Notícia

Batalha de Chenggao, 204 a.C.

Batalha de Chenggao, 204 a.C.

Batalha de Chenggao, 204 a.C.

A batalha de Chenggao (204 aC) foi uma pequena vitória conquistada por Liu Bang, enquanto os principais exércitos Chu sob Xiang Yu foram distraídos por uma derrota sofrida por um de seus outros exércitos em Hsia-p’ei.

Os principais exércitos Han e Chu faziam campanha em torno de Xingyang, perto do Rio Amarelo, desde 203 aC, com Xiang Yu atacando as linhas de abastecimento de Liu Bang e, em particular, uma estrada fortificada que conectava Xingyang ao celeiro em Ao no Rio Amarelo. A luta se intensificou em 204 aC, quando Xiang Yu se tornou um cerco formal de Xingyang.

Depois de algumas semanas, Liu Bang conseguiu escapar da cidade sitiada e retirou-se para o oeste para formar um novo exército. Ele então se mudou para Yuan, ao sul de Xingyang, onde fortaleceu sua posição. Xiang Yu o seguiu, reduzindo a pressão em Xingyang. A posição Han melhorou ainda mais quando Xiang soube que seus exércitos no leste haviam sido derrotados em Hsia-p’ei (Wade-Giles). Xiang mudou-se para o leste para restaurar a situação ali, deixando um comandante nomeado como o velho senhor Zhong no comando em Chenggao.

Liu Bang respondeu movendo-se para o norte, atacou e derrotou o exército de Zhong em Chenggao. Ele estabeleceu sua base na cidade, mas quando Xiang voltou do leste, Liu Bang se viu sitiado em Chenggao e, pela segunda vez, teve que escapar pelas linhas inimigas para um lugar seguro.


Contenção Chu – Han


o Contenção Chu – Han (206–202 aC) foi um interregno entre a Dinastia Qin e a Dinastia Han na história chinesa. Após o colapso da Dinastia Qin, Xiang Yu dividiu o antigo Império Qin em Dezoito Reinos. Duas potências em conflito proeminentes, Western Chu e Han, emergiram desses principados e se engajaram na luta pela supremacia sobre a China. Western Chu era liderado por Xiang Yu, enquanto o líder Han era Liu Bang. Durante este período de tempo, vários reis menores dos Dezoito Reinos também travaram batalhas entre si. Essas batalhas eram independentes do conflito principal entre Chu e Han. A guerra terminou com a vitória total de Han, após a qual Liu Bang se proclamou "Imperador da China" e estabeleceu a Dinastia Han.


Uma história de guerra em 100 batalhas

Em seu livro mais recente, Richard Overy investiga mais de 3.000 anos de história, desde a Queda de Tróia em 1200 aC até a Queda de Bagdá em 2003, para localizar as 100 batalhas que ele acredita serem as mais importantes. Organizado por temas como liderança, inovação, decepção e coragem sob fogo, Overy apresenta
envolvente ensaios em cada batalha que juntos fornecem uma imagem rica de como o combate mudou através dos tempos, bem como destacando o que permaneceu consistente apesar dos avanços na tecnologia.

As batalhas cobertas aqui oferecem um amplo alcance geográfico, da Grécia antiga à China, de Constantinopla a Moscou, da América do Norte à América do Sul, fornecendo uma imagem dos impérios dominantes ao longo do tempo e contexto para comparação entre várias culturas militares. De compromissos familiares como Thermopylae
(480 aC), Verdun (1916) e a Ofensiva Tet (1968) para batalhas menos estudadas, como Zama (202 aC), Arsuf (1191) e Baía de Navarino (1827), Overy apresenta os principais atores, escolhas, e contingências, com foco nesses detalhes - às vezes esquecidos - que decidiram a batalha. A vitória americana em
a Batalha de Midway, por exemplo, foi determinada por apenas dez bombas. Foi, como Wellington disse de Waterloo, quase uma corrida.

Em vez de focar na questão da vitória ou derrota, Overy examina o que um combate pode nos dizer em um nível mais amplo sobre a própria história da guerra. Novas armas e táticas podem ter um impacto repentino no resultado de uma batalha - mas a liderança também pode, ou os efeitos de um
decepção ou coragem crua. Overy oferece um olhar hábil e visualmente cativante nos combates que moldaram o curso da história humana e mudaram a face da guerra.

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Revisão do LibraryThing

O Sr. Overy peneirou, classificou e escolheu 100 batalhas importantes de vários pontos da história mundial e as agrupou de acordo com as várias condições táticas, estratégicas, de liderança ou sorte. Читать весь отзыв

Revisão do LibraryThing

Esses tipos de livros de pesquisa / antologia costumam ser difíceis de realizar. Felizmente, com A History of War in 100 Battles, esse não foi o caso. A história da guerra e da guerra costuma ser difícil. Читать весь отзыв


Conteúdo

No mito imperial Han, os ancestrais de Liu Bang eram o mítico Imperador Yao e o Imperador Amarelo. [4] Muitas famílias nobres chinesas antigas reivindicaram descendência do Imperador Amarelo para justificar seu direito de governar. [5]

Liu Bang nasceu durante os últimos anos do período dos Reinos Combatentes [2], seus pais são apenas lembrados como "Liu Taigong" (劉太公 lit. "Antigo Senhor Liu") e "Liu Ao" (劉 媪 lit. "Antigo Madam Liu ") [6] Sua família era do distrito de Zhongyang (中 陽 里) (Feng (丰 邑), Condado de Pei (沛縣)) no estado de Chu. [2] De acordo com a lenda, Liu Bang foi concebido depois que Liu Ao encontrou um dragão durante uma tempestade. [7]

De acordo com os registros, o jovem Liu era franco, carismático, generoso e tolerante, mas tinha pouco interesse em educação ou trabalho e freqüentemente tinha problemas com a lei, pois dependia de seu irmão para subsistência e seu pai o chamava de "pequeno malandro " Mais tarde, ele se tornou um bom amigo de Zhang Er (chinês: 張耳,? - 202 aC), o magistrado do condado de Waihuang nas proximidades e ex-criado do Senhor Xinling. Liu viveu com Zhang Er até que este se escondeu após a conquista de Chu por Qin. [ citação necessária ]

Liu voltou para o condado de Pei. Seus amigos próximos no escritório do condado, Xiao He e Cao Shen, esconderam seu comportamento delinquente e o ajudaram a ser nomeado xerife local (亭長) no Pavilhão Sishui (泗水 亭). Liu Bang estabeleceu relações estreitas com a maioria dos burocratas locais do condado e conquistou uma pequena reputação no distrito. Enquanto realizava trabalho estatal em Xianyang, a capital de Qin, ele testemunhou Qin Shi Huang realizando uma visita de inspeção à procissão real que impressionou Liu. [ citação necessária ]

A esposa de Liu, Lü Zhi, era filha de Lü Wen (呂文), uma nobreza rica e influente do condado de Shanfu. Depois de se mudar para o condado de Pei, Lü Wen deu um banquete para a elite local. Xiao He, que ajudava a arrecadar presentes dos convidados, declarou que um assento dentro do salão exigia presentes no valor de pelo menos mil moedas. Liu compareceu à festa sem dinheiro e fez uma oferta de dez mil moedas que Xiao He percebeu que não era séria. Mesmo assim, Lü colocou Liu sentado ao lado dele com base apenas na aparência. Lü, ainda mais impressionado com a conversa de Liu, ofereceu sua filha em casamento. Liu e Lü Zhi eram casados ​​e tinham dois filhos, Liu Ying (o futuro imperador Hui) e a futura princesa Yuan de Lu. [ citação necessária ]

Liu foi responsável por escoltar um grupo de trabalhadores penais até o local de construção do mausoléu do Primeiro Imperador no Monte Li. Durante a viagem, alguns prisioneiros escaparam sob a lei Qin, permitindo que os prisioneiros escapassem era punível com a morte. Em vez de enfrentar a justiça, Liu libertou os prisioneiros restantes e fugiu. Liu juntou-se a alguns dos agradecidos ex-prisioneiros e tornou-se o seu líder. Eles assumiram uma fortaleza abandonada no Monte Mangdang. Liu secretamente manteve contato com alguns velhos amigos, incluindo Xiao He e Cao Shen no condado de Pei. [ citação necessária ]

De acordo com a lenda da "Revolta da Matança da Serpente Branca" (chinês: 斬 白蛇 起義), a ascensão de Liu ao governo foi profetizada após se tornar um fora da lei. Na lenda, uma gigantesca serpente branca matou alguns dos bandidos com seu hálito venenoso; a serpente foi morta por um bêbado Liu durante a noite. Na manhã seguinte, os bandidos encontraram uma velha ao longo da estrada quando questionados por que ela estava chorando, ela desapareceu misteriosamente após responder: "Meu filho, o filho do Imperador Branco, foi morto pelo filho do Imperador Vermelho." A reputação de Liu cresceu entre seus seguidores, que se convenceram de seu destino. [ citação necessária ]

