Notícia

J. Edgar Hoover

J. Edgar Hoover


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John Edgar Hoover nasceu em Washington, DC, em 1º de janeiro de 1895, filho de Dickerson N. Um tanto estranho na escola, ele não era atlético e não tinha namoradas. * Ele se destacou nos estudos, nos debates e na equipe de treinamento militar , então foi nomeado orador da turma. Seguindo o ensino médio, Hoover trabalhou como mensageiro na Biblioteca do Congresso. Por três anos, ele frequentou aulas noturnas de direito na George Washington University. Após a formatura em 1917, ele foi admitido na ordem. Nesse mesmo ano, Hoover encontrou trabalho nos EUA. Nessa função, ele supervisionou os ataques de Palmer contra alienígenas que supostamente tinham opiniões radicais. Quando a divisão se tornou o Federal Bureau of Investigation em 1935, Hoover foi nomeado seu diretor.Hoover contratou pessoal mais qualificado e estabeleceu vários procedimentos e técnicas que tornariam o FBI notável por suas prisões criminais eficientes. A agência também começou a compilar e distribuir estatísticas nacionais de crimes e treinar pessoal na Academia Nacional de Polícia. Na década de 1930, Hoover dirigiu investigações que levaram à prisão de vários criminosos, incluindo o ladrão de banco John Dillinger. Para promover a campanha de seu bureau contra o crime organizado, ele participou pessoalmente da apreensão de vários gângsteres importantes. Em 1936, o presidente Roosevelt atribuiu ao FBI a responsabilidade pelas investigações de espionagem e sabotagem. Em 1939, o FBI havia se tornado preeminente no campo da inteligência doméstica. As operações anti-espionagem e anti-espionagem do FBI durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial efetivamente descarrilaram a interferência dos agentes alemães e japoneses nos esforços de guerra dos EUA. Após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, Hoover tornou-se um zeloso e alto -perfil anti-comunista. Hoover liderou o bureau em uma série de investigações com o objetivo de extinguir atividades subversivas não apenas dentro do governo, mas também no setor privado. Hoover foi objeto de controvérsia por vários anos. Eles rotularam seu anticomunismo de compulsivo; foi documentado que ele organizou assédio sistemático de ativistas políticos e dissidentes, incluindo Martin Luther King Jr. Ele foi acusado de chantagear figuras públicas notáveis ​​e de recorrer à perseguição política. O programa COINTELPRO de Hoover sancionou agentes do FBI a assediar, obstruir e erradicar esses grupos como o Partido dos Panteras Negras e outras organizações de esquerda. A existência de tal documentação não oficial não foi confirmada porque sua secretária de longa data, Helen Gandy, destruiu vários arquivos após a morte de Hoover. Após sua morte, no entanto, reformas foram empreendidas para prevenir tais abusos no futuro. No entanto, as contribuições seminais de Hoover para o avanço do trabalho investigativo policial falaram por si mesmas. Em 1966, ele recebeu o prêmio Distinguished Achievement por seu papel como diretor do FBI.Começando com a administração Kennedy, a influência de Hoover começou a se desgastar. Ele bateu de frente com o irmão do presidente, o procurador-geral Robert F. Kennedy, cujo objetivo era restringir o poder de Hoover e seu envolvimento político. Ele morreu em 2 de maio de 1972, aos 77 anos, em meio a uma polêmica gerada por alegações de atividades ilegais do FBI. Edgar Hoover serviu por quase 50 anos sob não menos que oito presidentes, de Calvin Coolidge a Richard M. Nixon. É por causa do mandato de Hoover que os diretores subsequentes do FBI foram limitados a 10 anos no cargo. Escritas: Pessoas escondidas (1938), Masters of Deceit (1958), Um estudo do comunismo (1962), Crime nos Estados Unidos (1965), e J. Edgar Hoover sobre o comunismo (1969).


* Hoover morou com sua mãe até a morte dela em 1938, quando ele tinha 43 anos. Ele foi solteiro ao longo da vida.


J. Edgar Hoover: Gay ou apenas um homem que faz sexo com homens?

O filme de Clint Eastwood deixa a questão da homossexualidade ambígua.

DiCaprio em Becoming & # x27J. Edgar & # x27

16 de novembro de 2011 e nº 151 - J. Edgar Hoover levou uma vida sexual profundamente reprimida, morando com sua mãe até os 40 anos, rejeitando desajeitadamente a atenção das mulheres e derramando sua atenção emocional e, às vezes, física em seu belo deputado no FBI, de acordo com o novo filme, "J. Edgar", dirigido por Clint Eastwood.

Os cinéfilos nunca vêem o romance de décadas entre o ex-diretor do FBI e seu número dois, Clyde Tolson, consumado, mas há muitos olhares de amor, mãos dadas e uma cena com um beijo agressivo, longo e profundo.

Então, o homem mais poderoso da América, que morreu em 1972 - três anos depois que os distúrbios de Stonewall marcaram o movimento moderno pelos direitos civis dos gays - era homossexual?

Eastwood admite que a relação entre Hoover, interpretado por Leonardo DiCaprio, e Clyde Tolson, interpretado por Armie Hammer, é ambígua.

"Ele era um homem misterioso", disse ele ao programa "Good Morning America" ​​da ABC na semana passada. “Ele pode ter sido [gay]. Eu sou agnóstico sobre isso. Eu realmente não sei e ninguém realmente sabia”.

Em público, Hoover travou uma vingança contra homossexuais e manteve arquivos "confidenciais e secretos" sobre a vida sexual de congressistas e presidentes. Mas, em particular, de acordo com alguns biógrafos, ele teve vários encontros com homens, incluindo um caso que durou toda a vida com Tolson.

A dissociação - negar a homossexualidade, mas exibir comportamento sexual - "não é incomum", de acordo com o Dr. Jack Drescher, psiquiatra da cidade de Nova York que é especialista em gênero e sexualidade.

Homens com forte atração por outros homens podem ter diferentes graus de aceitação, desde ser totalmente enrustido até ser abertamente gay. E mesmo que sejam homossexualmente autoconscientes, podem aceitá-lo ou rejeitá-lo publicamente.

“Nós confundimos orientação sexual com identidade sexual”, disse Drescher. “Alguns homens não se identificam publicamente como gays, independentemente de seu comportamento sexual”.

Até mesmo os Centros de Controle e Prevenção de Doenças (CDC) rastreiam um grupo que não é rotulado de "gay", mas de "homens que fazem sexo com homens".

Roy Cohn, o advogado que atuou como advogado-chefe do senador Joseph McCarthy em sua campanha anticomunista da década de 1950 e que condenou Julius e Ethel Rosenberg por espionagem, negou que fosse gay, apesar de sua atração por homens.

Cohn, que morreu de AIDS em 1986, era contemporâneo de Hoover e, de acordo com uma biografia, os dois compareceram a festas de sexo juntos em Nova York na década de 1950.

Cohn foi caracterizado em uma cena da peça de Tony Kuschner, "Angels in America", falando com seu médico: ". Você está preso a palavras, rótulos, que acredita que eles significam o que parecem significar. AIDS. Homossexual. Gay. . Lésbica. Você acha que esses são nomes que dizem com quem alguém dorme, mas eles não dizem isso. Roy Cohn é um homem heterossexual, Henry, que anda por aí com caras. "

O grau de autoconsciência de Hoover pode ter sido igual ao de Cohn. Apesar de seus flertes entre pessoas do mesmo sexo, ele ocasionalmente procurava uma "Sra. Hoover" e até cortejava - embora desconfortavelmente - a mãe da atriz Ginger Rogers e a atriz Dorothy Lamour.

