Notícia

Buda em pé da dinastia Tang

Buda em pé da dinastia Tang


Montanha Mil Buda

o Montanha Mil Buda (Chinês: 千佛山 pinyin: Qiān Fó Shān ) é uma colina localizada a cerca de 2,5 km a sudeste da cidade de Jinan, capital da província de Shandong, na China. Cobre 1.518 quilômetros quadrados (375,1 acres) e tem um pico de 285 metros (935 pés) acima do nível do mar. É conhecido por suas inúmeras imagens de Buda que foram esculpidas nas faces rochosas da colina ou estruturas independentes erguidas desde os tempos da Dinastia Sui (581-618) e seu Templo Xingguochan. É considerada uma das "Três maiores atrações em Jinan" junto com Baotu Spring e Daming Lake. É também uma das atrações turísticas classificadas como 4A na China. Thousand Buddha Mountain foi inaugurado como um parque público em 1959, classificado como AAAA-rated Tourist Attractions of China em 2005, e classificado como National Park of China em março de 2017. [1]


Palavras-chave principais do artigo abaixo: religioso, tornou-se, chamado, 618-907, aspectos, vida, tang, chinês, dinastia, período, história, budismo, filosofia, importante, china, índio.

TÓPICOS CHAVE
Na dinastia Tang, um período da história chinesa de 618-907, uma filosofia religiosa indiana chamada budismo tornou-se um dos aspectos mais importantes da vida chinesa. [1] Nesta lição, você explorará a ascensão da filosofia religiosa budista na dinastia Tang da história chinesa. [1]

O budismo chinês nunca foi erradicado e continua sendo uma religião poderosa na China até hoje, mas nunca mais recuperou a proeminência que ocupou durante a dinastia Tang. [1] Durante a dinastia Tang, um período de 618-907 quando a família Li de Tang governou o Império Chinês, o budismo chinês atingiu seu auge e se tornou uma das práticas mais influentes na Ásia. [1]

Durante a dinastia Tang, os mosteiros budistas na China tornaram-se extremamente ricos com devoções (presentes de caridade), e a prática do budismo atingiu seu ponto mais alto absoluto. [1] O imperador Wuzong do final da dinastia Tang não gostava muito do budismo porque era estrangeiro, porque os monges não pagavam impostos e porque estava se tornando uma força muito, muito poderosa na China. [1] O budismo desempenhou um papel dominante na dinastia Tang na China, sua influência evidente na poesia e na arte do período. [2]

As tradições do Budismo Esotérico Chinês são mais comumente referidas como Tángm "(唐 密)," Dinastia Tang Esotérica "ou Hànchuán M" zōng (漢 傳 密宗), "Escola Esotérica de Transmissão Han" (Hànm "漢 密 para breve ), ou Dōngm "(東 密)," Esotérica Oriental ", separando-se das tradições tibetana e newar. [3] Os líderes da Dinastia Tang fizeram do budismo uma grande parte da vida na China. [4] O budismo ganhou grande poder durante a época da Imperatriz Wu (628-705 DC), esposa do 2º e 3º imperadores da Dinastia Tang. [5] O confucionismo já existia antes da Dinastia Tang e antes do Budismo. [5]

O período das Cinco Dinastias e Dez Reinos (chinês simplificado: 五代 十 国 chinês tradicional: 五代 十 國 pinyin: Wǔdài Sh'guó) foi uma era de agitação política na China, entre a queda da Dinastia Tang e a fundação da Dinastia Song . [3] A evidência chinesa mais antiga do budismo estava na Dinastia Han, durante o governo do imperador Mingdi (governado 57-75 DC). 27 O budismo foi introduzido na China por imigrantes da Pérsia, Ásia Central e Índia através da Rota da Seda. [5] Historicamente, a Escola Esotérica de Budismo Hanmi Chinês também foi considerada perdida quando o Imperador Tang Wuzong proibiu o ensino. [3] Graças a essas traduções, ao apoio dos imperadores Tang e à nova cultura artística que espalhou as imagens budistas pela China, o budismo chinês atingiu seu ponto mais alto na história. [1]

Trabalhos como Gregory e Getz 1999, uma série de artigos dedicados a vários aspectos do budismo na dinastia Song (960-1279), desafiaram com sucesso as suposições assumidas na obra de Ch'en a respeito do alegado "declínio" do budismo na China, mesmo postulando que se algum período merecesse o apelido de "idade de ouro", poderia ser a dinastia Song em vez de Tang, mas uma visão geral do budismo chinês refletindo tais perspectivas ainda não foi escrita. [6] Uma escola do Budismo Mahayana que se originou na China durante a dinastia Tang, foi fortemente influenciada pelo Taoísmo, e mais tarde se tornou Zen quando viajou para o Japão. [7] Ele também desafiou com sucesso a narrativa dominante que postulava a dinastia Tang como o ápice do budismo na China. [6] Com o surgimento da Dinastia Tang no início do século VII, o Budismo alcançou mais e mais pessoas. [8] No Budismo Mahayana na Ásia Central e nos Budas esculpidos ao longo da Rota da Seda antes do final da Dinastia Tang, ele é descrito como sendo forte e saudável como um deus grego. [9]

No início da dinastia Tang, o cânone budista tornou-se mais chinês e várias seitas apareceram. [10] Durante a dinastia Tang, os chineses continuaram a combinar sua antiga religião popular com o taoísmo e incorporaram muitas divindades à prática religiosa. [7] Os maiores peregrinos e tradutores da história do budismo chinês viveram durante a dinastia Tang. [10]

No início da dinastia Tang, um monge budista chamado Xuanzang viajou da China para a Índia entre 629 e 645. [1] Durante a Dinastia Tang, Xuanzang (602-664 DC), um monge, fez uma peregrinação à Índia para descubra mais sobre as escrituras budistas. [5]

Embora o confucionismo continuasse a ser a filosofia oficial na Dinastia Tang, muitas pessoas acreditavam nos conceitos budistas, e não nos conceitos do confucionismo. [5]

Após a queda da Dinastia Tang, a China ficou sem controle central efetivo durante o período das Cinco Dinastias e dos Dez Reinos. [3] Isso foi especialmente verdadeiro depois de 694, quando a imperatriz Wu Zetian da dinastia Tang emitiu um edito imperial para construir estátuas gigantes do Buda por toda a China. [1]

O Tang, junto com a dinastia Song (960-1279 EC) que se segue, é frequentemente referido como a "Idade de Ouro" da China e é interessante contrastar os desenvolvimentos na China com os desenvolvimentos na Europa ao mesmo tempo. (A Europa, após a queda de Roma em 410, entrou em um milênio (c. 400-1400) onde o desligamento do aprendizado humanístico predominou.) [2]

O colapso da Dinastia Han em 220 DC deu início a um período de instabilidade política de três séculos, onde o Budismo se tornou uma religião de salvação. 27 O budismo floresceu durante essa época e, no final desse período, havia entrado na vida de todas as pessoas da sociedade chinesa. [5] Embora a Dinastia Song tenha perdido o controle do local de nascimento tradicional da civilização chinesa ao longo do Rio Amarelo, a economia Song não estava em ruínas, já que o Império Song do Sul continha 60 por cento da população da China e a maioria das terras agrícolas mais produtivas . [3]

Os mosteiros da Dinastia Tang ganharam uma enorme riqueza com doações de terras, grãos e metais preciosos. [5] Durante o início da dinastia Tang, entre 629 e 645, o monge Xuanzang viajou para a Índia e visitou mais de cem reinos, e escreveu relatórios extensos e detalhados de suas descobertas, que posteriormente se tornaram importantes para o estudo da Índia durante este período . [3] O Buda Gigante de Leshan, esculpido em uma encosta no século 8 durante a Dinastia Tang e olhando para a confluência de três rios, ainda é a maior estátua de Buda de pedra do mundo. [3] Como mencionado anteriormente, a perseguição ocorreu durante o reinado do Imperador Wuzong na Dinastia Tang. [3]

A linhagem budista esotérica da China (e quase todo o budismo na China na época) foi quase exterminada pelo imperador Tang Wuzong, levando à Grande Perseguição Anti-Budista. [3] Várias escolas de budismo se espalharam após a reunificação da China sob o domínio Sui (581), e a influência budista atingiu seu auge durante os trezentos anos de governo Tang (618-907). [2]