Em 209 aC, Chen Sheng e Wu Guang iniciaram a Revolta anti-Qin Dazexiang. O magistrado do condado de Pei considerou aderir à rebelião e - a conselho de Xiao He e Cao Shen - convidou o grupo de Liu ao condado para apoiá-lo. O convite foi transmitido por Fan Kuai, seu cunhado de Liu. No entanto, o magistrado mudou de ideia e rescindiu a oferta. Ele também ordenou que Xiao e Cao fossem mortos para que não abrissem os portões para Liu, mas eles escaparam e se juntaram a Liu. Seguindo o conselho de Xiao, Liu conseguiu a ajuda de plebeus do condado de Beide Pei por meio de apelos escritos entregues por flechas disparadas do outro lado da fronteira. Os camponeses responderam matando o magistrado do condado de Pei e saudando o retorno de Liu. Liu ficou conhecido como o autoproclamado "Duque de Pei" (沛公). [ citação necessária ]

Em 208 aC, o império Qin enfrentou rebeliões que buscavam restaurar os estados conquistados durante as guerras de unificação. No condado de Wu, a revolta de Xiang Liang - um plebeu e filho de um general Chu - instalou Xiong Xin como "Rei Huai II" (楚後懷 王) de Chu. Liu juntou-se à revolta de Xiang Liang. Depois que Xiang Liang foi morto na Batalha de Dingtao, Huai II enviou Xiang Yu - sobrinho de Xiang Liang - e o ministro Song Yi para liderar um exército para reforçar o estado de Zhao contra o ataque de Qin. [ citação necessária ]

Liu Bang foi nomeado "Marquês de Wu'an" (武安侯) e recebeu a ordem de liderar um exército contra Guanzhong no coração de Qin. Huai II prometeu conceder o governo de Guanzhong como "Rei de Guanzhong" a quem entrasse primeiro na região. Em 206 aC, Liu Bang venceu a corrida para Guanzhong sobre Xiang e chegou aos arredores de Xianyang, a capital de Qin. O último governante Qin, Ziying, rendeu a cidade sem resistência. As políticas de ocupação de Liu foram informadas por Fan Kuai - agora seu guarda-costas - e Zhang Liang - seu estrategista. As tropas foram proibidas de maltratar a população e saquear. As duras leis de Qin foram abolidas, o assassinato, o roubo e o roubo permaneceram sujeitos a punições rígidas. A ordem foi rapidamente restaurada na cidade e Liu conquistou o respeito da população de Guanzhong. Xiao He ordenou a coleta de todos os documentos legais no palácio Qin e nas instalações do governo para preservação. [ citação necessária ]

Festa no Hong Gate Editar

Xiang Yu não gostou de perder a corrida para Guanzhong. Seguindo o conselho de Fan Zeng - seu conselheiro - e Cao Wushang (曹 無 傷) - um informante do campo de Liu - Xiang Yu planejou realizar um banquete para assassinar Liu. Xiang Yu foi perseguido por Xiang Bo, seu tio e amigo próximo de Zhang Liang, para não ordenar o assassinato durante o banquete. Frustrado com a indecisão, Fan Zeng ordenou que Xiang Zhuang, primo de Xiang Yu, executasse e matasse Liu durante uma dança de espada, mas isso foi impedido por Xiang Bo se juntar à dança e proteger Liu. Zhang Liang escapuliu e convocou Fan Kuai, que chegou ao banquete com armadura completa e repreendeu Xiang Yu pela conspiração sinistra. Envergonhado pela acusação de Fan Kuai, Xiang Yu ordenou que a dança da espada parasse e recompensou Fan Kuai por sua bravura. Liu Bang escapou do acampamento de Xiang Yu depois de fingir que ia para a latrina, e então liderou seu exército para o oeste. Xiang Yu então saqueou Xianyang e queimou o Palácio Epang. [ citação necessária ]

Enfeoffment at Hanzhong Edit

Depois de ocupar Xianyang, Xiang Yu se proclamou o "Hegemon-Rei de Chu Ocidental" e dividiu o antigo Império Qin em Dezoito Reinos. Ele deu Guanzhong a três ex-generais Qin - Zhang Han, Sima Xin e Dong Yi - em vez de Liu. Liu recebeu a região isolada de Bashu (Bacia de Sichuan e vale do rio Han superior), então um local usado para exilar prisioneiros, pois Xiang Yu afirmou que Bashu fazia parte de Guanzhong. Zhang Liang, que estava partindo para seu estado natal de Han, negociou um acordo melhor em nome de Liu depois de subornar Xiang Yu por meio de Xiang Bo. A Liu, Xiang Yu adicionou Nanzheng, a região do vale do rift ao redor do (então) médio rio Han, e o título de "Rei de Han". [ citação necessária ]

O exército de Liu foi escoltado pelas montanhas Qinling por um destacamento do exército de Xiang Yu. Seguindo o conselho de Xiao He, Liu queimou as estradas da galeria atrás dele para evitar o ataque de Xiang Yu e para tranquilizá-lo de que ele não voltaria. [ citação necessária ]

De 206 a 202 aC, Liu Bang engajou Xiang Yu em uma luta pelo poder - historicamente conhecida como contenção Chu-Han - pela supremacia sobre a China, enquanto simultaneamente atacava e subjugava os outros reinos.

Conquista dos Três Qin Editar

A migração de Liu Bang para Nanzheng foi longe de ser agradável - seus seguidores eram principalmente das regiões planas de Wu e Chu e mal se adaptaram nas montanhas Bashu, e desertores cresciam diariamente. Liu Bang também ficou temperamental, pois estava muito infeliz com sua própria situação. Uma noite, chegou o boato de que Xiao He também havia desaparecido e Liu Bang quase teve um colapso nervoso. Quando Xiao He voltou na manhã seguinte, Liu Bang o confrontou furiosamente e exigiu uma explicação. Xiao He revelou que estava com pressa em perseguir um estrategista militar extremamente talentoso chamado Han Xin, que na época era apenas um oficial de baixa patente recrutado recentemente para o exército de Liu Bang. Xiao He então apresentou Liu Bang a Han Xin, que traçou seu plano estratégico para conquistar os estados. Impressionado e convencido, Liu Bang designou formalmente Han Xin como comandante supremo de seu exército.

Enquanto isso, o tratamento autoritário e arbitrário de Xiang Yu sobre os enfeites criou muita raiva entre os líderes rebeldes. Apenas quatro meses após a partida de Liu Bang para Bashu, uma rebelião eclodiu no reino de Qi no final de 206 aC, e Xiang Yu deixou Chu Ocidental para suprimir a revolta. Sob o conselho de Han Xin, Liu Bang enviou homens para fingir que tentavam consertar as estradas das galerias anteriormente queimadas, atraindo a atenção dos Três Qins. Ao mesmo tempo, Han Xin usou a distração para invadir Guanzhong inesperadamente via Chencang, e rapidamente derrotou Zhang Han em um ataque surpresa. Depois disso, Sima Xin e Dong Yi renderam-se a Liu Bang e, em 205 aC, os Três Qins tornaram-se parte do Reino de Han de Liu.

Derrota na edição Pengcheng

Com Xiang Yu ocupado a leste, Liu Bang reuniu uma força de 560.000 soldados de suas terras subordinadas e marchou para o leste para atacar Chu Ocidental. No caminho, ele encontrou Peng Yue, que se juntou à sua causa sob a promessa de um feudo em Wei. Em oposição a unir forças, Liu Bang enviou 30.000 soldados de Peng Yue para pacificar a área circundante. O exército de Liu Bang entrou na capital de Pengcheng de Xiang Yu, aparentemente sem oposição, saqueando seus objetos de valor e levando suas mulheres, mas a disciplina havia se tornado frouxa e a cada dia encontrava as tropas Han ainda mais afundadas.

Ao saber da queda de Pengcheng, Xiang Yu ordenou que o grosso de suas forças mantivesse o ataque a Qi, enquanto ele comandava pessoalmente 30.000 soldados de elite para retomar a capital. Ele acampou a cerca de dezesseis quilômetros de uma cidade no atual condado de Xiao, Anhui, e lançou um ataque a Pengcheng ao amanhecer, e ao meio-dia havia derrotado o exército Han despreparado, levando-os para os rios Gu e Si, onde havia mais de 100.000 homens afogou-se ou foram mortos pelos soldados Chu. As tropas han restantes fugiram para o sul, para terras altas, mas foram encurraladas pelas forças Chu pelo rio Sui, onde outros 100.000 se afogaram, seus corpos represando rio acima.

