 de 4)
- Pasta 5: Cópia da busca de ajuda por Jeff Schlossberg, ca. 1982 (pasta 4 de 4)
- Pasta 6: Rascunho de busca de ajuda por Jeff Schlossberg, ca. 1982
- Pasta 7: Cópias de inventários, década de 1950 - Fotocópias de listas de inventário e correspondência sobre a transferência de materiais da Biblioteca do Instituto Bizantino em Paris para Dumbarton Oaks
- Pasta 8: Thomas Whittemore e o Instituto Bizantino, fontes históricas e literárias - Contém cópias de artigos ou trechos que pertencem a Thomas Whittemore, do Dumbarton Oaks Papers, do Harvard Crimson e de outras fontes. Também inclui cópias de: “Convoy to West Africa” de Graham Greene, “Remote People” de Evelyn Waugh, “The Elusive Mr. Whittemore, the Early Years,” de Holger Klein, entre outros. Também contém fotocópias da correspondência relativa a Whittemore da coleção Robert Van Nice, também no ICFA.
- Pasta 9: Notas produzidas por Natalia Teteriatnikov - Contém fotografias de Thomas Whittemore, correspondência com William MacDonald e outros, memorandos internos e várias notas sobre a coleção, incluindo sua conservação. Teteriatnikov foi o ex-curador do Arquivo Bizantino de Fotografia e Trabalho de Campo de 1986 a 2007.
- Pasta 10: “Inventário de amostras retiradas de Hagia Sophia pelo Instituto Bizantino”
- Pasta 11: Cópias de artigos relacionados a Alexandre Piankoff - Contém “Deux peintures de Saints Militaires au Monastère de Saint Antoine”, Les Cahiers Coptes 10 (1956): 17-25.
- Pasta 12: Materiais relacionados ao Instituto Bizantino dos Arquivos de Dumbarton Oaks - Contém resumos de reuniões e correspondência, [ca. 1945-1962]
- Pasta 13: Butler, Lawrence, “RELATÓRIO PARA O DIRETOR: Sobre as propriedades em Dumbarton Oaks de material pertencente à igreja de Hagia Sophia em Istambul” - Contém um relatório submetido por Lawrence Butler a Robert W. Thompson em fevereiro de 1985
- Pasta 14: Correspondência dos Artigos de Robert Woods Bliss e Mildred Barnes Bliss, ca. 1860-1969, Arquivos da Universidade de Harvard - contém cópias da correspondência entre Thomas Whittemore e Robert e Mildred Bliss de 1937 a 1941
O inventário, a organização da coleção e o processamento foram inicialmente realizados por Jeff Schlosberg, estagiário do ICFA, entre 1981 e 1982. A coleção foi organizada em ordem cronológica e, a seguir, por local. Entre 1990 e 2000, a coleção foi reorganizada e reprocessada por ex-funcionários e estagiários do ICFA, incluindo Natalia Teteriatnikov, Gerrianne Schaad e Rebecca Bruner. A coleção foi reordenada pelo sobrenome do autor e, em seguida, pela localização.
No verão de 2010, Rona Razon, Arquivista, Anna McWilliams e Sharon Ke (ex-estagiários do ICFA) concluíram a digitalização das fotografias em preto e branco de Kariye Camii para fornecer melhor acesso às imagens. Eles foram catalogados no software de catalogação legado da ICFA chamado OLIVIA.
Em setembro de 2010, Rona Razon, Arquivista, e Laurian Douthett, Arquivista Assistente, avaliaram o mecanismo de busca e coleta existente. A equipe do ICFA decidiu reorganizar a coleção, mais uma vez, em ordem cronológica e depois por local com base no inventário de Schlosberg e nas listas de transferência originais do Instituto Bizantino. A equipe do ICFA acredita que a coleção deve ser organizada cronologicamente ou pela ordem dos projetos de trabalho de campo, a fim de trazer os itens de volta ao seu arranjo original e destacar totalmente a história administrativa e de trabalho de campo das organizações.
A avaliação da coleção, o arranjo, o inventário e um esboço de ajuda para encontrar foram concluídos em setembro de 2012 por Razon e Douthett. O processamento de arquivamento foi concluído por Elizabeth Bayley, Arquivista Assistente, em fevereiro de 2013. O auxiliar de descoberta foi editado por Rona Razon, Shalimar White, Gerente do ICFA, Günder Varinlioğlu, ex-Curador Assistente Bizantino, e Fani Gargova, Associado de Pesquisa Bizantina, e foi finalizado em abril de 2013.
Em fevereiro de 2014, Gargova e Megan Cook, Associada de Pesquisa do ICFA, concluíram a digitalização das fotografias dos Monastérios do Mar Vermelho do Site Books nos. 18-20 para fornecer melhor acesso às imagens.