Devido à grande proliferação de textos budistas disponíveis em chinês e ao grande número de monges estrangeiros que vieram ensinar o budismo na China, bem como novos ramos crescendo de um tronco de árvore principal, surgiram várias tradições de foco específico. [3] O budismo estava na China desde o século 1 AC, mas no século 7 DC um monge chamado Xuanzang viajou para a Índia e trouxe de volta centenas de textos budistas originais para traduzir para o chinês. [1]

Alguns até declararam que o budismo era prejudicial à autoridade do estado, que os mosteiros budistas em nada contribuíam para a prosperidade econômica da China, que o budismo era bárbaro e não merecia as tradições culturais chinesas. [3]

Depois de entrar na China, o budismo misturou-se com o taoísmo antigo e as artes esotéricas tradicionais chinesas e sua iconografia recebeu adoração cega. [3] Na China e em países com grandes populações chinesas, como Taiwan, Malásia e Cingapura, o Budismo Esotérico é mais comumente referido como o termo chinês M "zōng (密宗), ou" Escola Esotérica ". [3] Vários relatos populares na literatura chinesa histórica levaram à popularidade de certas lendas sobre a introdução do budismo na China. [3] Durante este tempo, os monges indianos continuaram a viajar ao longo da Rota da Seda para ensinar o budismo, e o trabalho de tradução foi feito principalmente por estrangeiros monges em vez de chineses. [3] Várias lendas falam da presença do budismo em solo chinês em tempos muito antigos. [3]

O budismo, originário da Índia na época de Confúcio, continuou sua influência durante o período Tang e foi aceito por alguns membros da família imperial, tornando-se totalmente sinicizado e uma parte permanente da cultura tradicional chinesa. [7] No chamado período clássico do budismo na China (dinastia Tang, 618-907 dC), havia várias escolas de budismo que ensinavam e promoviam suas próprias filosofias e práticas de meditação. [11] Embora seus contemporâneos o considerassem rude e desagradável, ele prenunciou a posterior perseguição ao budismo no Tang, bem como o renascimento da teoria confucionista com o surgimento do neoconfucionismo da dinastia Song. [7]

O status proeminente do budismo na cultura chinesa começou a declinar conforme a dinastia e o governo central declinaram durante o final do século VIII e século IX, e muitos budistas sofreram perseguição. [7] A seita do Budismo Terra Pura iniciada pelo monge chinês Huiyuan (334-416) também era tão popular quanto o Budismo Chan durante o Tang. [7]

A influência do budismo diminuiu na China após o Tang, e o budismo, como observa Rhodes Murphey, "entrou na corrente da religião popular, especialmente para os não-alfabetizados, e suas crenças e práticas ainda se misturaram com as tradições camponesas de magia, como também foi o caso com o Daoísmo. " [2] Os imperadores Tang apoiavam muito Xuanzang, e logo a nova onda de budismo estava se espalhando por toda a China. [1]

Durante a dinastia Yuan, os imperadores mongóis fizeram do budismo esotérico uma religião oficial da China, e os lamas tibetanos receberam patrocínio na corte. [3] O consenso acadêmico é que o budismo veio pela primeira vez à China no primeiro século EC durante a dinastia Han, por meio de missionários da Índia. [3]

Anagarika Dharmapala visitou Xangai em 1893, com a intenção de "fazer uma viagem à China, para despertar os budistas chineses a enviarem missionários à Índia para restaurar o budismo lá, e então iniciar uma propaganda em todo o mundo", mas acabou limitando sua estadia em Xangai . [3] Existem muitas seitas e organizações que proclamam uma identidade e busca budista (fo ou fu: "despertar", "iluminação") que não são reconhecidas como budismo legítimo pela Associação Budista Chinesa e pelo governo da República Popular da China. [3]

O PEW descobriu que outros 21% da população chinesa seguiam religiões folclóricas chinesas que incorporavam elementos do budismo. [3] O budismo atraiu os intelectuais e as elites chinesas e o desenvolvimento do budismo gentry foi buscado como uma alternativa ao confucionismo e taoísmo, uma vez que a ênfase do budismo na moralidade e ritual atraiu os confucionistas e o desejo de cultivar a sabedoria interior atraiu os taoístas. [3]

A Canção do Sul (chinês: 南宋, 1127-1279) refere-se ao período depois que a Canção perdeu o controle do norte da China para a dinastia Jin. [3] Durante o Northern Song (chinês: 北宋, 960-1127), a capital Song ficava na cidade de Bianjing (agora Kaifeng) e a dinastia controlava a maior parte do interior da China. [3]

Traduzir textos budistas para o chinês tornou-se uma grande prioridade, e a capital de Tang, Chang'an, tornou-se o quarto maior centro de tradução do mundo budista. [1] Budismo, taoísmo religioso e confucionismo coexistiram como os "três ensinamentos" sob o Tang. [2] Ele defende o Budismo Humanista, que representa a ampla atitude progressiva do Budismo Chinês moderno em relação à religião. [3] O budismo chinês, que é o budismo interpretado de forma ligeiramente diferente pelas filosofias chinesas, foi uma das principais religiões da China ao longo da história. [1] No budismo chinês, os praticantes leigos tradicionalmente desempenham um papel importante, e a prática leiga do budismo tem tendências semelhantes às do budismo monástico na China. [3] Durante o período inicial do budismo chinês, as primeiras escolas budistas indianas reconhecidas como importantes e cujos textos foram estudados foram os Dharmaguptakas, Mahīśāsakas, Kāśyapīyas, Sarvāstivādins e os Mahāsāṃghikas. [3] Com o aumento dramático do budismo chinês, a arte budista prosperou. [1] Muitas biografias históricas de budistas leigos estão disponíveis, o que dá uma imagem clara de suas práticas e papel no budismo chinês. [3]

O Chán emergiu como a corrente dominante dentro do budismo chinês, mas com várias escolas desenvolvendo várias ênfases em seus ensinamentos, devido à orientação regional do período. [3] No período anterior do budismo chinês, foram os Dharmaguptakas que constituíram a escola principal e mais influente, e mesmo mais tarde seu Vinaya permaneceu a base da disciplina ali. [3]

Até 1949, os mosteiros foram construídos nos países do sudeste asiático, por exemplo, por monges do Mosteiro de Guanghua, para espalhar o budismo chinês. [3] O budismo chinês ou budismo Han moldou a cultura chinesa em uma ampla variedade de áreas, incluindo arte, política, literatura, filosofia, medicina e cultura material. [3] O primeiro mestre chinês a ensinar ocidentais na América do Norte foi Hsuan Hua, que ensinou Chán e outras tradições do budismo chinês em San Francisco durante o início dos anos 1960. [3] Sob a influência da cultura ocidental, tentativas foram feitas para revitalizar o budismo chinês. [3]


Os asiáticos centrais continuaram a propagar os ensinamentos budistas durante a dinastia Tang (618-907), e isso se tornou muito popular e poderoso. [9] Perto do fim do Império Tang em 845, os governantes taoístas da Dinastia Tang se voltaram contra os budistas e destruíram milhares de mosteiros e dezenas de milhares de templos. [9]

A dinastia Tang também reconheceu oficialmente várias religiões estrangeiras, como a Igreja Cristã Nestoriana. [7] Isso se reflete na arte da dinastia Tang e em muitos contos escritos no Tang sobre pessoas que acidentalmente acabaram no reino dos mortos, apenas para voltar e relatar suas experiências. [7]

Na época Tang, uma forma obscura de Budismo conhecida como Tantrismo foi introduzida na China e passou a ter uma grande influência no país. [10] Em uma época anterior ao neoconfucionismo e figuras como Zhu Xi (1130-1200), o budismo começou a florescer na China durante as dinastias do norte e do sul, e se tornou a ideologia dominante durante a próspera Tang. [7] O tantrismo, a última contribuição do budismo indiano para a China, trouxe grandes mudanças que colocaram o mundo Tang em novos caminhos e resultou no declínio de grandes comunidades monásticas. [10]

Durante os séculos VI e VII, muitos monges coreanos foram à China para estudar e trouxeram consigo os ensinamentos das várias escolas chinesas de budismo. [8] Durante os séculos VI e VII, quando as várias escolas chinesas de budismo estavam sendo desenvolvidas, havia mais monges do que antes fazendo peregrinações à Índia para estudar as escrituras budistas lá. [8] Posteriormente, ele publicou dois livros históricos famosos, um tratando dos reinos do budismo na Índia e no sudeste da Ásia, e o outro incluindo informações sobre peregrinos chineses que viajaram para países budistas no século VII. [10]