Liu Bang escapou da cidade com um punhado de guarda-costas montados, indo para as proximidades de Pei para reunir sua família. Xiang Yu também despachou tropas para Pei na tentativa de capturar a família de Liu Bang. Sua família havia fugido, mas Liu Bang encontrou na estrada sua filha mais velha e segundo filho mais velho, Liu Ying. O exército Chu coagiu um local a levá-los a capturar dois membros da família de Liu Bang como reféns: seu pai Liu Taigong e sua esposa Lü Zhi. Um relato afirma que a mãe de Liu Bang também foi capturada. o Registros do Grande Historiador relata um evento durante este conflito, um evento omitido da própria biografia de Liu Bang, mas presente na biografia de Xiang Yu, onde Liu Bang empurrou seus próprios filhos para fora de sua carruagem três vezes para aliviá-la em uma tentativa desesperada de escapar dos homens de Xiang Yu, e é apenas a intervenção repetida de Xiahou Ying que garante a fuga das crianças. [8]

Batalha de Jingsuo Editar

Após a desastrosa derrota em Pengcheng, a força das forças Han diminuiu drasticamente. Muitos dos reis que se renderam a Liu Bang anteriormente também haviam desertado para o lado de Xiang Yu. Além disso, os reinos Qi e Zhao, que anteriormente estavam em guerra com Chu, também pediram para fazer as pazes com Chu.

Ao chegar a Xiayi (下 邑 a leste do atual condado de Dangshan, Suzhou, Anhui), que era defendido por seu cunhado, Liu Bang reorganizou suas tropas para uma retirada. Quando ele chegou a Yu (虞 atual condado de Yucheng, Shangqiu, Henan), ele enviou um enviado ao encontro de Ying Bu (Rei de Jiujiang) para pedir apoio. Ying Bu, que guardava rancor pelo injusto enfeitiçamento de Xiang Yu pelos Dezoito Reinos, concordou em se juntar a Liu Bang e se rebelou contra Chu Ocidental. Xiang Yu respondeu enviando Long Ju para atacar Ying Bu.

Em 205 aC, Liu Bang nomeou seu filho Liu Ying como seu príncipe herdeiro e ordenou-lhe que defendesse Yueyang. Pouco depois, as forças Han conquistaram Feiqiu (廢 丘 atual Xingping, Shaanxi), que era guardado por Zhang Han, que cometeu suicídio após sua derrota. Em outra frente, Ying Bu não conseguiu derrotar Long Ju, então ele desistiu de Jiujiang e foi se juntar a Liu Bang. Liu Bang reorganizou seu exército, que agora incluía reforços de Guanzhong (enviados por Xiao He) e as tropas de Han Xin, e atacou Chu no condado de Jing (京 縣 próximo a Xingyang, Zhengzhou, Henan) e Suoting (索 亭 quase presente- dia Xingyang, Henan). Ele saiu vitorioso e conduziu as forças de Xiang Yu a leste de Xingyang.

Batalha de Chenggao e Tratado do Canal de Hong Editar

Em 204 aC, após sofrer perdas com os ataques de Chu nas recém-construídas rotas de abastecimento de Xingyang, o exército Han estava com falta de suprimentos. Liu Bang negociou um armistício com Xiang Yu e concordou em ceder as terras a leste de Xingyang para Chu Ocidental. Xiang Yu queria aceitar a oferta de Liu Bang, mas Fan Zeng o aconselhou a rejeitá-la e usar a oportunidade para destruir Liu Bang. Xiang Yu mudou de ideia, pressionou o ataque contra Xingyang e sitiou as forças de Liu Bang dentro da cidade. Liu Bang acatou a sugestão de Chen Ping de subornar os homens de Xiang Yu com 40.000 catties de ouro para espalhar rumores de que Fan Zeng tinha a intenção de trair Xiang Yu. Xiang Yu caiu na armadilha e demitiu Fan Zeng.

Mais tarde naquele ano, enquanto Xiang Yu estava fora suprimindo a rebelião no reino de Qi, Li Yiji aconselhou Liu Bang a usar a oportunidade para atacar Chu Ocidental. As forças Han conquistaram Chenggao e derrotaram o exército Chu liderado por Cao Jiu perto do rio Si. As forças de Liu Bang avançaram ainda mais até chegarem a Guangwu (廣 武). As forças Chu lideradas por Zhongli Mo foram presas pelo exército Han no leste de Xingyang. Após a vitória de Han Xin na Batalha do Rio Wei, o moral do exército Chu caiu e ficou sem suprimentos meses depois. Xiang Yu não teve escolha a não ser pedir para fazer as pazes com Liu Bang e libertou os membros da família de Liu, que foram mantidos como reféns por ele. Chu e Han concordaram com um cessar-fogo no Tratado do Canal de Hong (鴻溝 和約), que dividiu a China em leste e oeste sob seus respectivos domínios.

Batalha de Gaixia Editar

Em 203 aC, enquanto Xiang Yu recuava para o leste, Liu Bang, agindo sob o conselho de Zhang Liang e Chen Ping, renunciou ao Tratado do Canal de Hong e ordenou um ataque a Chu Ocidental. Ele também solicitou ajuda de Han Xin e Peng Yue para atacar Xiang Yu simultaneamente de três direções. No entanto, Han Xin e Peng Yue não mobilizaram suas tropas e Liu Bang foi derrotado por Xiang Yu em Guling (固 陵 ao sul do atual condado de Taikang, Zhoukou, Henan) e foi forçado a recuar e reforçar suas defesas. Ao mesmo tempo, ele enviou mensageiros para encontrar Han Xin e Peng Yue novamente e prometeu dar-lhes terras e títulos se eles se juntassem a ele no ataque a Xiang Yu, e eles finalmente concordaram.

Três meses depois, em 202 aC, as forças Han lideradas por Liu Bang, Han Xin e Peng Yue atacaram Western Chu de três direções. O exército Chu estava ficando sem suprimentos e Xiang Yu ficou preso em Gaixia. Han Xin ordenou que suas tropas cantassem canções folclóricas de Chu para criar uma falsa impressão de que a terra natal de Chu havia caído nas mãos de Han. O moral do exército Chu despencou e muitos soldados desertaram. Xiang Yu tentou romper o cerco e, após lutar contra repetidas armadilhas, ficou com apenas 28 homens quando alcançou a margem norte do rio Wu (próximo ao atual condado de He, cidade de Chaohu, Anhui). Ele fez uma última resistência e conseguiu matar vários soldados Han antes de, eventualmente, cometer suicídio.

Em 202 aC, Liu Bang foi entronizado como imperador com o apoio de seus súditos, embora expressasse relutância em assumir o trono. Ele chamou sua dinastia de "Han" e era historicamente conhecido como "Imperador Gaozu" (ou "Imperador Gao"). Ele estabeleceu a capital em Luoyang (mais tarde mudou-se para Chang'an) e nomeou sua esposa oficial Lü Zhi como a imperatriz e seu filho Liu Ying como o príncipe herdeiro.

No ano seguinte, o imperador Gaozu queria recompensar seus súditos que haviam contribuído para a fundação do Império Han, mas o processo se arrastou por um ano porque eles não conseguiram chegar a um acordo sobre a distribuição das recompensas. O imperador pensou que as contribuições de Xiao He eram as maiores, então ele concedeu a Xiao o título de "Marquês de Zan" e deu a ele a maior quantidade de reservas de alimentos. Alguns dos outros expressaram objeções porque pensavam que Xiao não estava diretamente envolvido na batalha, então suas contribuições não deveriam ser consideradas as maiores. O Imperador Gaozu respondeu que Xiao He deveria receber o maior crédito porque planejou sua estratégia geral na guerra contra Xiang Yu. Ele nomeou Cao Shen como a pessoa que fez as maiores contribuições na batalha e recompensou a ele e aos outros de acordo.

Reduzindo impostos e corvée Editar

O imperador Gaozu dispersou seus exércitos e permitiu que os soldados voltassem para casa. Ele deu uma ordem afirmando que as pessoas que permaneceram em Guanzhong seriam isentas de impostos e corvéia por 12 anos, enquanto aqueles que retornassem aos seus respectivos territórios nativos seriam isentos por seis anos e que o governo central cuidaria deles por um ano. Ele também concedeu liberdade aos que se venderam como escravos para evitar a fome durante as guerras. Em 195 aC, o imperador emitiu dois decretos: o primeiro oficializou a redução de impostos e a corvéia, o segundo definiu o valor do tributo a ser pago pelos reis vassalos à corte imperial no décimo mês de cada ano. O imposto sobre a terra sobre a produção agrícola foi reduzido a uma taxa de 1/15 da produção agrícola. Ele também privatizou a cunhagem.