Mosaics At Ravenna & # 8211 No Início da Arte Cristã
No Velho Testamento, o Profeta Isaías proclamou sua mensagem a Judá e Jerusalém entre c742 e # 8211 701 AEC, antes do evento de Cristo.
Suas palavras, não apenas predisseram muitos dos eventos da vida de Jesus, o Cristo, mas também forneceram uma visão da esperança segura sobre o que essas palavras significariam para a vasta maioria das pessoas.
Christianity, Judaism and Islam all share one thing in common, a monotheistic faith in other words, a belief in one supreme God of all.
‘Arise, shine: for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee…and the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising…all they from Seba and Sheba shall come: they shall bring gold and incense and they shall shew forth praises of the Lord’.
Christianity arose out of a collective experience of Jesus the Christ as God by a great many people who met or listened to him and heard his words first hand.
It is an experience that has been enriched and enlarged over a very long time.
The faith of Judaism was expressed in the teachings and writings of the prophets of the Old Testament. They ultimately found fulfillment in those of the New Testament.
Christians, unlike their Jewish colleagues who did not convert to the new religion, believed they had ‘witnessed’ the fulfillment of a prophecy written in the Old Testament that God would become flesh and dwell among us.
The stunning mosaic image of Christ Pantocrator (Almighty, All Powerful) in the Byzantine Church of St. Saviour in Chora (now a mosque) in Istanbul presents Jesus as the saviour of mankind.
He is the bringer of a new law, one he holds firmly in his left hand, with his right hand raised in a gesture of blessing.
Jesus the Christ proclaimed, by his actions, that God’s love and forgiveness was available to everyone and unconditional. This great revelation gave intense impetus to the founding of the early church and the style of art produced.
Creating images from small pebbles to ornament the floors of buildings was a technique developed in ancient Greece, which the Romans turned into a technical tour-de-force at Ravenna.
They used glass and other semi-precious and precious materials, including gold glass to create sensational special effects.
The message they gave was that Jesus lived and was subject to our human frailty, which was reflected in his humanity while at the same time embodying his divinity.
The City of Ravenna in Italy, in a number of its most notable buildings, conserves the most intact set of Roman mosaics preserved from the days of the Roman Empire.
They are there because the western Roman Emperor Honorious (385-423) moved there from Milan when he heard the Visigoths were descending on Italy in 402 to conquer all its lands.
It remained there until 476 when the overthrow of the last western Roman emperor.
Ravenna was strategically located, protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications and its mosaics were at the beginnings of Christian art.
The scriptures had said of Jesus ‘that in him the fullness of humanity and divinity was pleased to dwell’. His complete obedience to the divine put him on a direct collision course with the authorities of his day and ultimately led to his execution by crucifixion on the hill at Calvary, the cities garbage tip.
On the walls and ceilings of the Catacomb of Priscilla at Rome, where the early followers of the way gathered to retell his stories and talk about the miracles he had performed there are many painted images.
A faded image above an arch of the ‘Adoration of the Magi’, the three ‘wise’ men, who came to witness the birth of the promised ‘Son of God’, is symbolic of how important was this message of love and hope, representing the community of the faithful coming before the throne of God.
The gifts they brought were the key to their identity in the ancient texts….‘The Kings of Tarshish and of the Isles shall bring presents the Kings of Arabia and Saba shall bring gifts’.
When the Roman Emperor Constantine embraced Christianity and located his new capital in the East at Byzantium he determined to make it another Rome, although far more magnificent if possible, than the old one.
Under his direction Constantinople became unquestionably the leading centre of a culture that while it paralleled the Middle Ages in Europe in the East it provided ‘a golden bridge joining East and the West’ and this refers to art, no less than to any other sphere of activity.
Constantine and his successors saw Christianity as vital to the unity of the Empire and their determination to dominate the Church set them eventually on a collision course with the Popes who were now the spiritual leaders of the Church at Rome.
However, we digress, Constantine had works of ancient art transferred to his new city.
He introduced Christian emblems such as crosses and relics and, it was during his reign that the Virgin Mary became official protector of his city, which became an enormous repository for Christian art works.
An image of Gregory the Great (590-604) at his writing desk depicts him as an inspired teacher and guide – the bird whispering in his ear represents the holy spirit while a bevy of scribes copy his words.
During the three centuries between the birth, death and resurrection of Jesus, the Christ and the official recognition of the church by the Roman Emperor Constantine, Christianity acquired the main elements that still characterise it today.