O budismo é uma religião importante na China e sua influência se estende além da China para outras regiões do Leste Asiático, particularmente Coréia e Japão, e outras áreas na Ásia e em todo o mundo afetadas pela diáspora chinesa. [6] Um trabalho padrão sobre o desenvolvimento do budismo inicial na China, com um foco particular nas instituições e suas interações com os contextos sociopolíticos e religiosos chineses. [12] Fronteiras flutuantes impactando a extensão territorial da China também afetaram a composição étnica da nação chinesa e os tipos de budismo praticados na China. [6] Com uma coleção crescente de traduções chinesas de textos budistas, o budismo se tornou mais amplamente conhecido e uma ordem monástica chinesa também foi formada. [8] À medida que o interesse pelo budismo crescia, havia uma grande demanda por textos budistas traduzidos das línguas indianas para o chinês. [8] O povo chinês teve seu primeiro contato com o budismo através dos centro-asiáticos que já eram budistas. [8] Analisando as características éticas, políticas, econômicas, literárias, educacionais e sociais do budismo, o livro aumenta nossa compreensão do papel desempenhado pelos mosteiros budistas no contexto chinês. [12] O budismo na China é um dos poucos casos na era pré-moderna em que duas culturas avançadas, altamente letradas e sofisticadas se encontraram, resultando em uma mistura híbrida que transformou tanto o ensino budista quanto a cultura chinesa. [6] O budismo tem uma longa história na China e desenvolveram-se religiões budistas nativas que são aceitas pelos budistas chineses. [9] As crenças budistas chinesas depois se espalharam para o Japão. Contribuições para a fé foram importadas da Índia e de outros países para a China, e um número substancial de novas tradições enriqueceram o budismo. [10]

O budismo, a religião universal da maioria dos asiáticos, não só era parte integrante da sociedade e da política daquela época, mas o ramo chinês da fé também se tornou uma espécie de segundo lar para os adeptos japoneses e coreanos. Com o tempo, o budismo se tornou uma força popular na vida dos chineses, desde as pessoas comuns até o próprio imperador. [11] Durante este tempo, o budismo ganhou popularidade com o povo chinês. [8]

Após a demolição de mosteiros e a dispersão de monges eruditos, várias escolas chinesas de budismo, incluindo a Escola Tian-tai, deixaram de existir como movimentos separados. [8] No século VIII, o budismo Chan foi dividido em duas escolas principais fundadas pelos principais discípulos de Hongren, o quinto patriarca chinês. [10] O taoísmo foi combinado com antigas religiões populares chinesas, práticas médicas, budismo e artes marciais para criar uma espiritualidade complexa e sincrética. [7] Alquimia chinesa, astrologia chinesa, Budismo Chan, várias artes marciais, medicina tradicional chinesa, feng shui e muitos estilos de qigong foram entrelaçados com o taoísmo ao longo da história. [7] Diferentes tipos de budismo se desenvolveram nesses países, e seus ensinamentos foram alterados pelos chineses, então a história religiosa é complexa com muitas seitas diferentes. [9] O budismo, em geral, continuou a ser uma grande influência na vida religiosa chinesa. [8] Ebrey e Gregory também comparam o impacto do budismo no taoísmo e outros movimentos religiosos, uma abordagem comparativa também usada por Goossaert 2000 em sua análise cuidadosa de mosteiros e templos ao longo da história chinesa. [12] Desta forma, o povo chinês aprendeu sobre o budismo de forma que, em meados do primeiro século d.C., já existia uma comunidade de budistas chineses. [8] De acordo com a tradição, um monge chinês na segunda metade do século IV d.C. introduziu o budismo pela primeira vez no reino de Koguryo, no norte. [8] Foi também nessa época que os monges chineses começaram a chegar e muitas escolas chinesas de budismo foram introduzidas no Japão. [8] [8] Discussão de como o budismo se tornou uma parte integrante da sociedade chinesa do século 6 ao 13. [12] Sob o novo governo da dinastia Yi, do final do século XIV ao início do século XX, o budismo perdeu o apoio da corte quando o confucionismo se tornou a única religião oficial do estado. [8] Um volume inovador de estudos por vários autores que exploram a profundidade e o alcance do budismo na dinastia Song (Sung). [6]

Este capítulo examina a história do reconhecimento oficial do Budismo Chan na China durante a Dinastia Tang, ou o período de 618 a 906. [13] na China antes da dinastia Tang ɑː ŋ uma análise do budismo na China antes da dinastia Tang / uma análise do artigo quando a educação para os chineses: As "Seis Escolas", Rokush, em Japonês uma análise do pigmalião pela história de gb shaw são as escolas especulativas, doutrinárias e disciplinares do budismo. [14] Inscrições fúnebres da dinastia Tang na China, entretanto, revelam que, embora a filialidade seja indiscutivelmente um elemento essencial do budismo chinês, a narrativa existente sobre o significado budista está longe de estar completa. [15]

A arte budista produzida durante a dinastia Tang é frequentemente referida como um estilo internacional devido ao amálgama de protótipos chineses, asiáticos centrais e indianos e à transferência desse estilo para a Coréia e o Japão. [16] Dinastia Tang, romanização de Wade-Giles T'ang, (618-907 dC), dinastia chinesa que sucedeu à curta dinastia Sui (581-618), desenvolveu uma forma bem-sucedida de governo e administração no modelo Sui, e estimulou um florescimento cultural e artístico que chegou a uma idade de ouro. [17] A dinastia Tang foi uma das eras douradas da história chinesa e a confiança ousada e a riqueza da época são refletidas na arte brilhante e inovadora que produziu. [18]


Foi trazido para a China por monges budistas da Índia durante a última parte da dinastia Han (cerca de 150 DC) e levou mais de um século para ser assimilado pela cultura chinesa. [11] A história do budismo chinês cobre cerca de dois mil anos, desde sua entrada na China, passando pela Índia e Ásia central no primeiro século EC, até o presente. [6] Mesmo na China continental, onde a religião é frequentemente suprimida pelo governo, existem praticantes dessas duas escolas do budismo chinês. [11] Obra magistral de um importante estudioso japonês do budismo chinês, com foco na recepção e desenvolvimento do budismo na China em seus primeiros séculos. [6] Este é o caso das obras padrão Ch’en 1964, Ch’en 1973 e Zürcher 2007 (publicadas pela primeira vez em 1959) que discutem como o budismo se tornou uma parte integrante da sociedade chinesa. [12] Tendo se originado do budismo indiano como um ser superior que ajuda o sofrimento do mundo, Guanyin se tornou uma figura chave nas práticas devocionais de budistas chineses e taoístas. [11] Embora a proibição fosse suspensa apenas alguns anos depois, o budismo nunca recuperou seu status outrora dominante na cultura chinesa. [7]

Por volta do século VIII, o budismo foi amplamente aceito e reconhecido como a fé dominante em todo o império Tang. [10] Han Yu (786-824) - que Arthur F. Wright afirmou ser um "polemista brilhante e xenófobo ardente" - foi um dos primeiros homens Tang a denunciar o budismo. [7] Dividido em períodos sucessivos de "crescimento e domesticação", "maturidade e aceitação" e "declínio", ele se concentra no desenvolvimento do budismo que levou ao período Tang (618-906) como uma "idade de ouro", seguido de estagnação e inércia. [6]

O taoísmo era a religião oficial do Tang, é uma tradição religiosa e filosófica chinesa nativa, baseada nos escritos de Laozi. [7]

Detalhes sobre a vida de Buda e os ensinamentos originais apresentados nas escrituras budistas do primeiro século aC são importantes para entender como o budismo chinês se desenvolveu. [9] Uma diferença de grande parte do budismo chinês em comparação com os ensinamentos originais é a crença de que Buda não é apenas um professor que ensinou o que fazer, mas é um deus a quem oramos pedindo ajuda e salvação. [9] Embora originalmente publicado em 1959, o livro continua sendo um trabalho essencial na fase de formação do budismo chinês, chamando atenção especial para o papel essencial dos monges e mosteiros. [12] Foi nessa época, e ao longo dos três séculos seguintes, que as principais escolas do budismo chinês se formaram. [11] Para os propósitos desta revisão, entretanto, o budismo chinês está restrito principalmente à sua definição tradicional no que diz respeito àqueles desenvolvimentos pertencentes a fontes, práticas e assim por diante, da etnia chinesa han. [6] Embora a atenção de Ch'en aos detalhes seja admirável e seu trabalho continue a ser insuperável, ele sofre com sua esquematização do budismo chinês e sua falta de atenção a períodos posteriores. [6]