Ênfase no Confucionismo Editar

Em seus primeiros dias, o imperador Gaozu não gostava de ler e desprezava o confucionismo. Depois de se tornar o imperador, ele ainda manteve as mesmas atitudes em relação ao confucionismo que tinha antes, até que encontrou o erudito Lu Jia (ou Lu Gu). Lu Gu escreveu um livro de 12 volumes, Xinyu (新 語), que defendia os benefícios de governar por virtude moral em oposição ao uso de leis severas e punitivas (como era sob a dinastia Qin). Lu Gu leu cada volume para o imperador depois que ele terminou de escrevê-lo. O imperador ficou profundamente impressionado. Sob o reinado do imperador Gaozu, o confucionismo floresceu e gradualmente substituiu o legalismo (da época de Qin) como a ideologia do estado. Eruditos confucionistas, incluindo Lu Gu, foram recrutados para servir no governo. O imperador também reformou o sistema jurídico relaxando algumas leis herdadas do regime de Qin e reduzindo a severidade de certas penalidades. Em 196 aC, após reprimir uma rebelião de Ying Bu, ele passou por Shandong, o local de nascimento de Confúcio, e preparou-se pessoalmente para uma cerimônia em homenagem ao filósofo.

Disputa sobre a sucessão Editar

Em seus últimos anos, o Imperador Gaozu favoreceu a Concubina Qi e negligenciou a Imperatriz Lü Zhi. Ele pensava que Liu Ying, seu herdeiro aparente (filho da imperatriz), era fraco demais para ser um governante. Assim, ele tinha a intenção de substituir Liu Ying por outro filho, Liu Ruyi, nascido de Concubina Qi. Lü Zhi ficou preocupada e pediu a Zhang Liang que ajudasse seu filho a manter sua posição. Zhang Liang recomendou quatro sábios reclusos, os Quatro Cabeças Brancas do Monte Shang, para ajudar Liu Ying.

Em 195 aC, quando a saúde do imperador Gaozu começou a piorar, ele desejou ainda mais substituir Liu Ying por Liu Ruyi como príncipe herdeiro. Zhang Liang tentou dissuadi-lo, mas foi ignorado, então ele se aposentou com a desculpa de que estava doente. Shusun Tong (tutor do príncipe herdeiro) e Zhou Chang também se opuseram fortemente à decisão do imperador de substituir Liu Ying por Liu Ruyi. Zhou Chang disse: "Não sou bom em discutir, mas sei que isso não está certo. Se Vossa Majestade destituir o Príncipe Herdeiro, não seguirei mais suas ordens". [9] Zhou Chang era franco e gaguejava, o que para alguns tornava sua fala muito divertida. O imperador riu. Depois disso, os Quatro Cabeças Brancas do Monte Shang (também conhecidos como os Quatro Haos do Monte Shang) apareceram no tribunal. O imperador Gaozu ficou surpreso ao vê-los, porque eles haviam anteriormente se recusado a ingressar no serviço público quando ele os convidou. Os quatro homens prometeram ajudar Liu Ying no futuro se ele permanecesse como o príncipe herdeiro. O imperador ficou satisfeito ao ver que Liu Ying tinha o apoio deles, então ele rejeitou a ideia de mudar seu herdeiro aparente. [10]

Editar campanhas militares

Depois de estabelecer a dinastia Han, o imperador Gaozu nomeou príncipes e reis vassalos para ajudá-lo a governar o Império Han e deu a cada um deles um pedaço de terra. Havia sete reis vassalos que não eram parentes do clã imperial: Zang Tu, o Rei de Yan Hán Xin, o Rei de Hán Han Xin, o Rei de Chu Peng Yue, o Rei de Liang Ying Bu, o Rei de Huainan Zhang Er, o Rei de Zhao Wu Rui, o Rei de Changsha. Porém, mais tarde, o imperador ficou preocupado que os reis vassalos pudessem se rebelar contra ele porque, afinal, não tinham relações de sangue com ele. Han Xin e Peng Yue foram (falsamente) acusados ​​de traição, presos e executados junto com suas famílias. Ying Bu e Zang Tu rebelaram-se contra ele, mas foram derrotados e mortos. Restaram apenas Wu Rui e Zhang Er.

Os Xiongnu no norte eram uma ameaça desde a dinastia Qin. Qin Shi Huang havia enviado o general Meng Tian para supervisionar as defesas na fronteira norte do Império Qin e a construção da Grande Muralha para repelir os invasores. Meng Tian obteve sucesso em dissuadir os Xiongnu de avançarem além da fronteira. No entanto, após o colapso da dinastia Qin, os Xiongnu aproveitaram a oportunidade para se mover para o sul e invadir a fronteira novamente. Em 201 aC, Hán Xin (Rei de Hán) desertou para o líder Xiongnu, Modu. No ano seguinte, o imperador Gaozu liderou um exército para atacar os Xiongnu, mas foi cercado e preso pelo inimigo na Batalha de Baideng. Seguindo o conselho de Chen Ping, ele subornou a esposa de Modu com presentes e fez com que ela pedisse ao marido que retirasse suas forças. Modu o fez. Após retornar à capital, o Imperador Gaozu iniciou a política de heqin, que envolveu o envio de nobres damas para se casar com os líderes Xiongnu e o pagamento de tributo anual aos Xiongnu em troca da paz entre o Império Han e os Xiongnu.

O imperador Gaozu foi ferido por uma flecha perdida durante a campanha contra Ying Bu. Ele ficou gravemente doente e permaneceu em seus aposentos internos por um longo período e ordenou que seus guardas negassem a entrada a todos que tentassem visitá-lo. Depois de vários dias, Fan Kuai invadiu os aposentos para ver o imperador e os outros súditos o seguiram. Eles viram o imperador Gaozu deitado em sua cama e assistido por um eunuco. Fan Kuai disse: "Como foi glorioso quando Sua Majestade nos levou pela primeira vez para conquistar o império e como estamos cansados ​​agora. Seus súditos ficam preocupados quando descobrem que Sua Majestade está doente, mas Sua Majestade se recusa a nos ver e prefere nossa companhia de um eunuco. Vossa Majestade esqueceu o incidente sobre Zhao Gao? " O imperador riu e saiu da cama para encontrar seus súditos.

A saúde do imperador Gaozu piorou mais tarde, então a imperatriz Lü Zhi contratou um famoso médico para curá-lo. Quando o imperador Gaozu perguntou sobre sua condição, o médico disse-lhe que sua doença poderia ser curada, mas o imperador ficou descontente e ele repreendeu o médico: "Não é a vontade dos céus que eu conseguisse conquistar este império com roupas simples e sem nada mas uma espada? Minha vida é determinada pelo Céu. É inútil, mesmo se Bian Que estiver aqui! " Ele se recusou a continuar com o tratamento e mandou o médico embora. Antes de sua morte, ele disse que Cao Shen poderia suceder Xiao He como chanceler após a morte de Xiao, e que Wang Ling poderia suceder Cao Shen. Ele também disse que Wang Ling pode ser muito jovem para desempenhar suas funções, então Chen Ping poderia ajudá-lo, mas Chen também estava qualificado para assumir as responsabilidades de chanceler sozinho. Ele também nomeou Zhou Bo como um possível candidato para o cargo de Grande Comandante. Ele morreu no Palácio de Changle (長樂宮), Chang'an, em 1 de junho de 195 AC e foi sucedido por Liu Ying, que se tornou historicamente conhecido como Imperador Hui.

o Canção do Grande Vento foi uma canção composta por Liu Bang em 195 aC, quando ele visitou sua cidade natal no condado de Pei, após reprimir a rebelião de Ying Bu. Ele preparou um banquete e convidou todos os seus velhos amigos e habitantes da cidade para se juntarem a ele. Depois de alguns drinques, Liu Bang tocou o guqin e cantou o Canção do Grande Vento. [11]

Canção do Grande Vento

Um grande vento soprou,
as nuvens subiram alto.

Agora que meu poder governa todos os mares,
Eu voltei para minha antiga vila.

Onde vou encontrar homens valentes
guardar os quatro cantos da minha terra?