Vines heavy with bunches of grapes were a symbol of the former Greek God of Wine Dionysus and they writhe and intertwine through early Christian imagery in every medium, including mosaics.
Jesus had said of himself, ‘I am the true vine‘. So if he was the vine then the faithful were the branches and the vine becomes an image that represents, or is symbolic of the Church.
The early church was blessed with many brilliant minds with a genius for organization, including St. Paul, who was perhaps the greatest organizer of all.
Men of power and influence’ they could not only inspire and motivate their communities, but also were able to put in place a mechanism of administrative skills that would ensure the traditions they established would continue for two thousand years, an impressive result by anyone’s definition.
They also established an iconography so that Christians were able to express their faith in visual terms, drawing at first for that purpose upon imagery already available to them from the pagan society and culture they had lived most of their lives within.
This was important, because the major proportion of the population was illiterate, which was another barrier to spreading the words stories of Jesus, and the gospels written by his apostles.
A mosaic in the Church of SS Cosmas and Damian at Rome dates from the mid sixth century.
It depicts the Lamb of God raised in the centre on a small mound from, which issue the four rivers of Paradise.
Many were able to ‘read the pictures’ and receive the message because they knew the stories so well because they had been passed on in an established oral tradition.
What does Justinian's Mosaic in San Vitale depict?
Esse mosaic thus establishes the central position of the Emperor between the power of the church and the power of the imperial administration and military. Like the Roman Emperors of the past, Justiniano has religious, administrative, and military authority.
Similarly, what is the major theme of the mosaic Emperor Justinian and his attendants? UMA major theme of this mosaic program is the authority of the emperor in the Christian plan of history.
Also to know is, who was the empress portrayed in a mosaic at San Vitale?
What is the political significance of the Justinian mosaics of Ravenna?
Explanation: Created in the sanctuary of the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna Italy, this mosaic depicts the Emperor Justiniano I as the central authority between the church and the military-bureaucracy of the empire. The halo around the emperor's head reinforces the concept of his divine authority.
Byzantine Hoop-trundling Mosaic - History
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|A.D. - Anno Domini. After the traditional birth of Jesus Christ. Also C.E. for "common" era. |
B.C. - Before the traditional birth of Jesus Christ. Also B.C.E., before the "common" era.
Barbarians - Roman term for most foreigners.
Byzantine - Pertaining to Byzantium or its culture. Relating to medieval successor of the Eastern Roman Empire until 15th century.
Byzantium - Constantinople (see below).
Christianity - Religion based on the teachings of Jesus Christ (c. 4 BC- c. AD 28) as Son of God (and Messiah), revealed particularly through the Bible, including the New Testament.
Constantinople - Later name for Byzantium, city founded by Greeks on the Bosporus strait.
Dark Ages - "Early Middle Ages" from circa AD 476 until circa 700.
Goths - Germanic tribe of central and eastern Europe, divided into Ostrogoths and Visigoths.
Islam - Religion founded by Muhammad (570-632) in Arabia as Prophet of Allah (God), whose message is revealed in the Koran. Islam is Arabic for "surrender" or "submission."
Jews - People whose religion is rooted in Judaism (see below). Often, those whose ethnic origins are Hebrew and Jewish.
Judaism - Monotheistic religion of the Hebrews, based on the Biblical Old Testament and Talmud. From "Judea," a kingdom and later a Roman province.
Latin - Language of Rome, also Italic culture of Rome, the Western Roman Empire and the Roman Catholic Church.
Longobards - Tribe of Baltic origin that settled in northern Italy (Lombardy).
Middle Ages - Period dated from fall of Rome (AD 476) to Goths until fall of Constantinople to Turks (1453), or from 500 to 1500.
Moors - Also Saracens. Arab peoples, usually Muslim, who conquered medieval Sicily, Spain and northwestern Africa.
Normans - People of Frankish and Nordic (Viking) origin in Normandy who conquered parts of Italy and Britain in 11th century.
Orthodoxy - Relating to the original Christian Church and its traditional teachings, as opposed to the Roman Catholic Church.
Roman Catholic - Church of Rome, particularly following the Schism of 1054.
Romans - Citizens of the extended Roman Empire.
Vandals - Migratory Germanic tribe originally from Scandinavia.