Esta página foi projetada para fornecer um pano de fundo político extremamente econômico para a famosa dinastia Táng, perseguições de budistas chineses no reinado do imperador Wǔzōng 武宗 (reinado 12a-18, DC 840-846). [19] Começando logo após o início da Era Comum, na Dinastia Han Posterior, os mosteiros se desenvolveram para se tornar uma parte essencial da sociedade chinesa. [12]


Os mosteiros budistas da China vinham acumulando riqueza de forma gradual e implacável, em grande parte graças à propriedade de terras e isenção de impostos e, na época da dinastia Tang, essa riqueza permitia uma grande produção de arte religiosa. [18] A escultura heróica de Budas era uma característica do Tang médio e, embora nenhuma obra desse tamanho e período tenha sobrevivido na China, várias o fazem no Japão, que foi profundamente influenciado pela administração, artes, cultura e religião dos Tang dinastia. [17] Vaso de dragão duplo Tang Vaso de dragão duplo, faiança e esmalte de três cores, China, dinastia Tang, século 8 no Museu de Arte de Indianápolis. [17] Dinastia Tang: espelho de bronze Espelho saliente atrás, decorado em alto relevo com leões perseguindo o pássaro imortal fenghuang entre rolos florais, bronze, da China, dinastia Tang, final do século 7 ao início do 8 no Museu do Brooklyn, Nova York. [17]

Os missionários budistas começaram a difícil jornada do norte da Índia para a China no início do século I d.C., mas foi somente na dinastia Tang que o budismo atingiu o auge da popularidade na China. [20] Chn coreano: Leia o que Uma análise dos investimentos estrangeiros diretos e a importância dos mesmos que o novo ano lunar pode ter reservado para você! O cristianismo se torna uma religião secundária em Tang China Conflict Analysis por uma análise do tópico do elemento carbono Megan S. antes deles, a uma análise literária da personagem lady macbeth em macbeth por william shakespeare dinastia Tang Dinastia Tang que o budismo. [14] Bibliotheca Sinica 2.0: 唐 朝) uma análise do budismo na China antes da dinastia Tang ou o Império Tang era uma dinastia imperial da China uma análise do cyrano de begerac por Edmond Rostand precedido pela dinastia Sui e seguido pelas Cinco Dinastias . [14] No processo de tradução dos sutras clássicos, os monges budistas da Dinastia Tang formaram gradualmente um sistema de ideologia maduro que continha diferentes seitas budistas. [21] Durante a dinastia Tang, o budismo foi muito influente até que algumas considerações foram feitas em torná-lo uma religião oficial até que uma ameaça econômica fosse percebida. [22] As principais características do trabalho de um analista de sistemas de computador Theravada (Pali: A dinastia Tang (618 Taizong patrocina a disseminação do Cristianismo Nestoriano e do Budismo. [14]

O Império Chinês: A China T'ang desfrutou de suas maiores alturas e mais terríveis baixas sob os imperadores da dinastia Tang. [20] A dinastia Tang foi uma época de ouro da arte e da literatura para os chineses. [20] A Dinastia Song (960-1279), após a Dinastia Han (202 AC-220 DC) e a Dinastia Tang (618-906), foi uma das maiores dinastias da história chinesa que viu um grande florescimento cultural. [23]

A Arte da Dinastia Tang (Artigo) - Enciclopédia de História Antiga A Arte da Dinastia Tang Mark Cartwright A arte da Dinastia Tang (618-907 DC) começou a explorar novas possibilidades em materiais e estilos com pintura de paisagem e cerâmica, em particular , vindo à tona. [18] O período da dinastia Tang viu vários desenvolvimentos significativos na arte da cerâmica à pincelada e um deles, talvez o mais importante, foi um aumento na própria apreciação dela como um esforço humano digno. [18] Em 907 ele força o imperador a abdicar e se autoproclama o primeiro imperador da dinastia Hou Liang, encerrando assim a dinastia Tang. [24]

Isso sugere que o debate associado à luta entre facções rivais Chan no início da Dinastia Song foi fundamental na definição dos princípios que vieram a caracterizar Chan e serviu como base para a aceitação de Chan como uma escola líder do Budismo Chinês na Dinastia Song . [13] Khubilai, que foi o primeiro imperador da curta dinastia Yuan na China (1279 - 1368), patrocinou e apoiou a figura principal da seita Sakya do budismo tibetano, Phagspa (1235 - 1280). [16]

Alguns ensinamentos originais do budismo, particularmente o compromisso com a cremação, entraram em conflito com a crença chinesa bem estabelecida de que a transição para a vida após a morte exigia a preservação do corpo por um período de tempo. [25] Explique o declínio do budismo nas últimas dinastias Tang e Song. [26]


As revoltas na fronteira não apenas levaram ao fim da Dinastia Tang, mas novamente mergulharam a China em muitos estados em guerra, antes de serem reunificados sob o imperador fundador da Dinastia Song. [23] Entre a queda da Dinastia Tang e a fundação da Dinastia Song, houve anos de desunião na China. [23] A China tornou-se ainda maior durante a dinastia Tang do que durante o Han. [20] A ascensão da dinastia Tang na China refletiu a ascensão dos Han mais de 800 anos antes. [20] Devido ao próspero desenvolvimento cultural na Dinastia Tang, o intercâmbio cultural entre a China e muitos países estrangeiros era frequente. [21] Durante a dinastia Tang, a China controlava a ____ (rota comercial) até a Ásia Central. [27] Atualmente, há uma pequena parte da música da Dinastia Tang armazenada em alguns templos budistas. [28] O primeiro imperador da dinastia Tang, Kao-tsu (618-626 d.C.), continuou muitas das práticas iniciadas durante a dinastia Sui. [20] Como os Han antes deles, a dinastia Tang tinha seu próprio líder poderoso, o imperador Tai-tsung. [20] In the early period, there were Chen Zi'ang and the four outstanding poets, namely, Lu Zhaolin, Luo Binwang, Wang Bo and Yang Jiong in the glorious period, there were more predominant poets, such as Li Bai, Du Fu, Cen Shen and Wang Wei in the middle period, there were Bai Juyi, Li He and Han Yu Li Shangyin and Du Mu were representatives of the late Tang Dynasty. [21] The Tang dynasty was a period of expansion, especially in trading with foreign lands. [20] The Tang Dynasty (618-907 C.E.) is and international influence during certain periods unparalleled before or since. [14] The poetry and art of the times however were deeply affected by the rebellion of northeastern troops against court officials in the capital city of Ch'ang-an in 756 C.E. Named after the leader of the rebel troops, the An Lu-shan Rebellion caused the deaths of countless people, including members of the royal family, and marked the beginning of the end for the Tang dynasty. [20] The capital cities of the Tang dynasty, Ch'ang-an and Loyang, became melting pots to many cultures and a large number of beliefs such as Zoroastrianism and Islam. [20]

Buddhism in China became a permanent part of Chinese traditional culture. [27] By the mid-7th century, new Buddhist schools of thought had developed a distinctly Chinese flavor, including the Ch'an school, which later evolved into Zen Buddhism. [20] Chinese Painting by Wang Wei is a school of literati painting and the development of Song and Yuan dynasties prevailed whichis similar with Zen ideas Thus Buddhism is on the role of the art of painting. [28] Mostly of the Theravada Buddhism are several Theravada factions, popular in Sri Lanka, and spread throughout Southeast Asia, and then transferred to the Chinese Yunnan. [28] The decline of Buddhism and conflicts between the Chinese and foreign traders marked the beginning of a change in Chinese attitudes. [20] After the founding of People's Republic of China, the first Chinese Buddhist circles together with people across the country took part in the land reform movement, the abolition of the feudal landlordism and other kinds of exploitation, growing cause of Buddhism. [28]