    , do clã Lü (高 後 呂氏 241-180 aC), nome pessoal Zhi (雉)
      (魯元公 主 d. 187 aC), primeira filha
      • Casou-se com Zhang Ao, Marquês Xuanping (falecido em 182 aC) e teve filhos (uma filha, a Imperatriz Xiaohui)
        , Imperador Xiaowen (孝文 皇帝 劉恆 203–157 aC), quarto filho
        , Rei Daohui de Qi (齊 悼惠王 劉 肥 221–189 aC), primeiro filho
        , Rei Yin de Zhao (趙 隱 王 劉 如意 208–194 aC), terceiro filho
      • Liu Chang, Rei Li de Huainan (淮南 厲王 劉長 199–174 aC), sétimo filho
      • Liu Hui, Rei Gong de Zhao (趙 共 王 劉 恢 d. 181 aC), quinto filho, Rei Você de Zhao (趙 幽王 劉 友 d. 181 aC), sexto filho
      • Liu Jian, Rei Ling de Yan (燕 靈王 劉建 d. 181 AC), oitavo filho

      Liu Bang é uma das 32 figuras históricas que aparecem como personagens especiais no videogame Romance dos Três Reinos XI por Koei. A história de sua vida também foi dramatizada em várias séries de TV e filmes (ver Contenção Chu – Han # Referências culturais).


      Políbio, os três espiões e a batalha esquecida de Zama

      Eu li de Kbor Klib, o campo de batalha de Zama. Ainda para ler (digitalizado rapidamente) o outro. Embora meu interesse não seja uma pesquisa geográfica para localizar um campo de batalha, algumas coisas se destacam.

      Partimos de uma conclusão e depois investigamos as evidências. We must accept that Polybius has reworked an earlier source (at the behest of the Scipios in Michael's Paper on Zama) as a grand deception. If we do not buy into a conspiracy, this has no legs whatsoever. Therefore the conspiracy must be accepted.

      There is a palpable sense of needing to find a hilly site for this battle as a relatively flat site suits the received or, as Michael C describes it, "orthodox" battle. So we locate a site where horse mounted generals will lose sight of their troops. In support of this we note that the sources place both combatants' camps on a hill some 4.5- or so kilometres apart. Just on this, Livy is near certainly using Polybius here, not another source. In the 19th century Leake demonstrated that Livy regularly translates eight Polybian stades into a Roman mile (see Shifting Landscapes, Policies, And Morals: A Topographically Driven Analysis Of The Roman Wars In Greece From 200 Bc To 168 Bc, 2017, 203 & n 372). That puts Livy into Polybian territory. We then have:

      Now, it's a matter of whether Dio possivelmente supplies us with specifics or that he, possivelmente, worked from an earlier source. Either way, nothing indicates what source Dio was using and whether or not Polybius and or Livy had access to it. The dip in the road is nothing more than a area not suitable for an encampment. As well, the modern road, and its cutting, cannot be taken a mirror of any ancient route. Further evidence is adduced:

      The general nature of the terrain is also suggested in Appian`s account of the great battle of Zama, when he describes how Hannibal discovered some Spanish and Celtic troops on a hill:

      “Thus the battle continued doubtful and very severe, the soldiers on either side having the utmost reverence for their commanders, until Hannibal, discovering a body of Spanish and Celtic troops on a hill near by, dashed over to them to bring them into
      the fight.”(Appian. The Punic Wars 10.46)

      This further indicates that the ground upon which the battle was fought was not an extensive flat plain, but the type of terrain in which even a mounted general might lose sight of his own troops on the battlefield. I should add that there is no specific mention made of dust or weather affecting visibility in the confusion of the battle the battlefield terrain is therefore an undulating one.

      I've already mentioned the thoroughgoing improbability of this tale. It is palpable nonsense and, just as with with Hannibal "in his flight" from the field, as Appian (7.46) fortuitously finding "mass of Numdian horse" which he then, reversing his flight, led back into battle, needs to be ignored. Just as the Spanish and Celtic troops were not sitting out the battle awaiting some direction, they just surely can't be on a hill having a bet on who was going to win. The logic of the battlefield being clear of dust supporting an undulating fied is, in no way, clear to me.

      Michael C also has a problem with his preferred traditoion (Appian). This he acknowleges but, aside from some special pleading, cannot explain away ("I take Appian`s "plain" to refer simplistically to the Siliana valley which falls away gradually to the west and leads in to the valley of Le Sers"). The problematic passage (App. Pun. 7.40):

      Appian is clear that Hannibal was forced to encamp on the plain at odds with the other sources and here, again, the special pleading to postulate a source for Appian hostile to Hannibal wanting to portray him in a bad light.

      Whomever the source of this tradition (Appian/Dio), while he preserves some details (such as army numbers for example), much is freely added. Infantry lounging about on hills watching the battle and a "mass" of Numidian horse doing likelwise are but just two examples. The dead Mago recalled from Italy, sent back to Italy and then asked back to Africa promting Rome to send and entirely new army to Scipio are others.

      Michaelcollinshimself

      Michaelcollinshimself

      Michaelcollinshimself

      "Michael C also has a problem with his preferred traditoion (Appian). This he acknowleges but, aside from some special pleading, cannot explain away ("I take Appian`s "plain" to refer simplistically to the Siliana valley which falls away gradually to the west and leads in to the valley of Le Sers"). The problematic passage (App. Pun. 7.40):


      "The town of Cilla was in the neighborhood and near it was a hill well adapted for a camp. Hannibal, perceiving this, sent a detachment forward to seize it and lay out a camp. Then he started and moved forward as though he were already in possession of it. Scipio having anticipated him and seized it beforehand, Hannibal was cut off in the midst of a plain without water and was engaged all night digging wells. His army, by toiling in the sand, with great difficulty obtained a little muddy water to drink, and so they passed the night without food, without care for their bodies " "

      Michael, this is not problematic people often refer to a valley as being the flat bit between the bumpy bits, but there are sometimes smaller bumpy bits in the flat bit!

      I don`t have a problem with Appian, rather other people do because they have a bias.

      Salaminia

      The sources relating to this are below.

      Livy, 30.26.9-10:
      Scipio established himself not far from the city of Naraggara, in a situation otherwise favourable, but particularly because water was to be had within the range [10] of a javelin. Hannibal occupied a hill four miles away, safe and convenient otherwise, except that one had to go far for water. Half-way between them a spot was chosen which was visible from all sides, that there might be no ambuscades.

      Pol. 15.5.14, 6.2:
      Thus reinforced, he removed his camp to Naragara: selecting it as a place which, among other advantages, enabled him to get water within a javelin's throw [. ] On hearing this, Hannibal moved his quarters to within thirty stades of Scipio, and pitched his camp on a hill, which seemed a favourable position for his present purpose, except that water had to be fetched from a considerable distance, which caused his soldiers great fatigue.

      Aplicativo. Pun 7.40:
      The town of Cilla was in the neighborhood and near it was a hill well adapted for a camp. Hannibal, perceiving this, sent a detachment forward to seize it and lay out a camp. Then he started and moved forward as though he were already in possession of it. Scipio having anticipated him and seized it beforehand, Hannibal was cut off in the midst of a plain without water and was engaged all night digging wells. His army, by toiling in the sand, with great difficulty obtained a little muddy water to drink.

      Zonaras 14.1:
      For Hannibal now gave no thought to battle, but was desirous of shifting his camp to a more favourable place. Scipio, gaining this information from deserters, broke camp by night and occupied the spot which was the goal of Hannibal's efforts. And when the Carthaginians had reached a valley unsuited for a camping place, he suddenly confronted them. Hannibal refused to fight, but in his efforts to pitch camp there and to dig wells he had a hard time of it all night

      As can readily be seen, Polybius has both Scipio and Hannibal encamp upon rises or hills. Livy, following Polybius presents the same information. Neither Appian or Zonaras mention hills and Appian is plain Hannibal is forced to camp in the plain. Zonaras mentions that the Carthaginians reached a hollow (κοῖλος) place (χωρίον) where they were confronted by the Romans. The Greeks referred to the Beqaa Valley in Lebanon as "Koile-Syria" ("Hollow Syria) and the logical reading would be as in the Loeb: a valley. Whence comes a "hollow in the road" I cannot say.

      I would disagree "the physical descriptions of the battlefield by ALL the ancient sources converge". There are no hills in Zonaras' battle description and the only hill in Appian is as fictitious as the infantry taking side bets on while sitting out the battle. The only hills in the sources are those mentioned by Polybius and Livy following him. These hills are where the two camps are and they gve a clear view of the battle field between where the two generals meet.