Born of the society of the Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire lasted throughout the Middle Ages - its traditions and culture at once Greek and Latin. During Europe's "Dark Ages" (the earliest medieval period from circa AD 476 until around 700), Constantinople (the former Byzantium) shone like a beacon in an era of shadow. The Byzantine Empire preserved older Roman traditions while creating new "Byzantine Greek" ones. It emerged to become the most important and influential Christianized region of the Early Middle Ages. Unlike the Roman Empire, converted to Christianity in its final centuries but founded upon vague pagan philosophies, the medieval Byzantine state was essentially Christian from its very beginning, though religious tolerance (for Jews, pagans and eventually Muslims) usually existed there. It was the Roman Emperor Constantine "the Great," a charismatic leader of eastern origins, who made Christianity acceptable in Roman law early in the fourth century. In most ways, this was a form of worship very similar to what is still preserved in the Orthodox Churches, the Roman Catholic Church having altered much of its theology and liturgy since the eleventh century (more about this later). The defining Byzantine artistic movements were Christian ones.
It has often been said that the Byzantines were Greek, but they were much more. Ethnically, the earliest Byzantines were, in fact, essentially Greek, with Roman, Balkan, Armenian, Slavic and western Asian strains. They called themselves "Romans" and spoke Greek, though Latin was also spoken in some quarters. Linguistically and culturally, their society was not very different from that of the Sicilians in the sixth century. As time went on, Byzantine society encompassed various eastern Mediterranean cultures to a large extent. Throughout most of its history, the Byzantine Empire was a monarchy --though not always a strictly hereditary or absolute one-- having legislative bodies and other democratic institutions considered exceptional in the Early Middle Ages. Over the centuries, Byzantine society and culture greatly influenced eastern Europe, and particularly the Kievan state which became Russia, as well as the cultures of the Caucasus to the east of the Black Sea, facilitating the introduction of Christianity in these regions.
In AD 324, when Constantine I (the Great) became emperor of the Roman Empire, Byzantium was little more than a Greek town (founded before 500 BC) on the Bosporus strait. In 330, he made it the capital of the Empire, which was now essentially Christian. Byzantium was eventually renamed Constantinople and is now Istanbul in Turkey. Constantine sponsored the Council of Nicea (a town in Turkey) in 325. With participation of hundreds of bishops from across the Empire, it codified much of the theological and canonical substance of the early Christian Church still followed by Orthodox and Catholics today.
Straddling Europe and Asia, Byzantium was destined to play a key role in early-medieval history. In 395, when the Empire was divided into east and west, this growing city became capital of the Eastern Roman Empire and resisted the raids of "Barbarians" (Germanic tribes and Huns) which destroyed the Empire in the West (Italy, Switzerland, France, Germany, Britain, Spain, Morocco, etc.), leaving Rome to fall to the Goths in 476.
The Byzantine Empire was geographically its largest under Justinian I (ruled 527-565), who extended it to include Sicily and Peninsular Italy, seizing power from the Ostrogoths. Following a brief period of rule by the Vandals and Ostrogoths, Sicily, which --at least nominally-- was previously part of the Western Empire, was conquered (actually liberated) by the Byzantine general Belisarius in 535 as part of a Gothic-Byzantine war. Carthage, which was controlled by Vandals, had been conquered by the Byzantines a year earlier.
Italian society immediately prior the Byzantine conquest had actually flourished under the Ostrogoth leaders Odoacer and Theodoric, who governed a quasi-Roman state there and in Sicily, but the Byzantines brought these regions under their administration and controlled parts of it well into the twelfth century. In addition to their defense of Christianity, the Byzantines preserved ancient Greek and Roman thought and traditions. Justinian's legal code (sometimes called the "Code of Justinian") is the basis for many legal systems still used today, but in his own time Justinian himself was viewed as an extremist whose defense of Christianity led to intolerance. This policy, though exceptional in the Byzantine Empire in successive years, resulted in the persecution of heretics, pagans and Jews.
Byzantine art was a major influence in Sicily and elsewhere. Often, as in Christian iconography, it was more representational than realistic. Geometric motifs were common, and the use of mosaic was highly developed. Churches and palaces were usually built in the Romanesque style, sometimes with cupolas (domes). The crafts such as jewelry making and silk weaving flourished. Works of literature and history were widely appreciated.
Not all Sicilians were Christians. Sicily had numerous Jewish communities, even in certain small and remote towns. In Sicily, the Jews dominated certain fields, particularly some of the textile trades. Though (largely by choice) they lived in certain districts, the Jews were not very different, socially speaking, from the Orthodox Christians of Sicily. The serious persecution of Sicilian Jews was essentially a late medieval development in Sicily, encouraged from Papal and Spanish circles. As their urbanized population was small and productive, they attracted little negative attention from the Byzantines, Arabs and Normans.
In Sicily, the few centuries of Byzantine rule were peaceful and prosperous, though taxation was high. The Byzantine cultural influence lasted well into the Arab and Norman eras. Under the Byzantines, as under the ancient Greeks and Romans, the Greek language was still widely spoken in Sicily. This was an evolving medieval Greek, not that of the ancients. Vulgar Latin was also spoken, though it was far less prevalent than Greek. Eventually, this Italic language, with Greek, Arabic and Norman French influences, became the medieval Romance language known as Sicilian. Linguistic evolution was a slow process, however, and Greek was still spoken throughout Sicily's Arab and Norman periods into the eleventh century.