As neuroses de Hoover provavelmente estavam enraizadas na infância: ele tinha vergonha de seu pai doente mental e dependia de sua mãe moralmente justa, Annie, já na meia-idade. Até sua morte em 1938, Hoover não tinha vida social fora do escritório.

No filme, Annie castiga seu filho poderoso quando ele murcha diante de alguns de seus críticos do FBI, dizendo-lhe: "Prefiro ter um filho morto do que um narciso como filho."

Em uma biografia de 2004 por Richard Hack, "Puppetmaster", que foi selecionada a partir das anotações de Truman Capote, que havia começado entrevistas sobre o relacionamento de Hoover e Tolson, o autor diz que Hoover não era gay, mas sugere que o homem foi vicariamente excitado pelo a sujeira que ele colecionava nos outros.

Um documento secreto de 200 páginas tratava das atividades extracurriculares do próprio Capote, que era assumidamente gay.

Mas Anthony Summers, que expôs a vida sexual secreta de Hoover em seu livro de 1993, "Oficial e Confidencial: A Vida Secreta de J. Edgar Hoover", disse que não havia ambigüidade sobre as inclinações sexuais do diretor do FBI.

"O que Clint Eastwood sabe sobre isso?" ele perguntou a ABCNews.com. Summers colaborou com historiadores e conduziu 800 entrevistas para o livro, incluindo sobrinhas e pessoas que eram jovens o suficiente na época para conhecer o homem pessoalmente.

"Pudemos ter uma visão mais próxima do homem como indivíduo e como ser humano - tão próximo quanto qualquer pessoa que não teve medo dele desde sua morte", disse Summers.

Com interesse no filme de Eastwood, editoras nos EUA e na Grã-Bretanha estão lançando um remake do livro.

Um especialista médico disse a Summers que Hoover tinha "orientação homossexual fortemente predominante" e outro o categorizou como "bissexual com heterossexualidade fracassada".

Hoover muitas vezes suprimia seus impulsos, mas explodia em lapsos que poderiam tê-lo destruído - alegadas orgias em hotéis de Nova York e casos com adolescentes em uma limusine, de acordo com entrevistas conduzidas por Summers.

"Ele era um indivíduo tristemente reprimido, mas a maioria das pessoas, até mesmo J. Edgar Hoover, desistia de vez em quando", disse ele.


The House History Man

Eu li que J. Edgar Hoover era na verdade um mulato se passando por branco. A foto que você tem dele aqui tende a apoiar essa afirmação. Na verdade, faz você se perguntar como ele conseguiu passar. a menos que, como ele ser gay, as pessoas (ou seja, a imprensa) optassem por ficar em silêncio sobre esses fatos.

A foto que você tem da & quotsala de estar & quot é, na verdade, o porão acabado dele.

A imagem que você tem da & quotsala de estar & quot é, na verdade, seu espaço subterrâneo completo.

dang. dang. dang! precisa olhar seriamente para essa empresa de limosine, política de motorista e prática. parece o
as vítimas não conseguiam abrir a porta por dentro. o motorista pode ter tido a segurança das crianças, também conhecida como passageiros bêbados
Trancar. mmmm, então apenas as pessoas magras saíram. seque as lágrimas. hora de processar. motorista não abalado jogando estúpido.

Maurine Lucille Hill, tenente-coronel EUA (aposentado), nascida em Kansas City, MO em 1929, sempre afirmou que seu avô branco era da Alemanha ou que seus pais eram originários de lá e que sua família está diretamente relacionada ao sangue de J Edgar Hoover através deles. Ela está viva, morando em Suitland, MD e declara que quando os restos mortais de seu irmão, James Frank Hill, marinheiro da Marinha morto em um motim de corrida no final da 2ª Guerra Mundial, foi entregue a sua família sob guarda com ordens de que o caixão não ser aberto, John Edgar enviou rosas e um representante para seu enterro.

A coronel Hill, a primeira mulher negra a se tornar Comandante Estadual do MD D.A.V., afirma que seu avô, & # 39Major & # 39 Hill, lutou na Guerra Civil como oficial confederado. Após a guerra, ele conheceu, cortejou e se casou com uma mulher negra que chegou aos Estados Unidos a serviço de uma família da Europa. Eles tiveram dois filhos, um claro, brilhante e quase branco, Charles, enquanto o outro, Henry, seu pai, era de pele mais escura.

A esposa de & # 39Major & # 39 Hill & # 39 foi estuprada e morta por dois homens brancos enquanto ele estava fora de casa a negócios maçônicos. Quando voltou ao Alabama, ele os localizou e matou em retaliação, o que o obrigou a fugir do estado com um filho muito pequeno, Henry, e outro que já era adolescente. Ele deixou o adolescente, Charles, com parentes a caminho do Kansas, um estado livre de escravos. Charles passou a servir e se aposentar como oficial do Exército, domiciliado no meio do país, perto, mas nunca visitando seu irmão mais escuro, já que ele estava se passando por um homem branco. Como J. Edgar, Charles manteve um contato muito discreto com o pai dela, geralmente apenas algumas rosas ou uma carta ou telefone, respectivamente. O Coronel Hill diz que seus descendentes podem ter entrado em contato com ela há alguns anos, mas seu estado de espírito e o momento estavam errados para uma reunião de família. Tendo recentemente atingido seu 85º aniversário de nascimento, ela reconsiderou e agradece todo e qualquer contato de seus familiares extensos e até então desconhecidos. Ela pode ser contatada em PO Box 270, Temple Hills, MD 20757.


Registros de genealogia podem indicar que J. Edgar Hoover era afro-americano

O fundador do FBI, J. Edgar Hoover, era um homem afro-americano?

Quase 40 anos após a morte do diretor fundador do FBI J. Edgar Hoover, a pesquisa pode revelar que o chefe do departamento de combate ao crime era na verdade um afro-americano, de acordo com & # 8220 The Washington Post. & # 8221

& # 8220Meu avô me disse que este homem poderoso, Edgar, era seu primo de segundo grau e estava passando por branco & # 8221 diz Millie McGhee, uma parente afro-americana de Hoover & # 8217s. & # 8220Se falássemos sobre isso, [Edgar] era tão poderoso que poderia matar todos nós. Cresci apavorado com tudo isso. & # 8221

McGhee começou a descobrir fatos sobre a possibilidade da etnia negra de Hoover e # 8217s depois que ela vasculhou registros judiciais alterados, conduziu entrevistas orais com Hoovers brancos e negros e alistou genealogistas licenciados que determinaram que Hoover era de fato um parente dela.

O mistério da genealogia de Hoover & # 8217 se tornou um tópico de interesse recentemente devido ao filme de Clint Eastwood & # 8220J. Edgar & # 8221 lançado no início deste mês. No filme, Eastwood não faz menção à raça de Hoover e # 8217, para grande desgosto de seus parentes negros, como McGhee.

& # 8220Desde que o filme foi lançado, muitas pessoas me perguntaram por que minhas informações sobre as raízes negras de Hoover & # 8217s não foram incluídas & # 8221 disse McGhee, que é autor de dois livros sobre o assunto, & # 8220Secrets Uncovered: J.Edgar Hoover-The Relative & # 8221 e & # 8220Secrets descobertos: J. Edgar Hoover Passing For White? & # 8221

Você acha que a pesquisa de McGhee & # 8217s sobre a genealogia de J. Edgar Hoover & # 8217s deveria ter sido incluída no filme de Eastwood & # 8217s?


Diretor do F.B.I.