Along with the rapidly developed Buddhism, some religions from foreign states, such as Islam and Christianity, were spread to China which enriched Tang's religions. [21] The emperor of Sui worshiped the Buddhism and the Tang emperor worship Taoism. [28] Buddhism flourished in early Tang rule with 50,000 monasteries. [22] Confucian scholars had convinced Tang rulers that Buddhism threatened the economy of the imperial order because monastic lands were not taxed. [22]

The literary level of Tang Poems reached a peak that had never been surpassed in the history of Chinese literature. [21] In 1126, the dynasty had to move its capital from Kaifeng in northern China to Hanzhou in southern China because the Chinese north fell to the Tartar invaders, some of them ancestors to the latter day Manchus, who eventually established their rule in China and the last Chinese imperial dynasty, the Manchu Dynasty (1644-1911). [23]

Buddhism exerted great influence and role on Chinese culture. [28] In Chinese history, Buddhism and cultural relations so deep, do not understand Buddhism means do not understand Chinese culture. [28]

During the Han dynasty, Buddhism and Taoism were spiritual alternatives to Confucianism. [22]

A universalistic religious philosophy that originated in India (the historical Buddha was born in c.a. 563 BCE), Buddhism first entered China in the first century CE with traders following the Silk Route. [2] Buddhism was developed in India millennia ago by a man later called the Buddha, and spread to China by the 1st century BC. [1] The Dharmaguptakas made more efforts than any other sect to spread Buddhism outside India, to areas such as Afghanistan, Central Asia, and China, and they had great success in doing so. [3] After establishing themselves as far west as Parthia they followed the "silk route", the east-west axis of Asia, eastwards across Central Asia and on into China, where they effectively established Buddhism in the second and third centuries A.D. The Mahīśāsakas and Kāśyapīyas appear to have followed them across Asia into China. [3]

They had also assimilated the prevailing teachings of China: Daoism and Confucianism, with Buddhism, and had further evolved the practice of the Esoteric school. [3] Due to the efforts of Kumārajīva, Buddhism in China became not only recognized for its practice methods, but also as high philosophy and religion. [3] Wuzong cited that Buddhism was an alien religion, which is the reason he also persecuted the Christians in China. [3] Mahāyāna Buddhism was first widely propagated in China by the Kushan monk Lokakṣema (Ch. [3] Huiguo, the last known disciple of Amoghavajra, left China with Kukai traveling to Japan to establish the Japanese Esoteric school of Buddhism, later known as Shingon. [3] The Kaiyuan's Three Great Enlightened Masters, Śubhakarasiṃha, Vajrabodhi, and Amoghavajra, established Esoteric Buddhism in China from AD 716 to 720 during the reign of emperor Xuanzong. [3] By the early 5th century Buddhism was established in south China. [3] Regardless, this ended the great period of Buddhism in China. [1] Many people saw Buddhism as a way to escape the suffering from all of the problems in China. [4] In addition to these numerous biographies, there are accounts from Jesuit missionaries such as Matteo Ricci which provide extensive and revealing accounts to the degree Buddhism penetrated elite and popular culture in China. [3]

During his time in Taiwan, Sheng Yen was well known as one of the progressive Buddhist teachers who sought to teach Buddhism in a modern and Western-influenced world. [3] Buddhism was often associated with Daoism in its ascetic meditative tradition, and for this reason a concept-matching system was used by some early Indian translators, to adapt native Buddhist ideas onto Daoist ideas and terminology. [3]

Another Chinese leader, Empress Wu, ordered many Buddhist temples to be built and sculptures to be created around China and gave more power to monks. [4] When Xuanzang returned to China, he brought back 22 horses piled high with Buddhist relics and prayer objects, as well as 657 Buddhist texts written in the Sanskrit language that had never before been translated into Chinese. [1] In China he spent years translating Buddhist documents into Chinese and promoting (spreading) his faith. [4] The first documented translation of Buddhist scriptures from various Indian languages into Chinese occurs in 148 CE with the arrival of the Parthian prince-turned-monk An Shigao (Ch. [3] He worked to establish Buddhist temples in Luoyang and organized the translation of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese, testifying to the beginning of a wave of Central Asian Buddhist proselytism that was to last several centuries. [3] Buddhist ideology began to merge with Confucianism and Daoism, due in part to the use of existing Chinese philosophical terms in the translation of Buddhist scriptures. [3] The arrival of Kumārajīva also set a standard for Chinese translations of Buddhist texts, effectively doing away with previous concept-matching systems. [3] Having the new texts available in Chinese helped Buddhists standardize their teaching about ideas like karma and rebirth. [1] Xuanzang began the immense task of translating the Buddhist texts into Chinese. [1] When the famous monk Kumārajīva was captured during the Chinese conquest of the Buddhist kingdom of Kucha, he was imprisoned for many years. [3] Since communication between China and India was not exactly easy in the 7th century, not many Chinese Buddhist monks, priests, or worshipers could make the trip, so there was some inconsistency and confusion about certain Buddhist practices. [1]

An Arab market and mosque, dating from this period when the Chinese capital hosted traders from across Eurasia, remain active in Xian at the beginning of the 21st century. [2] Paul Harrison has worked on some of the texts that are arguably the earliest versions we have of the Mahāyāna sūtras, those translated into Chinese in the last half of the second century CE by the Indo-Scythian translator Lokakṣema. [3]

Religious groups and temples representing Daoism, Buddhism, Islam, Manichaeism, (a Persian sect from the 3rd century CE expounding philosophical dualism), Nestorian Christianity (a sect that separated from Byzantine Christianity in 431 and was centered in Persia), and Zoroastrianism (a Persian religion from the 6th century, named after its founder the prophet Zoroaster) could all be found. [2] Buddhism was founded in India in the 6th and 5th century B.C. by Sidhartha Gautama, or more commonly known as the Buddha. 17 He was born on 563 BC, heir to the throne of a tiny kingdom. [5] The spread of Buddhism from its origins (beginnings) in Sarnath, India, throughout Asia was a major event in history. [4] The mixing of Daoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism also helped Buddhism to spread. [4] One factor is the foreign origins of Buddhism, unlike Daoism and Confucianism. [3] During that time, Buddhism was considered to be an insignificant foreign cult. [5]

This is one of the practices of Buddhism, an Asian religion of peace that teaches cycles of rebirth and spiritual harmony. [1] Among the most influential of these was the practice of Pure Land Buddhism established by Hui Yuan, which focused on Amitābha Buddha and his western pure land of Sukhāvatī. [3]

The rise of Buddhism stirred interest in all people, including emperors. [5] These translations from Lokakṣema continue to give insight into the early period of Mahāyāna Buddhism. [3]

Buddhist teachings spoke to the concerns of salvation and the release from suffering and flourished during the period of political disunity in China (220-581) after the fall of the Han dynasty. [2] It is known from accounts in the Ming Dynasty that lay practitioners often engaged in practices from both the Pure Land and Chán traditions, as well as the study of the Buddhist sūtras. [3] During the Song Dynasty, in 1021 CE, it is recorded that there were 458,855 Buddhist monks and nuns actively living in monasteries. [3]

Compromise between the Confucian emphasis on family and filial responsibilities and the demands of Buddhist monastic life was maintained to varying degrees until 845, when the Tang emperors moved to limit the wealth and economic power of landed Buddhist monasteries. [2] Under the Tang, China becomes the preeminent civilization in East Asia and the world with links east to Korea and Japan and west, along the Silk Route. [2] Mantrayana altars were installed in temples in the capital, and by the time of emperor Tang Daizong (r. 762-779) its influence among the upper classes outstripped that of Daoism. [3] It is not surprising, then, that all three masters were well received by the emperor Tang Xuanzong, and their teachings were quickly taken up at the Tang court and among the elite. [3]

In 1989 the 48th Maha-Acharya Master Huiling of the Chinese Esoteric School passed the teaching to the 49th Lineage Bearer Master Yu Tian Jian who revived the school. [3] They brought to the Chinese a mysterious, dynamic, and magical teaching, which included mantra formula and detailed rituals to protect a person or an empire, to affect a person's fate after death, and, particularly popular, to bring rain in times of drought. [3] The influence of Chinese civilization spreads throughout East Asia as neighboring countries study and borrow from Chinese civilization. [2] An 8th-century Chinese fresco at Mogao Caves near Dunhuang in Gansu portrays Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141-87 BCE) worshiping statues of a golden man "golden men brought in 121 BCE by a great Han general in his campaigns against the nomads". [3]