      Battle of Pengcheng [ edit | editar fonte]

      In 205 BC, after establishing his base in Guanzhong, Liu Bang advanced his forces east of Hangu Pass to conquer the Henan region. Sima Xin (King of Sai), Dong Yi (King of Di) and Shen Yang (King of Henan) surrendered to Liu Bang. Zheng Chang (King of Hán) refused to submit to Liu Bang and was defeated by Liu's general Han Xin in battle, and replaced by Hán Xin. Zhang Er (former King of Changshan) came to join Liu Bang after losing his domain to Zhao Xie and Chen Yu. In the third month, Liu Bang attacked Henei with help from Wei Bao (King of Western Wei). When Liu Bang received news that Emperor Yi of Chu had been murdered on Xiang Yu's orders, he held a memorial service for the emperor, accusing Xiang of committing regicide, and using that incident as political propaganda to justify his war against Western Chu. In the fourth month of 205 BC, Xiang Yu defeated Tian Rong at Chengyang and the latter was killed during his retreat to Pingyuan. Although the Qi kingdom surrendered to Western Chu, Xiang Yu did not appease the people and instead allowed his troops to loot and plunder Qi territories. Tian Rong's younger brother Tian Heng installed Tian Guang (Tian Rong's son) on the Qi throne, and continued to lead resistance against Chu. Meanwhile, Liu Bang had mustered an army of about 560,000 men with support from the surrendered vassal kings. In the eighth month, Chu's capital Pengcheng (present-day Xuzhou) fell to the coalition force led by Liu Bang. When Xiang Yu received news that Liu Bang had occupied Pengcheng, he led 30,000 troops back to retake Pengcheng. Liu Bang was caught off guard and his army suffered heavy casualties and his family was captured by Chu forces. After the battle, Han lost its territorial gains in Chu and most of the kings who surrendered to Han earlier defected to Chu. [edit]Battle of Jingsuo After their defeat at Pengcheng, the strength of the Han forces decreased drastically. Liu Bang's family was captured by Western Chu forces and kept as hostages, and many of the vassal kings who surrendered to Liu Bang earlier defected to Xiang Yu's side. Besides, the Qi and Zhao kingdoms also requested to make peace with Chu. Upon reaching Xiayi (present-day Xiayi County, Henan), which was defended by his brother-in-law, Liu Bang reorganised his troops for a retreat. When he arrived at Yu (present-day Yucheng County, Henan), Liu Bang sent an envoy to meet Ying Bu, the King of Jiujiang. Ying Bu agreed to join Liu Bang's side and rebelled against Western Chu. Xiang Yu sent Long Ju to lead an army to attack Ying Bu. In the sixth month of 205 BC, Liu Bang named his son Liu Ying (future Emperor Hui of Han) as crown prince, and ordered him to defend Liyang (present-day Yanliang District, Shaanxi). Shortly after, Han forces conquered Feiqiu (present-day Xingping, Shaanxi), which was guarded by Zhang Han, and Zhang committed suicide. On another front, Ying Bu was unable to defeat Long Ju and decided to give up, and he went to meet Liu Bang with Sui He. Liu Bang reorganised his army, which now included reinforcements from Guanzhong (sent by Xiao He) and Han Xin's troops. Liu Bang's forces attacked Western Chu at Jing County (near present-day Luoyang) and Suoting (near present-day Xingyang) and scored a victory, driving Xiang Yu's forces east of Xingyang. [edit]Northern front

      Battle of Anyi [ edit | editar fonte]

      In 205 BC Wei Bao (King of Wei) left Liu Bang on the pretext of visiting an ill relative, and returned to his domain. Subsequently, Wei pledged allegiance to Xiang Yu and rebelled against Liu Bang. Liu Bang sent Li Yiji to persuade Wei Bao to surrender but Wei refused, so Liu ordered Han Xin to lead an army to attack Wei. Wei Bao stationed his army at Puban and blocked the route to Linjin. Han Xin tricked Wei Bao into believing that he was planning to attack Linjin, while secretly sending a force from Xiayang to cross the river and attack Anyi (present-day Xia County, Shanxi). In the ninth month, Wei Bao personally led an attack on Han Xin but lost the battle and was captured. Wei Bao surrendered and was accepted by Liu Bang as a general. In the ninth month, Han Xin led his army to attack the Kingdom of Dai with support from Zhang Er (former King of Changshan), and scored another decisive victory against Dai, capturing Dai's chancellor Xia Shuo in battle.

      BATTLE OF JING XING [editar | editar fonte]

      After achieving victory over the Dai kingdom, Han Xin and Zhang Er led an army to attack the Zhao kingdom at Jingxing Pass. Zhao Xie (King of Zhao) and his chancellor Chen Yu led a 200,000 strong army to resist the Han forces. The Zhao general Li Zuojun proposed a plan to trap Han Xin within 10 days: Li Zuojun would lead 30,000 men to disrupt Han Xin's supply route and block his return route, while Chen Yu would defend the frontline firmly and prevent Han Xin from advancing. However, Chen Yu refused to accept Li Zuojun's plan. The evening before the battle, Han Xin sent 2,000 horsemen, each carrying a flag of the Han army, to station near the Zhao camp. The next morning, Han Xin feigned defeat in a skirmish with Zhao forces, luring them to follow him, while his 2,000 men proceeded to capture the Zhao camp. Meanwhile, the Zhao soldiers retreated after failing to conquer Han Xin's fort, and were surprised to see that their camp had been overrun by Han forces. The Zhao army fell into chaos and Han Xin seized the opportunity to launch a counterattack and scored a victory. Chen Yu was killed in action while Zhao Xie and Li Zuojun were captured.

      BATTLE OF WEI RIVER, TURNING POINT OF HAN [editar | editar fonte]

      In 204 BC the Yan kingdom surrendered to Han Xin, and Zhang Er was appointed as King of Zhao. Xiang Yu constantly sent his armies to attack Zhao but Han Xin and Zhang Er managed to hold their positions. Xiang Yu then turned its attention towards Xingyang, where Liu Bang was stationed, and forced Liu to retreat to Chenggao. Liu Bang was besieged in Chenggao and had no choice but to head north of the Yellow River to join Han Xin. In a surprise move, Liu Bang took over Han Xin and Zhang Er's command of the military in Zhao, and ordered Han to lead an army to attack the Qi kingdom. Just as Han Xin was preparing to attack Qi, Liu Bang sent Li Yiji to persuade Tian Guang (King of Qi) to surrender, without informing Han Xin. Tian Guang decided to surrender and ordered his troops to withdraw from Lixia. However, Han Xin was not aware that Tian Guang had the intention of surrendering, and followed the advice of Kuai Tong to launch an attack. Han Xin's army conquered Lixia and arrived at Qi's capital Linzi. Tian Guang thought that Li Yiji had lied to him and he had Li killed, thereafter he retreated to Gaomi and requested aid from Western Chu. Meanwhile, Han Xin conquered Linzi and continued to pursue retreating Qi forces to Gaomi.

      Xiang Yu sent Long Ju to lead a 200,000 strong army to help Tian Guang. The allied forces of Qi and Chu lost to Han in the first battle. Someone advised Long Ju to avoid engaging Han Xin directly and focus on strengthening their defenses, while asking Tian Guang to rally support from the Qi cities that had fallen to Han. In that case, the Han army would eventually be deprived of supplies and be forced to surrender. However, Long Ju rejected the proposal and insisted on taking on Han Xin. In 203 BC, on the night before the battle, Han Xin sent his men to dam the Wei River with sandbags. The next morning, after a skirmish with Long Ju's forces, Han Xin feigned retreat, luring Long to follow him. When about a quarter of the Chu army had crossed the river, Han Xin signaled for his men to open the dam, drowning many Chu soldiers and isolating Long Ju with only a fraction of his force. Taking advantage of the situation, Han Xin launched a counterattack. Long Ju was killed in action and the rest of the Chu army disintegrated as Han Xin continued pressing the attack. Tian Guang fled and Han Xin continued pursuing the retreating enemy to Chengyang.

      After his victory, Han Xin swiftly took control of the Qi territories and he sent an envoy to Liu Bang, requesting that Liu let him be the acting King of Qi. At that time, Liu Bang was besieged in Xingyang by Xiang Yu, and eagerly waiting for reinforcements from Han Xin, but Han made a request to be an acting king instead, which greatly angered Liu. However, Liu Bang reluctantly approved Han Xin's request after listening to advice from Zhang Liang and Chen Ping. At the same time, Xiang Yu became worried after losing Long Ju and he sent Wu She to persuade Han Xin to rebel against Liu Bang and declare himself king. However, despite additional urging from Kuai Tong, Han Xin firmly refused to betray Liu Bang. Han Xin later organised an army to move southward and attack Western Chu. [edit]Southern front

      Battle of Chenggao On the southern front, the Liu Bang's forces started building supply routes from Xingyang to Aocang. In 204 BC, Xiang Yu led an attack on the routes and the Han army started to run short of supplies. Liu Bang negotiated for peace with Xiang Yu and agreed to cede the lands east of Xingyang to Western Chu. Xiang Yu had the intention of accepting Liu Bang's offer, but Fan Zeng advised him to reject and urged him to use the opportunity to destroy Liu. Xiang Yu changed his decision and pressed the attack on Xingyang, besieging Liu Bang's forces inside the city. To lift the siege, Liu Bang followed Chen Ping's suggestion to bribe Xiang Yu's men with 40,000 catties of gold, for them to spread rumours that Fan Zeng had the intention of betraying Xiang. Xiang Yu fell for the trick and dismissed Fan Zeng. In late 204 BC, while Xiang Yu was away suppressing the rebellion in the Qi kingdom, Li Yiji advised Liu Bang to use the opportunity to attack Western Chu. Han forces conquered Chenggao and defeated the Chu army, led by Cao Jiu, at a battle near the Si River. Liu Bang's forces advanced further until they reached Guangwu. Chu forces led by Zhongli Mo were trapped by the Han army at the east of Xingyang. Following Han Xin's victory in the Battle of Wei River, the Chu army's morale fell and it ran low on supplies months later. Xiang Yu had no choice but to request for an armistice and agreed to release Liu Bang's family members, who were held hostage by him. Both sides came to the Treaty of Hong Canal, which divided China into east and west under the Chu and Han domains respectively.