Como diretor, Hoover colocou em prática uma série de mudanças institucionais. Ele despediu agentes que considerava nomeados ou não qualificados políticos e ordenou verificações de antecedentes, entrevistas e testes físicos para os candidatos a novos agentes. Ele também obteve maior financiamento do Congresso e instituiu um laboratório técnico que conduzia métodos científicos para reunir e analisar evidências. Em 1935, o Congresso estabeleceu o Federal Bureau of Investigation e manteve Hoover como seu diretor.

Durante a década de 1930, gângsteres violentos causaram estragos em pequenas cidades do Meio-Oeste. A polícia local ficou impotente contra as gangues e # x2019 poder de fogo superior e carros de fuga velozes. Organizações criminosas sindicadas também estavam acumulando poder nas grandes cidades. Hoover pressionou e recebeu autoridade para que os agentes do Bureau perseguissem esses grupos de acordo com as leis interestaduais federais. Gângsteres notórios como John Dillinger e George & # x201CMachine Gun & # x201D Kelly foram caçados e presos ou mortos. O Bureau tornou-se parte integrante do esforço de aplicação da lei do governo nacional & # x2019s e um ícone na cultura pop americana, dando aos agentes federais o apelido de & # x201CG-men. & # X201D

Durante e após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, o FBI se tornou o baluarte da nação contra a espionagem nazista e comunista. O Bureau realizou investigações internas de contra-espionagem, contra-espionagem e contra-sabotagem dentro dos Estados Unidos, e o presidente Franklin D. Roosevelt ordenou que o FBI executasse inteligência estrangeira no Hemisfério Ocidental. Tudo isso enquanto o Bureau continuava suas investigações sobre assaltos a bancos, sequestros e furtos de automóveis.

J. Edgar Hoover aponta o dedo ao testemunhar perante a Câmara sobre o Comitê de Atividades Não Americanas, Washington, DC.

Foto: Arquivo Hulton / Imagens Getty


J. Edgar Hoover - História

Os segredos de J. Edgar Hoover

Embora nunca tenha sido eleito para nenhum cargo, por 50 anos ele foi mais poderoso do que presidentes. Como chefe do FBI, ele sabia o que todos queriam manter escondido. Mas, por trás da personalidade pública, sua vida privada chocante quase o derrubou. Quais foram os segredos de J. Edgar Hoover?

J. Edgar Hoover

John Edgar Hoover (1 de janeiro de 1895 - 2 de maio de 1972) foi o primeiro Diretor do Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) dos Estados Unidos. Nomeado diretor do Bureau of Investigation - predecessor do FBI - em 1924, ele foi fundamental na fundação do FBI em 1935, onde permaneceu diretor até sua morte em 1972 aos 77 anos. Hoover é creditado por transformar o FBI em um grande e eficiente agência de combate ao crime e com a instituição de uma série de modernizações na tecnologia policial, como um arquivo de impressão digital centralizado e laboratórios forenses.

Mais tarde na vida e após sua morte, Hoover se tornou uma figura controversa, conforme as evidências de suas ações secretas se tornaram conhecidas. Seus críticos o acusaram de exceder a jurisdição do FBI. Ele usou o FBI para perseguir dissidentes políticos e ativistas, para reunir arquivos secretos sobre líderes políticos e para coletar evidências usando métodos ilegais. Consequentemente, Hoover acumulou uma grande quantidade de poder. Disse um jornalista na década de 1960, & # 8220Hoover não tem que exercer pressão, ele é pressão. & # 8221

Infância e educação

J. Edgar Hoover nasceu no dia de Ano Novo de 1895 em Washington, DC, filha de Anna Marie (nascida Scheitlin 1860–1938), que era descendente de suíços alemães, e Dickerson Naylor Hoover, Sr. (1856–1921), de ascendência inglesa e alemã . O tio da mãe de Hoover e # 8217 era um cônsul geral honorário suíço nos Estados Unidos. Hoover não tinha uma certidão de nascimento registrada, embora fosse exigida em 1895 em Washington. Dois irmãos tinham certificados. Hoover & # 8217s não foi arquivado até 1938, quando ele tinha 43 anos.

Hoover cresceu perto do Eastern Market em Washington e do bairro Capitol Hill # 8217s. Na Central High, ele cantou no coro da escola, participou do programa Reserve Officers & # 8217 Training Corps e competiu na equipe de debate, onde argumentou contra as mulheres terem o direito de votar e contra a abolição da pena de morte. O jornal da escola aplaudiu sua & # 8220lógica legal e implacável. & # 8221

Ele se formou em Direito pela George Washington University Law School em 1916, onde foi membro do Capítulo Alpha Nu da Ordem Kappa Alpha e um LL.M., um Mestrado em Direito, em 1917 pela mesma universidade. Enquanto estudante de direito, Hoover se interessou pela carreira de Anthony Comstock, o inspetor postal dos Estados Unidos da cidade de Nova York, que empreendeu campanhas prolongadas contra a fraude e o vício, além de ser contra a pornografia e o controle de natalidade.

Hoover viveu em Washington, D.C., durante toda a sua vida & # 8211 Departamento de Justiça

Imediatamente após se formar, Hoover foi contratado pelo Departamento de Justiça para trabalhar na Divisão de Emergência de Guerra. Ele logo se tornou o chefe da Divisão de Alien Enemy Bureau & # 8217s, autorizado pelo presidente Wilson no início da Primeira Guerra Mundial a prender e prender estrangeiros desleais sem julgamento. Ele recebeu autoridade adicional da Lei de Espionagem de 1917. De uma lista de 1.400 alemães suspeitos que vivem nos EUA, o Bureau prendeu 98 e designou 1.172 como passíveis de prisão.

Em agosto de 1919, Hoover tornou-se chefe da nova Divisão de Inteligência Geral do Bureau of Investigation & # 8216 - também conhecida como Divisão Radical, porque seu objetivo era monitorar e interromper o trabalho dos radicais domésticos. América & # 8217s First Red Scare estava começando, e uma das primeiras atribuições de Hoover & # 8217s foi realizar os ataques de Palmer.

Hoover e seu assistente escolhido, George Ruch, monitoraram uma variedade de radicais norte-americanos com a intenção de puni-los, prendê-los ou deportá-los. Os alvos durante este período incluíram Marcus Garvey Rose, Pastor Stokes e Cyril Briggs Emma Goldman e Alexander Berkman e o futuro juiz da Suprema Corte Felix Frankfurter, que Hoover sustentou ser & # 8220 o homem mais perigoso dos Estados Unidos. & # 8221

Em 1921, ele foi promovido a vice-chefe do Bureau de Investigação e, em 1924, o Procurador-Geral o nomeou diretor interino. Em 10 de maio de 1924, o presidente Calvin Coolidge nomeou Hoover como o sexto diretor do Bureau of Investigation, após a morte do presidente Warren Harding & # 8216s e em resposta às alegações de que o diretor anterior, William J. Burns, estava envolvido no escândalo do Teapot Dome . Quando Hoover assumiu o Bureau of Investigation, ele tinha aproximadamente 650 funcionários, incluindo 441 agentes especiais.

Hoover foi notado como às vezes caprichoso em sua liderança, ele frequentemente demitia agentes do FBI, destacando aqueles que ele pensava & # 8220 pareciam estúpidos como motoristas de caminhão & # 8221 ou que considerava & # 8220 cabeças-duras. & # 8221 Ele também realocou agentes que haviam desagradado para atribuições e locais que encerram sua carreira. Melvin Purvis foi um excelente exemplo de que ele foi um dos agentes mais eficazes na captura e desmantelamento de gangues de 1930 e recebeu considerável reconhecimento público, mas um Hoover ciumento o tirou do FBI.