Beliefs in karma and rebirth were held at all levels of Chinese society, and pilgrimages to well-known monasteries and the four holy mountains of China were undertaken by monastics and lay practitioners alike. [3] Buddhist leaders and monks played a significant role in Chinese society. [4] Chinese Buddhists studied the new texts and figured out how to combine their teachings with the Chinese religious philosophies of Daoism and Confucianism. [1] The proliferation of these sūtras expanded the Chinese Buddhist canon significantly with high quality translations of some of the most important Indian Buddhist texts. [3] Chinese Buddhist temples, administrated by local governments, have become increasingly commercialized by sales of tickets, incense, or other religious items soliciting donations and even the listing of temples on the stock market and local governments obtain large incomes. [3]

It arose in China when the Han Dynasty fell, in a time of chaos. [5] According to Weinstein, by the Ming Dynasty, the Chan school was so firmly established that all monks were affiliated with either the Linji school or the Caodong school. [3] Jiangnan funerary jar, ca. 250-300 CE, Jin Dynasty, decorated with a row of Buddhas seated on lotus thrones. [3]

In the early Song Dynasty "Chán-Pure Land syncretism became a dominant movement." [3] Various Confucian scholars of the Song dynasty, including Zhu Xi ( wg: Chu Hsi ), sought to redefine Confucianism as Neo-Confucianism. [3]


Due to the large number of foreign monks who came to teach Buddhism in China and various texts, various new and independent traditions emerged. [9] The Chan school of Buddhism is said to have been introduced to China by Bodhidharma who came from India at the beginning of the sixth century. [8] The Establishment of Buddhism in China From the beginning of the fifth century to around the end of the sixth century, northern and southern China came under separate rulers. [8]

Discusses the mechanisms that stimulated or hampered the spread of Buddhism and of Buddhist monasticism in Central Asia, Tibet, China, and Korea. [12] In symbiosis with the laity, Buddhist monasticism has played a major role in the development of Buddhism in China. [12]

During this period, two Japanese monks named Saicho and Kukai brought two schools of Buddhism to Japan from China. [8] In northern China, except for two short periods of persecution, Buddhism flourished under the lavish royal patronage of rulers who favoured the religion. [8] It is thought that the teachers at the temple had a big influence on both the Buddhism and the martial arts in Korea and Japan, but they didn&apost have as big an influence in China where there were many other religions and philosophies and martial arts styles. [9] Not only was the advance of Buddhism momentous for China and its East Asian neighbors it also invites interest from historians of religion and culture. [6] Buddhism is historically the most successful of the "foreign" religions in China, and its status has long been the subject of debate. [6] At about the same time the other monk, Kukai returned from China and introduced Vajrayana Buddhism to Japan. [8] Broad studies on several aspects of Buddhism involving monks and monasteries have made a rich contribution to our understanding of the role and impact of monasticism in China. [12] Zürcher 2007 is a masterful overview of early Buddhism in China from its inception until the 5th century and remains one of the seminal and influential works in the field. [6] All these activities were a sign of the firm establishment of Buddhism in China by the end of this period. [8] Gernet 1995 is a masterful account of the social and economic roles that Buddhism forged in China between the 5th and 10th centuries and remains valuable as a counterinterpretation of the impact that Buddhism had in China beyond strictly religious and intellectual areas. [6] There are no religious polls, but there may be hundreds of millions of people who believe a combination of Buddhism and Taoism in China. [9] On his return to Japan, Saicho introduced the Tian-tai school of Buddhism from China. [8] His fine translations were popular and helped to spread Buddhism in China. [8] Because of political unrest, Kumarajiva's disciples were later dispersed and this helped to spread Buddhism to other parts of China. [8]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(30 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


Religion and Politics

From the outset, religion played a role in Tang politics. In his bid for power, Li Yuan had attracted a following by claiming descent from the Taoist sage Laozi (6th century BCE). People bidding for office would have monks from Buddhist temples pray for them in public in return for cash donations or gifts if the person was selected. Before the persecution of Buddhism in the 9th century, Buddhism and Taoism were accepted side by side, and Emperor Xuanzong (r. 712–56) invited monks and clerics of both religions to his court. At the same time Xuanzong exalted the ancient Laozi by granting him grand titles and writing commentary on him, set up a school to prepare candidates for examinations on Taoist scriptures, and called upon the Indian monk Vajrabodhi (671–741) to perform Tantric rites to avert a drought in the year 726. In 742 Emperor Xuanzong personally held the incense burner during a ceremony led by Amoghavajra (705–74, patriarch of the Shingon school) reciting “mystical incantations to secure the victory of Tang forces.”

While religion played a role in politics, politics also played a role in religion. In the year 714, Emperor Xuanzong forbade shops and vendors in the city of Chang’an to sell copied Buddhist sutras, instead giving the Buddhist clergy of the monasteries the sole right to distribute sutras to the laity. In the previous year of 713, Emperor Xuanzong had liquidated the highly lucrative Inexhaustible Treasury, which was run by a prominent Buddhist monastery in Chang’an. This monastery collected vast amounts of money, silk, and treasures through multitudes of anonymous people’s repentances, leaving the donations on the monastery’s premise. Although the monastery was generous in donations, Emperor Xuanzong issued a decree abolishing their treasury on grounds that their banking practices were fraudulent. He collected their riches and distributed the wealth to various other Buddhist monasteries and Taoist abbeys, and used it to repair statues, halls, and bridges in the city.


Tang Dynasty Standing Buddha - History

Chao Yuangfang was a taiyi, which was the title for the emperor's physician. He is most famous for his book entitled Zhubing Yuanhoulun (Treatise on the Causes and Symptoms of Diseases). This book is comprised of 50 volumes and describes 1,700 syndromes. It is significant because it is the earliest record in China that categorizes the causes, symptoms and pathology of certain diseases in a systematical manner. It touches on subjects concerning internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, gynecology, dermatology, ophthalmology, and ENT.


The Tang Dynasty 618-907 AD

About the Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was founded by the Li family. Li Yuan, the first emperor of the Tang Dynasty, reigned under the name Tang Gaozu (618-626 AD) followed by his son Li Shimin who reigned under the name Tang Taizong (626-649 AD). The early Tang Dynasty expanded China making it the most powerful Asian country. During this time, Buddhism was at its peak and Chinese poetry flourished.

Tang Empire (618-907 AD)

The Imperial Academy

In 624 AD, another Imperial Medical Academy was founded. This government run academy graduated doctors for the purpose of serving the emperor, his family, and the nobles. It was a large institution divided into two areas: medicine and pharmacy.

A Medical Charm: Chinese people believed it had magical power for healing.

Medicina: Those students who studied medicine were required to take general subjects that focused on classics such as the Huang Di Nei Jing (The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine), Shennong Bencaojing (Classic of Herbal Medicine), Maijing (Pulse Classic or Manual on the Pulses), and Zhenjiu Jiayijing (The ABC of Acupuncture and Moxibustion). Clinical subjects studied included areas such as internal medicine, pediatrics, surgery, ENT, cupping, acupuncture, massage and charms and incantations. This last subject (charms and incantations) arose out of the influences of Taoism and Buddhism on Chinese culture, and is significant because it reflected the importance that spiritualism played in the holistic healing process.

Pharmacy: Those students studying pharmacy helped maintain the Imperial Academy's herb garden and learned how to plant and process herbs. Upon graduation, they were made herb gardeners.


Examination in ancient times

Examination Process: One of the most important aspects of this school was the examination process that all students were required to go through. There were seasonal and yearly examinations of all the subjects studied. If a student failed the final examination required for graduation, he was dismissed from the academy. Doctors were promoted based on their treatment success rate. The implementation of exams to qualify doctors may have been a catalyst for Western countries to adopt their own examination process. In 931 AD, the Arabs began requiring qualifying examinations for medical practitioners, and in 1140 AD Roger of Sicily passed laws requiring state examinations for doctors in Italy.

By 629 AD, just five years after the Imperial Medical Academy was established, emperor Tai zong established local medical schools to educate the doctors in the outlying provinces. By 713 AD, China's local government was assigning assistant teachers to these schools, and by 723 AD the local government's power expanded so that they had the authority to appoint medical doctors to serve the lay public. As a result, apprenticeships were now not the only means for local doctors to learn medicine as formalized medical education became popular.