By 600, the Lombards (Longobard descendants in Lombardy in northern Italy) were gradually occupying much of the Italian peninsula, though pockets of Byzantine influence remained --at least for a time-- in Venice, Ravenna and Bari, and a growing "Papal State" increased its influence around Rome and beyond, owing much to the efforts of Pope Gregory the Great, who believed in the independence of the Papacy from the collegial traditions espoused by the other patriarchs. Developments in Italy did not immediately affect Sicily, where the Emperor Constans decided to establish his capital in 660. Syracuse, still the island's most important city, became his residence until his untimely assassination in 668. The Emperor's tryannical demeanor and costly maintenance did not endear him to the Sicilians.
Islam was growing, and Muslim Arab armies controlled Egypt, Syria and Palestine by 642. By 652, Muslim-Arab pirates based in Tunisia were undertaking isolated raids on the Sicilian coast. By 750, the Byzantine Empire, though influential, was greatly reduced in size, encompassing Asia Minor (Turkey), Greece, Sicily, and parts of the Balkans and peinsular Italy. Following a revolt against Constans, the capital was restored to Constantinople and Sicily found herself open to attack from abroad.
In Islam's advance westward through Arab efforts, Carthage fell in 689. Muslim conquest often resulted in mass conversion of the conquered. In keeping with Koranic principles, the religious freedom of Jews and Christians was usually respected, but Muslims were accorded greater civil rights. Within two decades, several islands under Sicilian influence (such as Pantelleria) were occupied. Though the Sicilians traded with the Arabs (sometimes called "Saracens" or "Moors"), coastal raids became commonplace. These diminished somewhat after 750 owing to internal struggles among the Muslims.
By 800, there were Arab merchants living in several Sicilian cities. In 805 and again in 813, the governor of Sicily signed trade treaties with the Aghlabids of Tunisia. Matters in Constantinople were not so serene. In 827, the Emperor ordered the arrest of Euphemius, governor of Sicily and a distinguished general. This prompted a revolt in which the general declared himself emperor. Faced with further dissension, Euphemius sought help from the Aghlabid emir, offering him Sicily (a profitable source of tax revenue) in return. The emir accepted, and soon a multi-ethnic force of at least ten thousand Persians, Berbers, Arabs and Spaniards occupied the western city of Mazara.
Bal'harm (Palermo), formerly Panormus, was taken in 831 and soon became capital of one of the island's several emirates. Syracuse fell only in 878, and Taormina, the last Byzantine stronghold, in 902.
Beginning in 867, the Emperor Basil and his descendants promoted a period of prosperity and scholarship in Constantinople. The Empire continued to exist as an important force in the Mediterranean, but only as a shadow of its former self. Some Italian cities remained under Byzantine control, at least nominally, but Sicily was lost. (Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453, a date considered by many scholars to indicate the end of the Middle Ages.)
Byzantine culture was not simply a question of Byzantine rule. In Sicily and elsewhere, Byzantine society and culture melded with Arabic culture. Indeed, Arabic and Islamic art and society were greatly influenced by Byzantium. Mosques were constructed, often with the help of Byzantine craftsmen, and in Sicily the Church, formally under the Patriarchate of Constantinople from 732, remained solidly Orthodox into the early years of Norman rule, when the beginnings of Latinization took place.
The Schism between the Patriarch of Rome and the patriarchs of the East occurred in 1054, when Sicily was ruled by Muslim emirs. Long before this date zealous Patriarchs of Rome (the Popes) were already encouraging Norman knights in southern Italy to conquer Sicily, thus bringing it into a sphere of influence which was not only Christian but specifically Latin. The reasons for the Schism were political as well as theological. In the wake of this bitter separation, the "Catholic" Church of Rome was to grow further away from the "Orthodox" Church of Constantinople and the entire East. Catholic theology, doctrine and liturgy became increasingly altered. The Normans conquered Messina in 1061 and took Palermo a decade later. In Sicily, the introduction of Latin clergy, and the use of the Latin language in liturgy, were gradually introduced in the years following. By the time Frederick II ascended the throne as a young man early in the thirteenth century, little remained of Orthodoxy in Sicily except a few icons. The new Latinization attenuated the importance of Byzantine culture generally --even linguistically. In Frederick's Palermo, Greek and Arabic were still spoken. This soon changed, however. Generation by generation, the Greek language was cast aside, and Sicilian emerged as a solidly Latin (Romance) tongue, albeit with Arabic and Greek influences. (This Latinization of the Sicilian vernacular was not unlike the Normans' Latinization of English during the same period.)