Hoover frequentemente saudava os policiais locais em todo o país e construiu uma rede nacional de apoiadores e admiradores no processo. Um que ele frequentemente elogiava era o xerife conservador de Caddo Parish, Louisiana, J. Howell Flournoy, por sua eficácia particular.

Guerras de gângsteres

Gângsteres famosos da Era da Depressão, incluindo Pretty Boy Floyd, Baby Face Nelson, Machine Gun Kelly e outros (1920 e # 8217s).

No início dos anos 1930 e # 8217, gangues de criminosos realizaram um grande número de assaltos a bancos no meio-oeste. Eles usaram seu poder de fogo superior e carros de fuga velozes para iludir as agências locais de aplicação da lei e evitar a prisão. Muitos desses criminosos, principalmente John Dillinger, que se tornou famoso por pular gaiolas de banco e escapar repetidamente de prisões e armadilhas policiais, frequentemente chegavam às manchetes de jornais nos Estados Unidos. Como os ladrões operavam além das fronteiras estaduais, seus crimes se tornaram crimes federais, dando a Hoover e seus homens a autoridade para persegui-los. Inicialmente, o FBI sofreu alguns problemas embaraçosos, em particular com Dillinger e seus conspiradores. Uma invasão a um chalé de verão chamado & # 8220Little Bohemia & # 8221 em Manitowish Waters, Wisconsin, deixou um agente do FBI e um civil morto, além de outros feridos. Todos os gangsters escaparam. Hoover percebeu que seu trabalho estava em jogo e fez tudo para capturar os culpados. No final de julho de 1934, o agente especial Melvin Purvis, o diretor de operações do escritório de Chicago, recebeu uma dica sobre o paradeiro de Dillinger e # 8217, que valeu a pena quando Dillinger foi localizado, emboscado e morto por agentes do FBI fora do Biograph Theatre.

No mesmo período, houve vários tiroteios da máfia como resultado da Lei Seca, enquanto Hoover continuava a negar a própria existência do crime organizado. Frank Costello ajudou a encorajar essa visão ao alimentar Hoover, & # 8220um jogador inveterado de cavalos & # 8221 conhecido por enviar agentes especiais para fazer apostas de $ 100 por ele, dicas sobre vencedores por meio de seu amigo em comum, o colunista de fofocas Walter Winchell. Hoover disse que o Bureau tinha & # 8220 funções muito mais importantes & # 8221 do que prender casas de apostas e jogadores.

Mesmo que ele não estivesse lá, Hoover foi creditado com várias capturas altamente divulgadas ou tiroteios de bandidos e ladrões de banco. Isso incluiu o de Dillinger, Alvin Karpis e Machine Gun Kelly, o que levou à ampliação dos poderes do Bureau & # 8217s e recebeu seu novo nome em 1935: Federal Bureau of Investigation. Em 1939, o FBI se tornou proeminente no campo da inteligência doméstica. Hoover fez mudanças, como expandir e combinar arquivos de impressão digital na Divisão de Identificação para compilar a maior coleção de impressões digitais até hoje. Hoover também ajudou a expandir o recrutamento do FBI e a criar o Laboratório do FBI, uma divisão criada em 1932 para examinar as evidências encontradas pelo FBI.

Investigação de subversão e radicais

Hoover, talvez a mando de Richard Nixon, investigou o ex-Beatle John Lennon colocando o cantor sob vigilância, e Hoover escreveu esta carta ao Procurador-Geral em 1972. Uma batalha de 25 anos pelo historiador Jon Wiener sob a Lei de Liberdade de Informação eventualmente resultou na liberação de documentos como este.

Hoover estava preocupado com a subversão e, sob sua liderança, o FBI espionou dezenas de milhares de supostos subversivos e radicais. De acordo com os críticos, Hoover tendia a exagerar os perigos desses supostos subversivos e muitas vezes ultrapassou seus limites em sua busca pela eliminação dessa ameaça percebida.

O FBI investigou anéis de sabotadores e espiões alemães no final dos anos 1930 e foi o principal responsável pela contraespionagem. As primeiras prisões de agentes alemães foram feitas em 1938 e continuaram durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. No caso Quirin durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, os submarinos alemães colocaram dois pequenos grupos de agentes nazistas em terra na Flórida e em Long Island para causar atos de sabotagem no país. As duas equipes foram apreendidas depois que um dos homens contatou o FBI e contou tudo a eles. Ele também foi acusado e condenado. Durante a guerra e por muitos anos depois, o FBI manteve uma versão ficcional da história em que havia se antecipado e capturado os sabotadores apenas por suas próprias investigações e até mesmo se infiltrado no governo alemão. Esta história foi útil durante a guerra para desencorajar os alemães ao fazer o FBI parecer mais invencível do que realmente era, e talvez depois para enganar os soviéticos da mesma forma, mas também serviu ao próprio Hoover em seus esforços para manter uma imagem de super-herói para o FBI nas mentes americanas.

O FBI participou do Projeto Venona, um projeto conjunto pré-Segunda Guerra Mundial com os britânicos para espionar espiões soviéticos no Reino Unido e nos Estados Unidos. Não foi inicialmente percebido que a espionagem estava sendo cometida, mas devido ao uso soviético de múltiplas cifras de almofada de uso único durante a guerra, que normalmente são inquebráveis, redundâncias foram criadas, permitindo que algumas interceptações fossem decodificadas, o que estabeleceu a espionagem. Hoover manteve as interceptações - a maior contra-informação secreta da América & # 8217 - em um cofre trancado em seu escritório, optando por não informar o presidente Truman, o procurador-geral J. Howard McGrath ou dois secretários de Estado - Dean Acheson e o general George Marshall - enquanto ocupavam o cargo. Ele informou a Agência Central de Inteligência (CIA) do Projeto Venona em 1952.

Em 1946, o procurador-geral dos EUA, Tom C. Clark, autorizou Hoover a compilar uma lista de americanos potencialmente desleais que poderiam ser detidos durante uma emergência nacional de guerra. Em 1950, com a eclosão da Guerra da Coréia, Hoover apresentou ao presidente Truman um plano para suspender o recurso de habeas corpus e deter 12.000 americanos suspeitos de deslealdade. Truman não agiu de acordo com o plano.

COINTELPRO years – Main article: COINTELPRO

The same Hoover letter, with fewer redactions.

In 1956, Hoover was becoming increasingly frustrated by Supreme Court decisions that limited the Justice Department’s ability to prosecute people for their political opinions, most notably communists. At this time he formalized a covert “dirty tricks” program under the name COINTELPRO.

This program remained in place until it was revealed to the public in 1971, after the theft of many internal documents stolen from an office in Media, Pennsylvania, and was the cause of some of the harshest criticism of Hoover and the FBI. COINTELPRO was first used to disrupt the Communist Party, where Hoover went after targets that ranged from suspected everyday spies to larger celebrity figures such as Charlie Chaplin who were seen as spreading Communist Party propaganda, and later organizations such as the Black Panther Party, Martin Luther King, Jr.‘s Southern Christian Leadership Conference and others. Its methods included infiltration, burglaries, illegal wiretaps, planting forged documents and spreading false rumors about key members of target organizations. Some authors have charged that COINTELPRO methods also included inciting violence and arranging murders. In 1975, the activities of COINTELPRO were investigated by the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, called the Church Committee after its chairman, Senator Frank Church (D–Idaho), and these activities were declared illegal and contrary to the Constitution. Hoover amassed significant power by collecting files containing large amounts of compromising and potentially embarrassing information on many powerful people, especially politicians. According to Laurence Silberman, appointed Deputy Attorney General in early 1974, FBI Director Clarence M. Kelley thought such files either did not exist or had been destroyed. After The Washington Post broke a story in January 1975, Kelley searched and found them in his outer office. The House Judiciary Committee then demanded that Silberman testify about them.