The previously mentioned Shennong Bencaojing (Classic of Herbal Medicine) written in approximately the 1st and 2nd century BC is the earliest pharmacopoeia reference. It was later revised by Tao Honjing (456-536 AD) and renamed the Shennong Bencaojing Jizhu (Annotations to the Classic of Herbal Medicine). While both of these works are very important, the authors wrote these books of their own accord because of their passion for medicine. It was not until the Tang Dynasty that the first official pharmacopoeia was mandated by the government. A physician named Su Jing, along with approximately 20 other of his compatriots wrote the Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) between 657-659 AD, which was the first official pharmacopoeia in China and in the world. Western cultures would not have official pharmacopoeias until several centuries later.

Foreign Influences on Chinese Medicine Development


The Buddhist pilgrim to India - shown carrying back the scriptures to China
Due to China's expansion and improvement in communication and transportation systems, Chinese medicine was introduced into foreign cultures. In return, these foreign cultures contributed to the advancement of Chinese medicine by expanding its knowledge base. Chinese doctors were sent to countries such as Korea, Japan, India and Vietnam, and many of the previously mentioned Chinese medical texts were exported and translated into these countries' languages. From Korea, herbs such as ginseng , giant Typhomium tuber (bai fuzi), Korean pine and others were introduced into China. From Vietnam came vanilla grass, sappan wood, and cloves.

Due to the popularity of Buddhism and the frequent pilgrimages of religious monks, a natural exchange of information occurred between China and India. Many Indian medical books were translated into Chinese, and Indian doctors were known to practice in China. Advancements in ophthalmology were in part attributed to Indian experience. In return, herbs such as ephedra, ginseng, and angelica were brought from China to India.

Chinese medicine also influenced the Arab world as Arab merchants made their way into China. The Arabs brought back alchemy and Pulsology techniques as well as herbs such as rhubarb and cinnamon while new substances such as incense, myrrh, and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) were given to China. The fig (Ficus carica), which is known for its laxative properties and is still used in Chinese medicine today, came from Persia. Tibetan medicine also benefited greatly from both Chinese and Indian influences.


Sun Simiao (581-682 A.D.) - King of Prescriptions
SunSimiao (581-682 AD)

Sun Simao is one of the most influential physicians in the history of Chinese medicine, and is distinguished by his application of medicine and his adherence to an ethical code. His interest in medicine came from his own fragile health whereby he treated himself as his first patient. His mastery of medicine, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism made Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty, and Emperors Tai-zong and Gao-zu of the Tang Dynasty seek him out as an imperial physician. However, Sun Simiao declined these posts and devoted his life to being a physician who served the common people. He believed the best way to care for a patient was to prevent an illness before it occurred. The worst care was to treat an illness that had already occurred because it meant that he was unable to keep his patient healthy.

Sun Simiao's best known works are Qianjin Yaofang (Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergencies or Precious Prescriptions for Emergencies) e a Qianjin Yifang (A Supplement to the Essential Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold or Supplement to Precious Prescriptions). The first book is comprised of 30 volumes and lists 5,300 prescriptions. The second book is also made up of 30 volumes and lists 2,571 prescriptions. Sun Simiao's observations about diseases and his prescribed treatments are noteworthy even today. For example, he knew cholera and diarrhea were caused by what people ate and drank and not by "evil spirits" as was commonly thought. He correctly identified tuberculosis as a lung disease, which was a new concept of this time. After successfully treating 600 cases of leprosy, he is considered the earliest expert on this disease in China.

Sun Simiao is also renowned for his identification and treatment of deficiency disorders. Even though he was not exactly sure of the cause of goiter (hypothyroidism caused by lack of iodine), he knew it occurred in people who lived in certain mountainous regions and drank unsanitary water. He prescribed medicine from the thyroid glands of deer and sheep because they are high in iodine content. Nyctalopia, which is night blindness caused by lack of vitamin A, was successfully treated with pig, calf and sheep livers that contain large amounts of this vitamin. He is the first person in the medical history to document the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Beriberi, a deficiency disease caused by lack of vitamin B1. For this, he prescribed combinations of herbs that were high in Vitamin B1.

The elderly also benefited from Sun Simiao because he was a strong advocate for maintaining health throughout a person's life. He thought life could be prolonged with measures such as performing daily breathing exercises (qi gong), regular physical exercise, and massage therapy. He advised against excessive drinking, eating raw meat, and spitting in public. He also believed diet therapy should be tried before resorting to medicine.

Other advances made by Sun Simiao were in the areas of acupuncture, moxibustion and pharmacy. He thought moxibustion should be performed prior to acupuncture, and he was successful in determining essential acupuncture points. Sun Simiao also combined acupuncture with drug therapy, and stressed using the a- shi point, which is still used by acupuncturists today. His knowledge of herbs was vast, and he insisted on harvesting them in the proper season and processing them correctly. The nickname "king of pharmacology" or 'king of prescriptions" was given to him because he was especially knowledgeable in preparation of medicinal herbs.


What Else to See apart from Leshan Giant Buddha

In addition to the Buddha, travelers can also visit Lingyun Temple, Lingbao Pagoda, Mahao Cliff-tomb on the mountain and experience the Nine-bend Lingyun plank Road on the right side of the Buddha. Besides, you are also encouraged to take a boat trip on the river to have a full view of Leshan Giant Buddha.


On both sides of big Buddha cliffs and mountain road, there are many stone grottoes statues, most of them are the works in glorious age of Tang dynasty. In the right side river of Lingyun Temple, there is a 2-foot-tall tower of 13 floors. The modeling is similar to Xi'an Small Wild Goose Pagoda. In the left river side of Temple, there is a solo peak standing upright, namely Wuyou. Nearby it is Wuyou Temple built in Tang dynasty.


Indian Buddhist Monks Who Travelled to China Before the Tang Dynasty

The second day, while the emperor was holding a meeting with his officials, he detailed what he had dreamed about the previous night, and asked everyone what it meant.

One of the officials, Fuyi (傅毅), suggested that the emperor could have dreamed of a Buddha. According to an ancient prediction written in historical records, it was about time that Buddhism would be introduced to China.

Hearing Fuyi’s interpretation, Emperor Ming sent a delegation to India. After a tough trip, the delegation reached modern day Afghanistan where they met two Buddhist monks from India – Kasyapa Matanga and Dharmaratna.

Originally from central India, Kasyapa Matanga used to teach the Golden Light Sutra at a vassal state of India, but a war broke out at the border of the state while he was teaching.

Kasyapa Matanga believed that teaching Buddhist sutra would bring protection to people. Therefore, he swore to mediate between the two warring states and bring peace to the locals. He went to the border and after some efforts persuading both sides, he helped the countries avoid war. He became even more well-known and respected after that.

A reputed scholar throughout India, Dharmaratna was also from central India. He could recite tens of thousands of chapters of sutra and was able to speak in Chinese soon after he reached China.

It took three years before the delegation and the two well-respected Indian Buddhist monks, Kasyapa Matanga and Dharmaratna, returned to the Han capital, Luoyang (洛阳). Emperor Ming built a temple for the two monks to live in and translate the Buddhist texts.

As a white horse carried the Buddhist texts and images back, Emperor Ming named the temple ‘White Horse Temple’ (白马寺), where Kasyapa Matanga and Dharmaratna co-translated the ‘Sutra of Forty-two Chapters’ (四十二章经) into Chinese.

It is said that they were the first to introduce Buddhism to China and translate Buddhist sutra into Chinese.

Some other accounts, however, attributed the first translation of Indian Buddhist scripts into Chinese to An Shigao (安世高).

An Shigao was originally the prince of Parthia, a historical region in north-eastern Iran. After his father passed away, An Shigao abdicated the throne in favour of his uncle and became a missionary monk.

After leaving his own country, An Shigao travelled eastward and reached Luoyang in 148 AD, during the reign of Emperor Huan of Eastern Han Dynasty (汉桓帝).

Since young, An Shigao had been very diligent in studying. He used to read extensively the classics of Iran and other countries. He was also well-trained in astrology, geography and especially medicine.

After reaching Luoyang, An Shigao, too, very soon mastered the Chinese language. Upon realising the Han Chinese lacked understanding of Buddhism, An Shigao made a wish to translate Buddhist sutra into Chinese.

It is said that An Shigao translated about 35 volumes of Buddhist sutra into Chinese and he is believed to be the first Buddhist monk to introduce the teachings of Hinayana Buddhism to China.