Yet, in the context of a society made up of several cultures, Byzantine art flourished in Sicily well into the twelfth century. Bearing the marks of Orthodoxy, the Normans' earliest Roman Catholic churches, featuring mosaic icons and other Byzantine elements, look more Eastern than Western. (The Martorana of Palermo, and the cathedrals of Monreale and Cefalù come to mind, but also numerous smaller churches and monasteries, particularly in "Byzantine" northeastern Sicily.)
Byzantine rule did not result in a mass "colonization" of Sicily like those of the ancient Greeks or medieval Arabs, but there was certainly immigration and trade. Constantinople's lasting effects in Sicily far transcended her waning political influence.
About the Authors: Luigi Mendola is the History Editor of Best of Sicily and author of several books. Palermo native Vincenzo Salerno, who contributed to this article, has written biographies of several famous Sicilians, including Frederick II and Giuseppe di Lampedusa.
Israel's motley mosaics
2. Cornucopia and gratitude: The church mosaic uncovered at Kibbutz Beit Kama is one of several all over the Negev, dating back to the time when Christian pilgrims crisscrossed that region. In the northern Negev, near Kibbutz Nirim (off of Road 241 or 242) is another beautiful “stone carpet.” Restored by the Jewish National Fund, this sixth-century mosaic on the ancient site of Maon, like many ancient synagogue and church mosaics, features an inscription mentioning the names of the donors (some things never change) as well as intricate depictions of agricultural motifs such as grape-harvesting and brimming baskets of fruit, animal and birds.
(To visit the first of these ever discovered, the sixth-century Shellal mosaic, will require a little more fuel than a trip to the Negev – after its discovery during World War I it was eventually taken to Canberra, Australia, where it is on display at the war museum there.)
3. The Bird Mosaic of Caesarea and other fauna: Birds are a common motif in mosaic floors, and in fact, have given their name to the Bird Mosaic of Caesarea.
Some of them, like storks and pelicans, still cross Israel’s skies. Others are fanciful or humorous, road-runner style. Around them are wild animals and repeating geometric patterns that would put an Amish quilting bee to shame. The Bird Mosaic is clearly signposted, on the way to the aqueduct in Caesarea. It is special in that it is not from a church or a synagogue, but rather from a room in the villa of a wealthy Byzantine-era Caesarean.
4. A cross on the floor: Most mosaics are famed for the detail of their depictions of animals, plants and human figures. But the beauty of the mosaics at Mamshit National Park, which contains two churches, is in their simplicity. A rare depiction in Byzantine Christian art of a cross on the floor of the eastern churches reveals its antiquity, since after the 427 CE crosses were prohibited as floor decorations.
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5. Thanks to the antiquities robbers? Other Christian artistic and religious symbols include fish and peacocks. Both can be found on the mosaic floor of the Byzantine church at Horvat Midras, southwest of Jerusalem, not far from Beit Guvrin National Park. Ancient pilgrims apparently marked the tomb of the prophet Zechariah at the site. This magnificent mosaic was discovered in 2011 – “thanks” to an illegal dig by antiquities robbers. The Israel Antiquities Authority subsequently mounted an excavation, unearthing the floor featuring depictions of animals. Complex geometric patterns create beautiful frames on this floor.
6. The curse of the balsam makers: Birds also appear in the mosaic floor of the ancient synagogue at Ein Gedi near the Dead Sea, whose dominant colors seem to mimic the surrounding desert scenery – shades of beige and brown, with green highlights, recalling the oasis home of the community that built it. Like other synagogues the mosaic reveals that the community was wealthy enough to pay the designer, the mosaic master and his extensive team – no small outlay, as you’ll learn at the charming audiovisual presentation at Beit Alfa National Park’s mosaic.
In the case of Ein Gedi, the wealth came from the cultivation of balsam, used in cosmetics and medicines. Because producing these products was so lucrative, it was apparently kept under close wraps. The long inscription in its synagogue mosaic brings down a curse on anyone who reveals the “secret” – presumably the coveted, eyes-only balsam recipe.
7. The sacrifice of Isaac: Some mosaic artisans outdid themselves in human depictions. Not everyone approved of such depictions, because some of them, like the sun god Helios or the signs of the Zodiac, were pagan or had been adapted by Christians. In fact, at one point in the history of the synagogue in Tiberias (Hamat Tverya National Park), the building was renovated, including a wall right across the beautiful floor, obviously to hide what some new building committee considered offensive.