In 1956, several years before he targeted King, Hoover had a public showdown with T.R.M. Howard, a civil rights leader from Mound Bayou, Mississippi. During a national speaking tour, Howard had criticized the FBI’s failure to thoroughly investigate the racially motivated murders of George W. Lee, Lamar Smith, and Emmett Till. Hoover wrote an open letter to the press singling out these statements as “irresponsible.”

Response to Mafia and civil rights groups

While Hoover had fought bank-robbing gangsters in the 1930s, anti-communism was a bigger focus for him after World War II, as the cold war developed. During the 1940s through mid-1950s, he seemed to ignore organized crime of the type that ran vice rackets such as drugs, prostitution, and extortion. He denied that any mafia operated in the U.S. In the 1950s, evidence of Hoover’s unwillingness to focus FBI resources on the Mafia became grist for the media and his many detractors. The Apalachin Meeting of late 1957 changed this it embarrassed the FBI by proving on newspaper front pages that a nationwide mafia syndicate thrived unimpeded by the nation’s “top cops”. Hoover immediately changed tack, and during the next five years, the FBI investigated organized crime heavily. Its concentration on the topic fluctuated in subsequent decades, but it never again merely ignored this category of crime.

Hoover’s moves against people who maintained contacts with subversive elements, some of whom were members of the civil rights movement, also led to accusations of trying to undermine their reputations. The treatment of Martin Luther King, Jr. and actress Jean Seberg are two examples. Jacqueline Kennedy recalled that Hoover told President John F. Kennedy that King tried to arrange a sex party while in the capital for the March on Washington and told Robert Kennedy that King made derogatory comments during the President’s funeral. Hoover, despite maintaining a public persona of a noble man, was privately racist and was not enthused about racial integration. After trying for a while to trump up evidence that would smear King as being influenced by communists, he discovered that King had a weakness for extramarital sex, and switched to this topic for further smears.

Hoover personally directed the FBI investigation into the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. In 1964, just days before Hoover testified in the earliest stages of the Warren Commission hearings, President Lyndon B. Johnson waived the then-mandatory U.S. Government Service Retirement Age of seventy, allowing Hoover to remain the FBI Director “for an indefinite period of time.” The House Select Committee on Assassinations issued a report in 1979 critical of the performance by the FBI, the Warren Commission, and other agencies. The report also criticized what it characterized as the FBI’s reluctance to thoroughly investigate the possibility of a conspiracy to assassinate the President.

Late career and death

J. Edgar Hoover, director of the FBI, photographed in 1961.

Presidents Harry S. Truman and John F. Kennedy each considered dismissing Hoover as FBI Director, but ultimately concluded that the political cost of doing so would be too great.

Hoover’s FBI investigated Hollywood lobbyist Jack Valenti, a special assistant and confidant to President Lyndon Johnson, in 1964. Despite Valenti’s two-year marriage to Johnson’s personal secretary, the investigation focused on rumors that he was having a gay relationship with a commercial photographer friend.

Hoover maintained strong support in Congress until his death at his Washington, D.C., home on May 2, 1972, from a heart attack attributed to cardio-vascular disease. His body lay in state in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol, where Chief Justice Warren Burger eulogized him. President Richard Nixon delivered another eulogy at the funeral service in the National Presbyterian Church. Nixon called Hoover “one of the giants. His long life brimmed over with magnificent achievement and dedicated service to this country which he loved so well.” Hoover was buried in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D.C., next to the graves of his parents and a sister who died in infancy.

Operational command of the Bureau passed to Associate Director Clyde Tolson. On May 3, Nixon appointed L. Patrick Gray, a Justice Department official with no FBI experience, as Acting Director, with W. Mark Felt remaining as Associate Director.


Conteúdo

In 1919, after Bolsheviks fail to assassinate Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, he puts his protégé J. Edgar Hoover in charge of a new division dedicated to purging radicals. Hoover quickly begins compiling a list of suspects. He meets Helen Gandy, a new secretary at the Justice Department, and takes her to the Library of Congress to show her the card catalog system he devised. He makes an awkward pass at her, then proposes to her. She refuses him, but agrees to become his personal secretary.

Hoover finds that the Department of Labor refuses to deport anyone without evidence of a crime. Learning that Anthony Caminetti, the Commissioner General of Immigration, dislikes the anarchist Emma Goldman, Hoover arranges to make her eligible for deportation and thereby creates a precedent of deportation for radical conspiracy. Following several such Justice Department raids of suspected radical groups, Palmer loses his job as Attorney General. His successor, Harlan F. Stone, appoints Hoover as director of the Justice Department's new Bureau of Investigation. Hoover meets lawyer Clyde Tolson, and hires him.

When the Lindbergh kidnapping captures national attention, President Herbert Hoover asks the Bureau to investigate. Hoover employs several novel techniques, including the monitoring of registration numbers on ransom bills and expert analysis of the kidnapper's handwriting. When the monitored bills begin showing up in New York City, the investigators find a filling station attendant who wrote down the license plate number of the man who gave him the bill. This leads to the arrest, and eventual conviction, of Bruno Richard Hauptmann for the kidnapping and murder of the Lindbergh child.

After Hoover, Tolson, and Hoover's mother (with whom Hoover still lives) see the James Cagney film G Men, Hoover and Tolson go out to a club, where Hoover is seated with Anita Colby, Ginger Rogers, and Rogers' mother Lela. Rogers' mother asks Hoover to dance and he becomes agitated, saying that he and Tolson must leave, as they have a lot of work to do in the morning. When he gets home, he tells his mother that he dislikes dancing with girls. She tells him she would rather her son be dead than a "daffodil". She insists on teaching him to dance, and they dance in her bedroom.

Hoover and Tolson go on a vacation to the horse races. That evening, Hoover tells Tolson that he cares deeply for him, and Tolson tells Hoover that he loves him. Hoover panics and claims that he wants to marry Dorothy Lamour. Tolson accuses Hoover of making a fool out of him and they end up fighting on the floor. Tolson suddenly kisses Hoover, who says that must never happen again Tolson says that it won't, and tries to leave. Hoover apologizes and begs him to stay, but Tolson threatens to end their friendship if Hoover talks about another woman again. After Tolson leaves, Hoover says that he loves him, too.

Years later, Hoover feels his strength begin to decline, while Tolson suffers a stroke. Hoover tries to blackmail Martin Luther King, Jr. into declining his Nobel Peace Prize, sending him a letter threatening to expose his extramarital affairs. King disregards this and accepts the prize.

Hoover tells Gandy to destroy his secret files after his death in order to prevent President Richard Nixon from possessing them. He visits Tolson, who urges him to retire. Hoover refuses, claiming that Nixon is going to destroy the bureau he has created. Tolson accuses Hoover of having exaggerated his involvement with key events of the Bureau. Moments later, Hoover tells Tolson that he needed Tolson more than he ever needed anyone else. He holds Tolson's hand, kisses his forehead, and leaves.