The Legendary Indian Buddhist Monk in China Who Started Zen Buddhism

One of the most well-known Indian Buddhist monks who had travelled to China is probably Bodhidharma. As he first brought Chan Buddhism (Zen Buddhism) to China, Bodhidharma is also regarded as the first Patriarch of the Chinese Chan Buddhism.

Bodhidharma arrived in China in 527 AD during Liang (梁). At the time, China was divided into three kingdoms, and Liang was the kingdom occupying the southern half of China.

It is said that due to the conflicting understanding of Buddhist teachings between Bodhidharma and Emperor Wu of Liang (梁武帝), Bodhidharma crossed the Yangtze River entering the northern part of China.

In ancient times, crossing the Yangtze River was considered a tough or even dangerous task. Guess how Bodhidharma made it without the help of a boatman?

According to ‘Shi Shi Tong Jian’ (释氏通鉴) , a book written by Benjue (本觉) in Southern Song dynasty, Bodhidharma crossed the river standing on a reed!

Although some other books did not mention Bodhidharma crossing the Yangtze River on a reed, it has become a most famous legend about Bodhidharma.

After crossing the Yangtze River, Bodhidharma went to Mount Song (嵩山), where the famous Shaolin Monastery (少林寺) was located.

Have you ever seen or even bought a Daruma doll as a souvenir when travelling in Japan? Do you know that the Daruma doll is actually modelled after Bodhidharma?

When Bodhidharma was in Mount Song, he meditated inside a cave. Basically, he sat inside the cave facing the wall every day – for nine years!

It is said that when Bodhidharma was in deep meditation, he would sit still without moving at all. The birds flying into the cave even built a nest on his shoulder as if he were a stone.

Some say that Bodhidharma’s legs atrophied after sitting for too long. This is why the Daruma dolls sitting in meditation position have no legs.


Tang Dynasty Standing Buddha - History

These pictures show how massive rain wreaks havoc in Mumbai

These pictures show the life of LGBT community in India

Pictures of the best places in India to watch sunsets

These pictures show devastation caused by floods amid pandemic

Students celebrate cancellation of 12 board exams with hilarious memes

Best places to visit in India during monsoon

Free food distributed to the poor amid pandemic

Drive-through vaccination facility opens in Delhi

Al Wathba, A Luxury Collection Hotel, Abu Dhabi

Qasr Al Sarab Desert Resort by Anantara

Jebel Hafit and Jebel Hafit Desert Park

Mukesh Ambani celebrates his 64th birthday

Protest against rising fuel prices

Nirmala Sitharaman presents Union Budget 2021

Honouring excellence from all walks of life: ET Industry Leaders&ndash West 2020

Top 5 richest women in India

Indian pharma companies who are trying to make coronavirus vaccine

Facebook picks up 9.99 pc stake in Jio Platforms for Rs 43,574 cr

Ratan Tata&rsquos response to being called Chhotu is winning the internet


Buddhism in the Tang (618–906) and Song (960–1279) Dynasties

Buddhism was founded in northern India in the sixth century BCE. Most historians believe it was introduced to China in approximately the second century by means of monks and traders along the Silk Road.

Buddhist cave shrines at Longmen caves

Buddhism was essentially a foreign religion in a culture with many well-established philosophical and religious traditions, notably Taoism and Confucianism. These three belief systems coexisted to varying degrees during both the Tang and Song dynasties. Confucianism guided the social realm&mdash governance, education, family life, relationships among levels of society. It provided ethical guidelines for maintaining social order. Taoism offered mystical, proto-scientific ideas about one&rsquos health, well-being, procreation, and longevity. In the Chinese context, Buddhism dealt mainly with the afterlife, the effects of good and bad deeds addressing life&rsquos misfortunes it also promised release from suffering.

By the Tang dynasty, Buddhist temples and shrines had spread across the country. Buddhism enjoyed a great deal of state support. Then as now, lay people made donations to monks and temples to secure earthly and spiritual rewards. More specifically, they could accrue merit (positive actions resulting in spiritual and practical benefits) through charity, the support of public works (such as refurbishing a local temple), the donation of property, or the commissioning of artworks (a statue, or cave shrine, or production of a set of Buddhist texts). Individuals entering monastic life as monks or nuns still aroused suspicion from some members of society, particularly strict adherents of Confucianism. Sacrificing one&rsquos family name, the possibility of offspring, cutting of one&rsquos hair (a defilement of the body), and embracing poverty ran counter to many time-honored Chinese beliefs.

In a Buddhist context, grand celebrations were often held in honor of rulers, on festival days, in honor of new public works, and to protect the nation from famine or invasion. Some festivals involving the parade of sacred relics were criticized by various members of the court, in particular for arousing hysteria and for lavish expenditures. Buddhism was severely persecuted in 845 and again in the 900s during the Five Dynasties period between the Tang and the Song. Many of the reasons for this suppression were economic. Thousands of temples were destroyed and metal objects melted down for hard currency. Many monks and nuns were forced to return to lay life, where they could contribute to the general tax base.

Despite these persecutions and continuing difficulties accommodating itself on foreign soil, Buddhism for most part thrived among the Chinese population, in particular during the Song when it moved out of the realm of official state sponsorship and into the mainstream of popular religion.

In the artistic realm, Buddhism not only contributed to the development of sculpture during the Tang and Song period, it furthered the development of printed books and religious architecture in China. Scholar John Kieschnick has suggested that the unique combination of Buddhism and Chinese culture also helped further develop the use of the chair, and the popularization of tea in China during this time.

The predominant forms of Buddhism in China were drawn from Mahayana Buddhism, a branch of Buddhism that espoused the possibility of enlightenment for all sentient beings, with the help of bodhisattvas, compassionate, enlightened beings who had postponed their own entry into nirvana in order to help others along the path to enlightenment. These bodhisattvas would become increasingly important figures in Chinese Buddhist arts as time progressed. The main forms of Buddhism present in China during the Tang and Song period (some unique to China) included:

  • Tiantai (&ldquoheavenly terrace&rdquo) Buddhism: A school of Buddhism that aimed to synthesize various existing Buddhist practices its principle text was the &ldquoSutra of the Lotus of the True Law&rdquo (the &ldquoLotus Sutra&rdquo&mdashone of the most popular Buddhist texts during the Tang-Song period) it appealed mainly to the literate, ruling classes.
  • Avatamsaka (Huayan, &ldquoflower garland&rdquo) Buddhism: After text of the same name followed concept of two worlds, li (ultimate principle) and shi (phenomena) this school was supported by Empress Wu of the Tang.
  • Pure Land (Jingtu) Buddhism: After text of the same name described a Western Paradise where believers could be reborn a very popular school among the mainstream population, a set of beliefs that helped to inspire landscape painting.
  • Chan Buddhism: Began in the Tang dynasty but became more popular in Song founded by legendary Indian monk Bodhidharma in fifth century CE, involved intense physical and mental exercises to gain enlightenment greatly influenced the arts, including representations of spiritually advanced hermits called arhats (Chinese: luohan).
  • Esoteric Buddhism: A more elaborate form of Buddhism involving numerous male and female deities, rituals, incantations, gestures and visualizations established in the border regions of China in the later Tang some overlap with practices in Tiantai and Huayan forms of Buddhism.

Buddhist art images of the Tang and Song adorned temples and cave shrines, and were used in private worship and in court-sponsored activities. Many of the objects that have survived consist of stone steles, and freestanding statues of marble, sandstone, and less frequently wood or lacquered wood. Most bronze statues that have survived are generally rather small objects.

Tang religious architecture had a lasting impact on Buddhist architecture throughout East Asia. The wooden structures at Horyuji outside of Nara, Japan have been largely preserved since the 700s. They were modeled after a Tang-dynasty Chinese temple and give us a reasonably good idea of temple layout and construction of that time, since very little survives intact in China. The oldest surviving wooden temple building in China dates from the Tang: Nanchansi at Wutaishan. An image of the exterior of the temple is included in this packet.

Recently, Buddhist reliquary and ritual objects have been found in a secret crypt below a pagoda at Famensi west of Xi&rsquoan, and a cache of intentionally broken and buried Buddhist statues (mostly dating from before the Tang) have been uncovered from the remains of temple grounds in Shandong province. These objects give us new insights into particular moments in Chinese Buddhist art and material culture at various times in the past.


Assista o vídeo: BUDA HOTEI PROSPERIDAD (Janeiro 2022).