At Beit Alfa National Park, discovered back in the 1920s, you’ll find an entire Bible story depicted in stone– the Binding of Isaac, right down to the altar, Abraham holding the knife, and a hand emerging from a cloud, with the first words of the fateful verse: “Lay not thy hand upon the lad” (Gen. 22:12).
Here and elsewhere people are amazed to find they can recognize some of the ancient Jewish symbols. Flanking the mosaic depiction of the doors of the Holy Ark is the seven-branched candelabrum, one of Judaism’s most enduring symbols, as well as a shofar, lulav and etrog. The only symbol most people can’t quite make out is the incense pan, which, like the candelabrum and the shofar, commemorated worship at the Jerusalem Temple, long destroyed by the time these mosaics were created.
8. Mosaic as story teller: At Tzippori National Park, you’ll find the mosaic-as-story reaching new heights. The Binding of Isaac is there, too, but alongside the sacrificial scene a remnant of the mother of the “offering” – Sarah – appears. The story continues up the mosaic to the Zodiac, where, as in many other synagogue mosaics, the names appear in Hebrew.
The four seasons are also shown, named and bearing their appropriate symbols, such as a bowl of grapes for summer or water for the rainy winter season. These were educational devices, scholars tell us, dating from a time when what some consider “merely” astrology today was a scientific pursuit. In the Tzippori mosaic, the design includes the symbol of the sun, often associated in Psalms with redemption, as well as the Temple symbols. The entire story reminded worshippers that redemption, first promised to Abraham, would shine like the sun, and the Temple would be rebuilt.
9. Jewish symbols at Susya: At Susya, in the southern Hebron Hills (which is over the Green Line, reached from Road 31 in the northern Negev) lies another synagogue floor replete with Jewish symbols. Here, too apparently the synagogue board decided to replace their Zodiac with a more “conservative” geometric pattern. The Bible story here depicts Daniel in the lion’s den.
10. When even King Herod observed the law: Finally, the relatively simple mosaic at the Herodian Mansions in Jerusalem’s Jewish Quarter may be among the most poignant in Israel. It once decorated a Jewish home during the Second Temple period, when even King Herod observed the Jewish law proscribing human or animal images. What this mosaic with its simple geometric pattern lacks in color and designs compared to others, it makes up in the history it brings alive: on it are the charred remains of a wooden beam that fell from the mansion’s ceiling and burned itself to cinder on the floor, together with the rest of the magnificent Jewish homes of Jerusalem’s Upper City one month after the Temple’s destruction in 70 CE.
Phone Numbers (sites not listed are not gated and open 24/7):
National Park sites are open from 8 A.M. to 4 P.M. in winter 8-5 in summer site closes one hour earlier on Friday entry up to one hour before closing time
Mamshit National Park: 08-6556478
Inn of the Good Samaritan: Tel 02-6338230
Susya (Sunday-Thursday 10–5 Friday 10–2): 02-9963424 (Hebrew)
Beit Alfa National Park: 04-6542004
Hamat Tverya National Park: 04-6725287
Herodian Mansions (Sunday–Thursday 9– 5 Friday 9-¬1): 02-6283448
(Information courtesy of Tourism Ministry website.)
Bird at Mamshit. Miriam Feinberg Vamosh
Yale Lectures in Late Antique and Byzantine Art and Architecture
This lecture series is organized by Robert S. Nelson, Robert Lehman Professor in the History of Art, and Vasileios Marinis, Associate Professor of Christian Art and Architecture at the ISM and YDS. Support is provided by the Department of Classics and the Department of the History of Art.
Zoom lectures begin at 12 noon Eastern Time registration is required. You can register at any time to join a lecture. Your registration is valid for the whole series attend as many as you like.
Register for each Zoom webinar by clicking on the lecture title.
Visual Epitome in Late Antique Art
Jaś Elsner, University of Oxford
Respondent: Maria Doerfler, Yale
12 de fevereiro
From Domestic to Divine: The Mosaics of Late Antique Syria
Sean Leatherbury, University College, Dublin
Respondent: Örgü Dalgıç, Yale
9 de abril
Auro, argento, aere perennius: Byzantine Art in and through Coins 4 th –15th Centuries
Cécile Morrisson, CNRS and Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres
Respondent: Benjamin Dieter R. Hellings, Yale
Incredible 1,500-year-old Christian mosaic uncovered in Israel
Conor Powell reports on the ancient discovery dating back to the early days of Christianity.
Archaeologists in Israel have uncovered a stunning 1,500-year-old Christian mosaic that was once the floor of a church or monastery.
Experts found the mosaic during an excavation in the ancient Mediterranean coastal city of Ashdod-Yam, now part of the modern city of Ashdod. The discovery, which was made in August, was announced Thursday by the Israel Antiquities Authority.