Hoover returns home from work, obviously weakened. Shortly after Hoover goes upstairs, his housekeeper calls Tolson, who goes to the house and finds Hoover dead next to his bed. A grief-stricken Tolson covers his friend's body. Nixon gives a memorial speech on television for Hoover, while several members of his staff enter Hoover's office and search through the cabinets and drawers in search of his rumored "confidential" files, but find nothing. In the last scene, Gandy destroys stacks of files.

    as J. Edgar Hoover as Clyde Tolson as Helen Gandy as Charles Lindbergh as Anna Marie Hoover, Hoover's mother as Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr. as Bruno Richard Hauptmann as Robert F. Kennedy as Agent Smith, Hoover's biographer as John Condon as U.S. Attorney General Harlan F. Stone as Arthur Koehler as Albert S. Osborn as Walter Lyle as A. Mitchell Palmer as Lela Rogers as Richard Nixon as Agent Garrison as Emma Goldman as US Senator Kenneth McKellar as Inspector Schell as Raymond Caffrey as Shirley Temple as Anita Colby as Robert Irwin as Palmer's daughter as Edgar's niece

Gunner Wright and David A. Cooper are cast as future presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower [5] and Franklin D. Roosevelt, respectively, and are seen in the group of onlookers who arrive following the bombing at A. Mitchell Palmer's house.

Charlize Theron, who was originally slated to play Helen Gandy, dropped out of the project to do Snow White and the Huntsman, and Eastwood considered Amy Adams before finally selecting Naomi Watts as Theron's replacement. [6]

Resposta crítica Editar

On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reports an approval rating of 43% based on 243 reviews, with an average rating of 5.72/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Leonardo DiCaprio gives a predictably powerhouse performance, but J. Edgar stumbles in all other departments: cheesy makeup, poor lighting, confusing narrative, and humdrum storytelling." [7] Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average rating to reviews, gives the film a normalized score of 59 out of 100, based on 42 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". [8] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "B" on an A+ to F scale. [9]

Roger Ebert awarded the film three-and-a-half stars (out of four) and wrote that the film is "fascinating" and "masterful". He praised DiCaprio's performance as a "fully-realized, subtle and persuasive performance, hinting at more than Hoover ever revealed, perhaps even to himself". [10] Todd McCarthy of The Hollywood Reporter gave the film a positive review, writing, "This surprising collaboration between director Clint Eastwood and Leite screenwriter Dustin Lance Black tackles its trickiest challenges with plausibility and good sense, while serving up a simmeringly caustic view of its controversial subject's behavior, public and private." [11] David Denby in O Nova-iorquino magazine also liked the film, calling it a "nuanced account" and calling "Eastwood's touch light and sure, his judgment sound, the moments of pathos held just long enough." [12]

J. Hoberman of The Village Voice wrote: "Although hardly flawless, Eastwood's biopic is his richest, most ambitious movie since Letters from Iwo Jima e Bandeiras de nossos pais." [13]

Peter Debruge of Variedade gave the film a mixed review: "Any movie in which the longtime FBI honcho features as the central character must supply some insight into what made him tick, or suffer from the reality that the Bureau's exploits were far more interesting than the bureaucrat who ran it – a dilemma J. Edgar never rises above." [14] David Edelstein of Revista nova iorque reacted negatively to the film and said: "It's too bad J. Edgar is so shapeless and turgid and ham-handed, so rich in bad lines and worse readings." He praised DiCaprio's performance: "There's something appealingly straightforward about the way he physicalizes Hoover's inner struggle, the body always slightly out of sync with the mind that vigilantly monitors every move." [15]

Box office Edit

The film opened limited in 7 theaters on November 9, grossing $52,645, [16] and released wide on November 11, grossing $11.2 million in its opening weekend, [17] approximating the $12 million figure projected by the Los Angeles Times for the film's opening weekend in the United States and Canada. [2] J. Edgar went on to gross over $84.9 million worldwide and over $37.3 million at the domestic box office. [18] Breakdowns of audience demographics for the movie showed that ticket buyers were nearly 95% over the age of 25 and slightly over 50% female.

List of awards and nominations for J. Edgar
Date of ceremony Prêmio Categoria Recipient(s) Resultado
January 27, 2012 AACTA Awards [19] Best Actor – International Leonardo DiCaprio Nomeado
December 11, 2011 American Film Institute [20] Top 10 Films J. Edgar Ganhou
January 12, 2012 Broadcast Film Critics Association [21] Melhor ator Leonardo DiCaprio Nomeado
January 15, 2012 Golden Globe Awards [22] Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama Nomeado
December 1, 2011 National Board of Review [23] Top Ten Films J. Edgar Ganhou
December 18, 2011 Satellite Awards [24] Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama Leonardo DiCaprio Nomeado
January 29, 2012 Screen Actors Guild Awards [25] Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading Role Nomeado
Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting Role Armie Hammer Nomeado

In an interview on All Things Considered, Yale University history professor Beverly Gage, who is writing a biography of Hoover, stated that the film accurately conveys that Hoover came to the FBI as a reformer seeking "to clean it up, to professionalize it," and to introduce scientific methods to its investigation, eventually including such practices as fingerprinting and bloodtyping. She praises DiCaprio for conveying the tempo of Hoover's speech. However, she notes that the film's central narrative device in which Hoover dictates his memoirs to FBI agents chosen as writers, is fictitious: "He didn't ever have the sort of formal situation that you see in the movie where he was dictating a memoir to a series of young agents, and that that is the official record of the FBI." [26] Historian Aaron J. Stockham of the Waterford School, whose dissertation was on the relationship of the FBI and the US Congress during the Hoover years, wrote on the History News Network of George Mason University, "J. Edgar portrays Hoover as the man who successfully integrated scientific processes into law enforcement investigations. There is no doubt, from the historical record, that Hoover was instrumental in creating the FBI's scientific reputation." [27] Stockham notes that Hoover probably did not write the FBI–King suicide letter to Martin Luther King, Jr., as the film portrays: "While such a letter was written, Hoover almost certainly delegated it to others within the Bureau." [27]


J. Edgar Hoover - History

Testimony of J. Edgar Hoover before HUAC (exceprts)
Digital History ID 3632

Author: J. Edgar Hoover
Date:1947

Anotação: These excerpts include J. Edgar Hoover’s testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee. He describes the terrible plan of communists in the United States. J. Edgar Hoover was director of the FBI beginning in the 1930s through 1972 when he died.


Documento: March 26, 1947

My feelings concerning the Communist Party of the United States are well known. I have not hesitated over the years to express my concern and apprehension. As a consequence its professional smear brigades have conducted a relentless assault against the FBI. You who have been members of this committee also know the fury with which the party, its sympathizers and fellow travelers can launch an assault. I do not mind such attacks. What has been disillusioning is the manner in which they have been able to enlist support often from apparently well-meaning but thoroughly duped persons. .

The communist movement in the United States began to manifest itself in 1919. Since then it has changed its name and its party line whenever expedient and tactical. But always it comes back to fundamentals and bills itself as the party of Marxism-Leninism. As such, it stands for the destruction of our American form of government it stands for the destruction of American democracy it stands for the destruction of free enterprise and it stands for the creation of a "Soviet of the United States" and ultimate world revolution. .

The communist, once he is fully trained and indoctrinated, realizes that he can create his order in the United States only by "bloody revolution." Their chief textbook, "The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union," is used as a basis for planning their revolution. Their tactics require that to be successful they must have:

1. The will and sympathy of the people.

2. Military aid and assistance.

3. Plenty of guns and ammunition.

4. A program for extermination of the police as they are the most important enemy and are termed "trained fascists."

5. Seizure of all communications, buses, railroads, radio stations, and other forms of communications and transportation. .

One thing is certain. The American progress which all good citizens seek, such as old-age security, houses for veterans, child assistance, and a host of others, is being adopted as window dressing by the communists to conceal their true aims and entrap gullible followers. .