      XIANG YU'S FINAL STAND AND DEATH [ edit | editar fonte]

      In 203 BC, while Xiang Yu was retreating eastward, as advised by Zhang Liang and Chen Ping, Liu Bang renounced the Treaty of Hong Canal and ordered an attack on Western Chu. He also requested assistance from Han Xin and Peng Yue in forming a three-pronged attack on Xiang Yu. However, Han Xin and Peng Yue did not mobilise their troops and Liu Bang was defeated by Xiang Yu at Guling (south of present-day Taikang County, Henan). Liu Bang retreated and reinforced his defenses, while sending messengers to Han Xin and Peng Yue, promising to grant them fiefs and titles of vassal kings if they joined him in attacking Chu. [edit]Battle of Gaixia Main article: Battle of Gaixia Three months later in 202 BC, Han forces led by Liu Bang, Han Xin and Peng Yue, attacked Western Chu from three directions. The Chu army was running low in supplies and Xiang Yu was trapped in Gaixia (southeast of present-day Lingbi County, Henan). Han Xin ordered his troops to sing Chu folk songs, to create a false impression that Xiang Yu's native land of Chu had fallen to Han forces. The Chu army's morale plummeted and many soldiers deserted. Xiang Yu attempted to break out the siege and was only left with 26 men when he reached the northern bank of Wu River (near present-day He County, Chaohu City, Anhui). Xiang Yu made a last stand and managed to slay several Han soldiers before eventually committing suicide.


      Dong Yi (Qin dynasty)

      Dong Yi (died 204 BC) was a military general of the Qin dynasty. He surrendered to Xiang Yu after the Battle of Julu in 207 BC. In 206 BC, following the collapse of the Qin dynasty, he was conferred the title of "King of Di" (翟王) by Xiang Yu and given part of the lands in Guanzhong as his fief when the latter split the former Qin Empire into the Eighteen Kingdoms.

      Dong Yi was a descendant of Dong Hu (董狐), a high ranking minister in the Jin state during the Spring and Autumn period.

      In 209 BC, Chen Sheng and Wu Guang started the Dazexiang Uprising to overthrow the Qin Dynasty. The Qin emperor, Qin Er Shi, placed Zhang Han in command of the imperial army, with Sima Xin and Dong Yi serving as his deputies, to quell the rebels.

      In 207 BC, Zhang Han attacked the insurgent Zhao kingdom and besieged Zhao forces at Julu. Xiang Yu of the Chu kingdom came to Zhao's aid and defeated the Qin army at the Battle of Julu, despite having a smaller force. Zhang Han sent Sima Xin to the capital Xianyang to request for reinforcements. Sima Xin later reported to Zhang Han that reinforcements would not be arriving, and that the state power of Qin had fallen into the hands of Zhao Gao. Zhang Han was aware that even if he defeated the rebels, Zhao Gao would later frame him for treason and have him executed, hence he decided to surrender to Xiang Yu. Xiang Yu accepted the surrender.

      After the fall of the Qin Dynasty in 206 BC, Xiang Yu divided the former Qin Empire into the Eighteen Kingdoms and granted the land of Guanzhong (heartland of Qin) to the three surrendered Qin generals (the three fiefs were collectively known as the Three Qins). Dong Yi was given part of Guanzhong as his fief and received the title "King of Di" (翟王). Later that year, Liu Bang (King of Han) attacked the Three Qins and defeated Zhang Han. Sima Xin and Dong Yi surrendered to Liu Bang.

      In 205 BC, during the Chu–Han Contention, Liu Bang was defeated by Xiang Yu at the Battle of Pengcheng, and Sima Xin and Dong Yi defected to Xiang's side. The following year, Liu Bang attacked Xiang Yu at the Battle of Chenggao. Liu Bang lured Cao Jiu (曹咎), the defending general, to pursue and attack him. The Chu army fell into an ambush at the Si River (汜水 in present-day Sishui Town, Xingyang, Henan) and was defeated by Liu Bang's forces. Cao Jiu, Dong Yi and Sima Xin committed suicide.


      Battle Map of the Second Quebecois War (First Try)

      This is my first attempt at making a map for my alternate history story George Washington II. From 1811-1815, the United States and Great Britain are at war and the map depicts the major battles that occur during the conflict. Any feedback is welcomed and appreciated. Special thanks to AP246 for his help.

      I REFUSE TO BE PART OF OHIO

      Why did you give half of the lower part of Michigan to Ohio!?

      In this TL, there is a greater fear of political power for the common people streaming from the horrors of the French Revolution. For the establishment to sustain power, at least in the Senate, territories that will become states are larger. Mississippi Territory will just become Mississippi. Things like land requirements to vote will be around much longer to narrow the voting class. Jacksonian Democracy, like the man himself, is dead in this TL.


      KAI-HSIA 203 B.C.

      Han: 300,000 men. Commander: Liu Pang, also known as Kao-ti.

      Ch’u: 100,000 men. Commander: Hsiang Yu.

      Liu Pang’s victory removed his last rival for power in China and allowed him to establish the Han dynasty.

      Established in the eleventh century b.c., the Chou dynasty had been seriously weakened after the loss of its capital city in 771. The dynasty reestablished itself to the east in Loyang in the central Chinese plains. It flourished for a time, but by the fourth century b.c. a number of rulers began to claim independence for their regions. Eight kingdoms emerged, and, although the Chou dynasty officially still existed, each of the kings strove to establish his own ruling line. The eight fought each other for a century and a half (401–256 b.c.) in what has come to be called the Era of the Warring States. In 256, a new ruler came to the throne of the westernmost state, Ch’in. As ruler, his title was Ch’in Shi Huang-ti. Between 230 and 221 b.c., Shi Huang-ti conquered his seven rivals and unified China into an empire. His reign was relatively brief, and he left behind no strong successor after his death in 210, so rebellions quickly began breaking out across the new empire.

      Two men fought their way into contention to replace the falling dynasty. One was Hsiang Yu, a professional soldier described as a huge, uncultured man, but an outstanding military leader. His homeland was Ch’u, in modern east-central China, and had been the largest of the warring states. His main rival was Liu Pang, born a commoner but rising to hold a minor bureaucratic position in the administration of Shi Huang-ti.

      Hsiang Yu established his reputation while leading Ch’u forces against those of the dying Ch’in Empire. That recognition brought support from other regions in rebellion, which were willing to follow him. He, along with his uncle, had started an uprising in the province of Ch’u in 209, and he soon led a growing army north-westward toward the capital city of Hsien-yang. Liu Pang, who had been raising forces in the north in modern Hubei province, marched to join Hsiang Yu in the fourth month of 208. Together they named a new king of Ch’u as a rival to the Ch’ins and then marched to relieve a Ch’in siege of Chu-lu there Hsiang Yu scored a major victory that vaulted him to preeminent command of all the provinces arrayed against the Ch’in.

      While Hsiang Yu was engaged at Chu-lu, the king of Ch’u had dispatched Liu Pang to attack the territory around the Ch’in capital at Hsien-yang. In that area, Liu Pang scored a number of victories, culminating with a battle at Lan-t’ien in the tenth month of 206. After that battle, the final Ch’in king fell into his hands, and that allowed Liu Pang to occupy the capital. The records indicate that Liu Pang was a wise and tolerant victor, and he began reforming some of the harsher Ch’in legal practices under which much of the population had suffered. All was peaceful in Hsien-yang until Hsiang Yu arrived 2 months later. He ordered the Ch’in king executed and then allowed his men to pillage the city after he had looted the treasury for himself and his officers. Such actions alienated Liu Pang, who for a time remained passive.