An inscription in Greek dedicated to the structure’s builders offered archaeologists a vital clue. The inscription mentions a date on the ancient Georgian calendar, enabling experts to date the building.
The mosaic and the inscription. (Photo: Sasha Flit, Tel Aviv University)
"[By the grace of God (or Christ)], this work was done from the foundation under Procopius, our most saintly and most holy bishop, in the month Dios of the 3rd indiction, year 292" it reads. The year 292 corresponds to 539 A.D. “This is the earliest appearance of the use of the Georgian calendar in the Land of Israel, many years before it was used in Georgia itself,” explained Dr. Leah Di Segni of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, who deciphered the inscription, in a statement.
Experts from the Israel Antiquities Authority, Tel Aviv University, and the University of Gottingen and Leipzig University in Germany also participated in the project.
Ashdod-Yam was an important city during the Byzantine period. Long hidden under sand dunes, the city is now revealing its secrets. “As far as we know, Ashdod is now home to the largest community of Jews of Georgian origin in the world,” said Dr. Alexander Fantalkin of Tel Aviv University, Dr. Balbina Bäbler of the University of Göttingen, and Sa’ar Ganor of the Israel Antiquities Authority, in the statement. “Testimony to the presence of the actual Georgians in the Land of Israel as far back as the Byzantine period has been found dozens of kilometers from Ashdod – in Jerusalem and its surroundings. But this is the first time that a Georgian church or monastery has been discovered on the Israeli coast.”
A close-up shot of the mosaic. (Photo: Anat Rasiuk, Israel Antiquities Authority)
The archaeologists note that, according to historical sources, the fifth-century Georgian Prince and Bishop Peter the Iberian lived in Ashdod-Yam.
Archaeologists are now working to raise additional funds to continue their excavation of the site.
The Ashdod-Yam mosaic floor is just the latest fascinating Christian archaeological find in Israel. An ancient Greek inscription, for example, was recently found on a 1,500-year-old mosaic floor near the Damascus Gate in the Old City of Jerusalem. The inscription mentions the Byzantine emperor Justinian, who ruled in the 6th century A.D., and commemorates the building’s founding by a priest called Constantine.
The mosaic and the inscription. (Photo: Sasha Flit, Tel Aviv University0
In 2015 a 1,500-year-old church was discovered at a Byzantine-era rest stop between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. In 2014 the remains of another church from the same period were uncovered in southern Israel.
Experts also believe they have found the lost Roman city of Julias, formerly the village of Bethsaida, which was the home of Jesus' apostles Peter, Andrew and Philip.
Byzantine Hoop-trundling Mosaic - History
In 330 AD, Constantine the Great transferred the capital of the Roman Empire to the city of Byzantion on the shores of the Bosporus. During the early Byzantine period (330-700), the Empire included Eastern Europe, the Roman Near East, Egypt and portions of North Africa. The Arab conquests of the seventh century would greatly reduce this area, but the Byzantine world would soon extend into areas of Russia, which were never before Romanized. With the exception of the Latin Conquests, when crusaders captured the imperial capital (1204-61), Constantinople remained as the geographic and symbolic center of this cultural and political sphere until its conquest and collapse (1453).
The Byzantines thought of themselves as the heirs of the Roman Empire, Greek remained the lingua franca of their domain, for example, as it had in this area under Roman rule, and we may approach their architecture from this position. One may interpret the works of civic architecture&mdashthe great walls and gates of the capital city, the Aqueduct of Valens, the Hippodrome, cisterns, fora and royal palaces&mdashin light of Imperial functions, rituals and symbols. The public spaces and structures of Constantinople functioned within a complex ideology finding its expression in ceremonial and architectural monumentality.
But approaching any work of Byzantine architecture outside of its deep connection to religion gives us an incomplete picture of this tradition. While the Byzantines were the heirs of the Roman Empire, they turned away from the gods of antiquity to embrace Christianity.
Although the Empire was religiously diverse, by the late fourth century Christianity became the official religion of the Empire, and faith would help maintain the authority and prominence of Constantinople through its decline from political significance. Much of Byzantine architecture was created to express religious experience and mediate between the believer and God. Taken in its architectural context, the iconographic program of the mosaics and frescoes of the Kariye Camii envelopes the believer within scenes of the Old Testament and the lives of Christ and Mary Mother of God. Visual expressions of faith within the context of the Eucharist and other religious ceremonies then provide layers of meaning, even the primary context, to the architectural heritage of the Byzantine world.
Building: Hosios Lukas (Church of St. Luke)
Date: 10thearly 11th century