The mad march of Red fascism is a cause for concern in America. But the deceit, the trickery, and the lies of the American communists are catching up with them. Whenever the spotlight of truth is focused upon them they cry, "Red-baiting." Now that their aims and objectives are being exposed, they are creating a Committee for the Constitutional Rights of Communists, and are feverishly working to build up what they term a quarter-million-dollar defense fund to place ads in papers, to publish pamphlets, to buy radio time. They know that their backs will soon be to the wall. .

What is important is the claim of the communists themselves that for every party member there are 10 others ready, willing and able to do the party's work. Herein lies the greatest menace of communism. For these are the people who infiltrate and corrupt various spheres of American life. So rather than the size of the Communist Party, the way to weigh its true importance is by testing its influence, its ability to infiltrate. .

The communists have developed one of the greatest propaganda machines the world has ever known. They have been able to penetrate and infiltrate many respectable public opinion mediums. They capitalize upon ill-founded charges associating known honest progressive liberals with left-wing causes. I have always entertained the view that there are few appellations more degrading than "communist" and hence it should be reserved for those justly deserving the degradation.

The communist propaganda technique is designed to promote emotional response with the hope that the victim will be attracted by what he is told the communist way of life holds in store for him. The objective, of course, is to develop discontent and hasten the day when the communists can gather sufficient support and following to overthrow the American way of life. .

Communists and their followers are prolific letter writers, and some of the more energetic ones follow the practice of directing numerous letters of protest to editors but signing a different name to each. Members of Congress are well aware of communists starting their pressure campaigns by an avalanche of mail which follows the party line. .

The American communists launched a furtive attack on Hollywood in 1935 by the issuance of a directive calling for a concentration in Hollywood. The orders called for action on two fronts: One, an effort to infiltrate the labor unions two, infiltrate the so-called intellectual and creative fields.

In movie circles, communists developed an effective defense a few years ago in meeting criticism. They would counter with the question "After all, what is the matter with communism?" It was effective because many persons did not possess adequate knowledge of the subject to give an intelligent answer. .

I feel that this committee could render a great service to the nation through its power of exposure in quickly spotlighting existing front organizations and those which will be created in the future. There are easy tests to establish the real character of such organizations:

1. Does the group espouse the cause of Americanism or the cause of Soviet Russia?

2. Does the organization feature as speakers at its meeting known communists, sympathizers, or fellow travelers?

3. Does the organization shift when the party line shifts?

4. Does the organization sponsor causes, campaigns, literature, petitions, or other activities sponsored by the party or other front organizations?

5. Is the organization used as a sounding board by or is it endorsed by communist-controlled labor unions?

6. Does its literature follow the communist line or is it printed by the communist press?

7. Does the organization receive consistent favorable mention in the communist publications?

8. Does the organization present itself to be nonpartisan yet engage in political activities and consistently advocate causes favored by the communists?

9. Does the organization denounce American and British foreign policy while always lauding Soviet policy?

10. Does the organization utilize communist "double-talk" by referring to Soviet dominated countries as democracies, complaining that the United States is imperialistic and constantly denouncing monopoly-capital?

11. Have outstanding leaders in public life openly renounced affiliation with the organization?

12. Does the organization, if espousing liberal progressive causes, attract well-known honest patriotic liberals or does it denounce well-known liberals?

13. Does the organization have a consistent record of supporting the American viewpoint over the years?

14. Does the organization consider matters now directly related to its avowed purposes and objectives?

The Communist Party of the United States is a fifth column if there ever was one. It is far better organized than were the Nazis in occupied countries prior to their capitulation. They are seeking to weaken America just as they did in their era of obstruction when they were aligned with the Nazis. Their goal is the overthrow of our government. There is no doubt as to where a real communist's loyalty rests. Their allegiance is to Russia, not the United States. .

O que podemos fazer? And what should be our course of action? The best antidote to communism is vigorous, intelligent, old-fashioned Americanism, with eternal vigilance. I do not favor any course of action which would give the communists cause to portray and pity themselves as martyrs. I do favor unrelenting prosecution wherever they are found to be violating our country's laws.

As Americans, our most effective defense is a workable democracy that guarantees and preserves our cherished freedoms.

I would have no fears if more Americans possessed the zeal, the fervor, the persistence and the industry to learn about this menace of Red fascism. I do fear for the liberal and progressive who has been hoodwinked and duped into joining hands with the communists. I confess to a real apprehension so long as communists are able to secure ministers of the gospel to promote their evil work and espouse a cause that is alien to the religion of Christ and Judaism. I do fear so long as school boards and parents tolerate conditions whereby communists and fellow travelers, under the guise of academic freedom, can teach our youth a way of life that eventually will destroy the sanctity of the home, that undermines faith in God, that causes them to scorn respect for constituted authority and sabotage our revered Constitution.

I do fear so long as American labor groups are infiltrated, dominated or saturated with the virus of communism. I do fear the palliation and weasel-worded gestures against communism indulged in by some of our labor leaders who should know better, but who have become pawns in the hands of sinister but astute manipulations for the communist cause.

I fear for ignorance on the part of all our people who may take the poisonous pills of communist propaganda.


Tag: J. Edgar Hoover

In August 1935, Special Agents Nelson B. Klein and Donald C. McGovern from the Cincinnati office of the FBI began investigating convicted criminal George W. Barrett, the “Diamond King,” for his suspected involvement in a number of motor vehicle scams in Ohio and elsewhere across the country. The Department of Justice had Barrett under surveillance since 1931 for dealing in stolen automobiles. In “Barrett v. United States,” in the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals, heard on March 17, 1936, the court provided details on Barrett’s criminal activities, stating:

His method was to buy an automobile, obtain title papers for it, steal an automobile of similar description, change its motor numbers to correspond with those on the purchased car, obtain duplicate title papers, and then sell the stolen car to some dealer.

In each instance, Barrett sold the stolen vehicles with papers purporting to show that the sales were legitimate.

Special Agent Nelson B. Klein. Courtesy Federal Bureau of Investigation at “History – Federal Bureau of Investigation.”

Special Agents Klein and McGovern learned that Barrett was in Hamilton, Ohio after a recent car deal there with the Central Motor Company, but neither they nor the local police were able to question him before he left the area. Acting on a tip, the G-Men – a term used to describe government men, particularly the federal agents working under J. Edgar Hoover – suspected Barrett might travel to College Corner at the Ohio-Indiana border, where Barrett’s brother lived. They drove there on August 16, 1935 and spotted Barrett near the residence of his brother’s home, along with a vehicle matching the motor number of an automobile involved in one of Barrett’s recent schemes. Klein telephoned the sheriff’s office in Hamilton for assistance in arresting Barrett, and he and McGovern parked their car and waited. Before Sheriff John Schumacher and Deputy Charles Walke arrived, Barrett returned to his car with a package in which he had hidden a gun.

Special Agent Donald C. McGovern. Courtesy William Plunkett, The G-Man and the Diamond King, page 37.

Barrett went to unlock his car door, but as Klein and McGovern started their vehicle and began to approach, he abruptly turned and started walking away. Fearful that he was trying to flee and would elude them again, Klein jumped out of the FBI vehicle and called out to him to stop. Barrett ignored the calls and continued walking down a nearby alley with Klein in pursuit.

Once back in the open, the “Diamond King” opened fire, striking Klein numerous times. Klein returned fire and succeeded in hitting Barrett in the legs, but the federal agent succumbed to his gunshot wounds and died at the scene.