      Hsiang Yu began reorganizing China, not along the Ch’in lines of centralized rule but by decreeing the creation of nineteen minor kingdoms, which were to operate within a confederacy, which he would lead. He was able to assume that position by killing the king he had recently enthroned in Ch’u. Liu Pang was awarded with one of the three kingdoms carved out of the original Ch’in territory, his being located in the southern part of the region, that is, the most remote. Probably Hsiang Yu was looking to distance himself from a leader who was a strong potential rival. That territory had been the region of Han, and Liu Pang named himself the king of Han. The reward of such a poor area in return for his services, as well as rumors that the advisors of Hsiang Yu were recommending that he have Liu Pang assassinated, motivated the new king of Han to challenge his former ally.

      Liu Pang went on campaign in the fifth month of 206, beginning by conquering the other kingdoms of the west that had made up the old Ch’in homeland. As he advanced toward Loyang, word came that Hsiang Yu had murdered the king of Ch’u. That inspired Liu Pang to call for a general rising of the provinces to aid him in punishing a regicide. A quick strike at Hsiang Yu’s capital city of P’eng-ch’eng was a disaster, however, and Liu Pang found himself defeated by his enemy’s army. Only a timely storm covered his escape along with only a few dozen cavalry. Things looked grim not only were the provincial kings beginning to join Hsiang Yu but also he had captured some of Liu Pang’s family, including his father. The only positive in this entire situation was the work of Liu Pang’s loyal generals, who continued to raise troops for him and seize provinces away from the main theater of battle.

      Liu Pang’s luck did not improve. In a strike at Hsing-yang on the Yellow River, he once again found himself besieged and escaped with only a few men. Hsiang Yu was unable to take advantage of this because Liu Pang’s subordinate, General Han Hsin, was conquering provinces in the east. At one point, the enemy armies encamped for several months on either side of the Yellow River at Guangwu. Hsiang Yu threatened to execute Liu Pang’s father, but to no avail. Failing that, Hsiang Yu challenged his foe to determine everything in single combat, but Liu Pang knew that he was no physical match for Hsiang Yu. From a distance, however, Hsiang Yu was able to hit Liu Pang with a crossbow bolt that wounded but did not kill him. Liu Pang withdrew from the river to the nearby city of Chenggao, where Hsiang Yu once again besieged him.

      Liu Pang’s subordinates were so successful in liberating provinces that Hsiang Yu had conquered and harassing his supply lines, that Hsiang Yu was forced at one point to take a part of his army to recover some of his losses. While Hsiang Yu was gone, Liu Pang’s army provoked a battle with the remaining besiegers and defeated them. Hearing of that, Hsiang Yu marched his men back, but Liu Pang refused to give battle, retreating into the mountains. Hsiang Yu at this point (203 b.c.) offered Liu Pang a deal: divide China between them, with Liu Pang being lord of the west and Hsiang Yu being lord of the east. Liu Pang agreed and received his hostage relatives in return. The agreement was short-lived. Liu Pang’s subordinates convinced him that the tide had turned and that many of the provincial leaders now supported him. That, plus the fact that the Ch’u forces were exhausted from their continued marching and were short on supplies, convinced Liu Pang to return to the east for a final battle.

      The confrontation took place at Kai-hsia, in modern Anhui province. For the first time, some of Liu Pang’s subordinates hesitated to join him, but with assurances that they would be rewarded with provinces of their own after the war, they marched. At Kai-hsia, Hsiang Yu built himself a walled camp, which Liu Pang’s forces surrounded in the twelfth month of 202. The only relatively contemporary account describes Liu Pang in command of 300,000 men and Hsiang Yu in charge of 100,000. The battle started with General Han Hsin attacking the Ch’u center, but failing to break through. He withdrew, and Generals Kong and Bi attacked from the flanks. As the Ch’u army began to flater, Han Hsin renewed his attack in the center, and the enemy retreated to its camp.

      After a night of drinking and tears with his wife, Hsiang Yu gathered 800 cavalry and broke out of his surrounded camp in the early morning darkness. The following morning, when Liu Pang learned what had happened, he dispatched 5,000 cavalry in pursuit. Hsiang Yu crossed the Huai River at the head of only 100 horsemen. Lost, he stopped and asked a farmer for directions. He was tricked and rode into a swamp, where the Han cavalry cornered him. Surrounded, Hsiang Yu was defiant. He swore to his men that Heaven was against him and that nothing he had ever done in battle had warranted such a fate. To prove his worthiness, he told his men, “For your sake I shall break through the enemy’s encirclements, cut down their leaders, and sever their banners, that you may know it is Heaven which has destroyed me and no fault of mine in arms” (Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty I, pp. 45–46).

      Promising to kill an enemy general, he divided his remaining men into four squadrons, each to ride down from their encircled hilltop in a different direction, and then reassemble on the east side. His charge scattered the Han cavalry, and he did kill a general and then rejoined his men. They formed into three groups this time, and the returning Han horsemen did not know which group Hsiang Yu was in, so they divided into three groups as well and again surrounded them. Another charge resulted in Hsiang Yu killing a colonel and a reported 50 to 100 men. Again regrouping, he found that his force had lost only 2 men. This running battle drifted southward toward the Yangtze River. There a boatman offered to aid his escape, but Hsiang Yu would not delay Heaven’s judgment. He gave the man his horse, which he had ridden in 5 years of combat, and then led his men dismounted back to face the Han. After a fierce fight and being wounded numerous times, Hsiang Yu was surrounded. Knowing a price was on his head as a reward, he removed it with his own sword.

      After Hsiang Yu’s death, all of his domain of Ch’u surrendered, except for the city of Lu. Liu Pang set out with his entire army to capture the city, which refused to submit. Moved by their courage, Liu rode up to the city walls with Hsiang Yu’s head. Upon seeing that, they surrendered and were treated with honor. He also buried the dismembered body of Hsiang Yu with full honors and refused to execute any of his family.

      After the battle, Liu Pang’s subordinates urged him to take the title huang-ti, emperor. He accepted the title, and thus he began the Han dynasty, taking the throne name Kao-ti. He was regarded as a good emperor, reigning until 195. After a few years of struggle, he had inherited the united empire formed by Ch’in Shih Huang-ti, and he and his successors improved and expanded it.

      Although at first anti-intellectual, Kao-ti realized over time the benefits of wise men, and he overturned the ban on books that Shih Huang-ti had implemented. Kao-ti embraced the teachings of Confucianism he saw in it the means to rule well. Confucius taught that a good leader would inspire his people, and so Confucian scholars in a bureaucracy, leading the administration, should be the path to a secure and prosperous country. The bureaucracy that administered China until the twentieth century began here and survived through multiple successive dynasties. Kao-ti attempted to retain the administrative organization of the Ch’in emperor, keeping the country divided into provinces overseen by appointed imperial governors. He had to keep his promise, however, to reward his generals. He did so, but over time transferred them around until they became more governors than lords.

      The most successful of the Han emperors was Wu Ti (147–81), who extended Han borders well to the west. He was successful in defeating the Hsiung-nu, driving them westward across Asia’s steppes until they arrived a few hundred years later in western Europe as the Huns. The Han dynasty also revived and expanded the trade with the west along the famous Silk Road. Securing that trade route, as well as mounting military and exploratory expeditions, Han envoys reportedly traveled as far as Parthia (modern Iran), where the Roman Empire occasionally fought. The dynasty that Liu Pang established in the wake of his victory at Kai-hsia consolidated the beginnings of the empire that Shih Huang-ti instituted, handing down to later dynasties a unified population, which to this day call themselves the “people of Han.”

      Grousset, René. The Rise and Splendour of the Chinese Empire. Translated by Anthony Watson-Gandy and Terence Gordon. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1953 Sima Qian. Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty I. Translated by Burton Watson. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993 Twitchett, Denis, and Michael Loewe. The Cambridge History of China, vol. 1. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.


      100 Decisive Battles : From Ancient Times to the Present

      From the ancient Egyptian battle at Megiddo in 1469 BC to the recent military actions in Iraq, great battles have had an enormous impact on the shaping of history. Now, in this fully illustrated book, one hundred of the world's most important military confrontations are described in detail. 100 Decisive Battles gives us the facts about the battle and also explains where it fits in to the scope of world history.

      In each entry we are given the name and date of the battle, the commanders, the size of the opposing forces, and casualties. An account of the battle plan and the military action are strategically discussed, and each description closes with a valuable consideration of how history was affected by the outcome of the conflict. Among the battles presented are the Battle of Thymbra (546 BC), the Battle of Chalons (451 AD), the Battle of Cajamarca (1532), the Battle of Dien Bien Phu (1954), and the Tet Offensive (1968). Accompanying maps and sidebars help further orient us with each military action.

      Global in scope, with excellent coverage of American, Central American, European, Asian, and Middle Eastern battles, and with its stirring accounts of familiar battles and many lesser known military conflicts, 100 Decisive Battles is essential reading for military buffs and anyone interested in how the modern world came to be.


      Assista o vídeo: Batalha do Grânico 334. (Janeiro 2022).