In the days following, newspapers across the country reported on the gun battle that had ensued in College Corner. On August 18, 1935, just two days after the shooting, the Estrela de Indianápolis reported that Barrett would stand trial in Indianapolis and would be taken there as soon as his wounds allowed. Although College Corner falls right along the Indiana-Ohio line, agents confirmed that Klein had fallen dead on the Indiana side. o Richmond Item reported: “the trial, to be held in the Indianapolis Federal Courtroom, will be the first murder trial ever conducted in the Southern Indiana District Court.”

[Zanesville, Ohio] Times Recorder, August 17, 1935, page 1. Courtesy Newspapers.com. Sheboygan [Wisconsin] Press, August 17, 1935, page 2. Courtesy Newspapers.com.

The Richmond Item, August 31, 1935, page 1. Courtesy Newspapers.com.

Federal officers transferred Barrett from the Hamilton, Ohio hospital to the City Hospital in Indianapolis on August 21. On August 26, the [Hamilton] Journal News reported on the recovery of one of the automobiles Barrett reportedly stole and transported over state lines from San Diego to Hamilton. Barrett allegedly changed the motor and serial numbers of the car before selling it to a garage in Hamilton. Jurors wasted no time in indicting Barrett for the murder of Special Agent Klein and for violating the National Motor Vehicle Theft Act.

George W. Barrett. Courtesy Find a Grave.

Passed in 1919, the National Motor Vehicle Theft Act – also known as the Dyer Act – helped supplement individual states’ efforts to combat automobile theft in the country. In the fall of 1919, newspapers reported that the practice of stealing automobiles was on the rise throughout the U.S., especially in some midwestern cities such as Detroit, Chicago, and St. Louis. o Indianapolis News claimed that over 22,000 automobiles were stolen in eighteen western and midwestern cities in 1918. Other articles put the number closer to 30,000. Congressman Leonidas C. Dyer of Missouri, who introduced the legislation, argued that the losses amounted to hundreds of thousands of dollars each year, while also causing hefty increases in automobile theft insurance.

Stolen vehicles reported by Representative Dyer. Chicago Tribune, September 21, 1919, section 2, page 13. Courtesy Newspapers.com.

The act sought “to punish the transportation of stolen motor vehicles in interstate or foreign commerce.” In accordance with the law, anyone who knowingly transported or caused to be transported a stolen motor vehicle in interstate or foreign commerce could be fined up to $5,000, imprisoned for up to five years, or both. Those found guilty of violating the law could also be punished in any district through which the guilty party transported the vehicle. According to former Special Agent William Plunkett in The G-Man and the Diamond King:

The BOI (later the FBI) gained more influence in 1919 with the passage of the Dyer Act . . . now it could prosecute criminals who’d previously evaded the Bureau by driving across a state line. More than any other law, the Dyer Act sealed the FBI’s reputation as a national investigative crime-fighting organization.

Federal officers arrested many professional automobile thieves in the 1920s and 1930s after the law went into effect. In many instances, these criminals were wanted for other offenses, including murder. Prior to the passage of the act, federal agents did not have the authority to pursue such criminals and had to let local and state authorities try to handle the rising number of cases. In some instances, local authorities caught and successfully imprisoned criminals and gangsters of the period, only to see their prison sentences expire or have them escape and commit more dangerous crimes. This was particularly true in the case of notorious gangster John Dillinger. In the early 1930s, Dillinger and his gang robbed several banks, plundered police arsenals, killed a police detective in Chicago, and fled the county jail in Crown Point, Indiana in March 1934 after being held to await trial. The FBI’s website states:

It was then that Dillinger made the mistake that would cost him his life. He stole the sheriff’s car and drove across the Indiana-Illinois line, heading for Chicago. By doing that, he violated the National Motor Vehicle Theft Act, which made it a federal offense to transport a stolen motor vehicle across a state line.

After Dillinger violated the National Motor Vehicle Theft Act, the FBI became actively involved in his capture.

Indianapolis Star, December 4, 1935, page 3. Courtesy Newspapers.com.

Both the National Motor Vehicle Theft Act and a recently passed 1934 law making the killing or assault of a United States officer a federal offense punishable by death sealed George Barrett’s fate. His trial began on December 2. According to The Tennessean, he was only the second man to be tried under the new law providing for capital punishment in the killing of a federal officer. Edward Rice, defense counsel for Barrett, argued that Barrett had been warned days before Special Agent Klein’s killing that Kentucky outlaws were after him and might pose as officers. As such, Barrett maintained that he acted in self-defense out of fear for his life. However, during his time on the witness stand, Special Agent Donald McGovern testified that Klein called out to Barrett and clearly identified himself and McGovern as federal officers.

On December 8, the Estrela de Indianápolis reported that the jury only took fifty minutes to return with a guilty verdict. With no qualification calling for life imprisonment, Barrett was to be hanged. District Attorney Val Nolan stated “I think this is the greatest victory for law and order ever achieved in the state of Indiana.” Electrocution replaced hanging in Indiana several years earlier, but because Barrett’s sentence would be carried out under federal law, U.S. criminal code specified death by hanging.

Indianapolis Star, December 8, 1935, page 1. Courtesy Newspapers.com.

On March 18, the Indianapolis News noted that George “Phil” Hanna, an expert hangman, would lead the execution. Known as the “Humane Hangman,” Hanna had participated in close to seventy previous hangings in an interest to see them done correctly, without additional pain or suffering to the condemned. Barrett hanged at 12:02 am on March 24, 1936 in the Marion County jail yard, and was pronounced dead ten minutes later. Despite the late hour, fifty people reportedly traveled to the jail yard to witness the hanging.

Nelson B. Klein gravestone. Courtesy Find a Grave.


1. Destruction of his personal files became a priority upon his death in 1972

J. Edgar Hoover died at his home on the night of May 1-2, 1972 his body discovered the next morning by his chauffeur. Within minutes, his longtime companion, Clyde Tolson, was informed of the FBI director&rsquos death, and the order to destroy his personal files was received by Helen Gandy, his personal secretary for over 54 years. In truth, Gandy had been in the process of categorizing and destroying Hoover&rsquos personal files for weeks, if not months, and the death of the director added a sense of urgency to the process. The morning of Hoover&rsquos death, FBI officials led by L. Patrick Gray &ndash named by President Nixon to succeed Hoover &ndash attempted to take control of the files, an effort which had already been subverted by Gandy. Gray, either deliberately or accidentally, aided in the personal files being removed by sealing Hoover&rsquos private office, as he had been directed by the President of the United States. But Hoover&rsquos personal files had not been stored in his inner sanctum.

While Hoover&rsquos office sat under official seal, the outer office, where the files had been stored and maintained by Gandy, remained under her control and unsupervised access. Nixon was informed that Hoover&rsquos office and files were sealed, while Gandy went about the task of ensuring that the most damaging of Hoover&rsquos personal collection of files was removed, according to some. By May 4th, Gandy had turned over several boxes of files, which contained information personally damaging to different individuals, to Mark Felt (later revealed to be the fabled Deep Throat of Watergate). These were wrongly assumed by many to be Hoover&rsquos personal files. In fact, they were not, and the files Hoover had assembled over so many years with exacting diligence remained under the supervision of Gandy. Their presence suspected by many, but with the diversion provided by the documents handed over to Felt, they were not strictly pursued.


Assista o vídeo: NAZIMFILM ARXIV Джон Эдгар Гувер (Julho 2022).


Comentários:

  1. Malajar

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  2. Larcwide

    Curioso....

  3. Ephrem

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  4. Chaney

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  6. Zacarias

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