Notícia

História do Wando II - História

História do Wando II - História

Wando II

(Rebocador No. 17: dp. 575 (n.); 1. 123'6 1/2 "; b. 26'8", dr.
11'6 '' (média); cpl. 23; uma. 2 3-pars .; cl. Wando)

O segundo Wando (Rebocador nº 17) foi lançado em 14 de junho de 1915 pelo Charleston (S.C.) Navy Yard lançado em 7 de março de 1916 e encomendado em 3 de abril de 1917, Boatswain J. W. Bettens no comando.

Wando permaneceu em Charleston até 15 de abril, quando embarcou para as águas da Nova Inglaterra e, com a balsa Wave a reboque, navegou para o norte, via Lynnhaven Roads, VA., E o New York Navy Yard, chegando a Newport seis dias depois. Mudando para Boston, Massachusetts - através do Canal de Cape Cod - logo depois disso, o rebocador rebocou uma barcaça de carvão para o New York Navy Yard em 25 e 26 de abril e subsequentemente rebocou o cruzador Salem da Filadélfia para o Boston Navy Yard antes de retornar, via Filadélfia, para Charleston em 19 de maio, rebocando o torpedeiro Barney.

Após breves missões em Georgetown, S.C. e Jacksonville, Flórida, Wando navegou para Hampton Roads VA., Ancorando com a Frota no Rio York em 11 de junho. Durante o verão, o rebocador executou várias funções de utilidade - principalmente rebocando alvos e isqueiros; deslocando jangadas de destino e plantando bóias - fora de Tangier Sound e Yorktown, VA. Durante esse tempo, ela ajudou o encouraçado Louisiana (Encouraçado nº 19) em 6 de julho.

Em meados de agosto, Wando passou por reparos no Norfolk Navy Yard e lá recebeu um "equipamento de varredura de minas". Ela partiu de Norfolk em 23 de agosto, rumo às águas de Nova York, e chegou à "Base 10" - Porto Jefferson, Long Island - na manhã do dia 25. De lá, o rebocador mudou para New London, Connecticut, onde ela recebeu equipamento adicional de varredura de minas de Baltimore. Na noite de 8 de setembro, Wando embarcou o capitão Reginald R. Belknap, comandante da Força de Minas, e o transportou para Newport, R.I., chegando lá mais tarde naquela noite. Posteriormente, o rebocador executou funções de bóia e controle de rede fora do Cornfield Light Vessel de 10 a 13 de setembro.

Wando voltou a New London no dia 16 e no dia seguinte tinha mais equipamento de varredura de minas instalado. Ela novamente transportou o capitão Belknap como passageiro, de New London a Newport, antes de seguir para Norfolk. No restante de setembro, Wando operou na "Base Um", Tangier Sound, ancorando jangadas de alvos, trabalhando em amarrações de alvos e conduzindo breves viagens para reparos ou suprimentos no Estaleiro da Marinha de Norfolk. Posteriormente, Wando permaneceu na região de Chesapeake Bay-Hampton Roads-Tangier Sound durante os meses de outono e inverno.

Desapegada de seu dever com a Força Mineira em 19 de novembro de 1917, Wando retomou suas operações com o Trem da Frota do Atlântico. No entanto, ela continuou a realizar as mesmas funções básicas, servindo como alvos / alvos líquidos e entregando correspondências e despachos até o final de março de 1918. Posteriormente, ela rebocou alvos para navios de guerra engajados em exercícios de artilharia fora dos campos de perfuração ao sul, ao largo dos cabos da Virgínia, e mais tarde colocou bóias na Cordilheira do Torpedo do Rio Potomac, ao largo da foz do Rio St. Mary.

O Wando foi implantado no Caribe pela primeira vez no início de 1919. Saindo de Norfolk em 6 de fevereiro de 1919, o rebocador chegou à Baía de Guantánamo em 14 de fevereiro, com o pontão nº 23 a reboque. Ela desempenhou suas funções de serviço nada glamorosas para a Frota - rebocando alvos, cargueiros, barcaças e entregando homens e correio - em águas cubanas (Baía de Guantánamo, Baía de Guacanamail e Baía de Manzanillo) até 17 de abril, quando voltou para casa.

Chegando a Nova York no dia 18, Wando posteriormente mudou para Hoboken, N.J., onde passou por reparos nos primeiros dias de maio. Retornando a Norfolk em 6 de maio, Wando rebocou alvos e prestou serviço de utilidade geral com o Atlantic Fleet Train até meados de julho e, em seguida, operou em águas ao largo da parte norte da costa leste, saindo de Newport, New London e Nova York. Ela permaneceu na cidade de Nova York de 10 de agosto de 1919 a 10 de janeiro de 1920.

A caminho de Norfolk no último dia, Wando chegou lá no dia seguinte, mas, no dia 14, navegou para o sul para Charleston e chegou a esse porto no dia 16. Separada do Trem da Frota do Atlântico em 26 de janeiro de 1920, Wando foi simultaneamente designada para tarefas como embarcação de estaleiro no Estaleiro da Marinha de Charleston, com sua tripulação reduzida a 14 homens. Enquanto estava na ativa em Charleston, ela foi classificada como AT-17 em 17 de julho de 1920, durante a atribuição de números alfanuméricos de casco a toda a frota.

Wando operou no 6º Distrito Naval, fora de Charleston, até 18 de abril de 1922, quando foi desativada e colocada na reserva.

Recomissionado no Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, Califórnia, em 15 de março de 1933, Wando foi reclassificado em 27 de fevereiro de 1936 de um rebocador marítimo (AT) para um rebocador de porto, YT-123. Em 15 de abril de 1944, ela foi reclassificada novamente para um grande rebocador de porto, YTB-123 - uma classificação que ela carregou para o restante de seu serviço naval ativo.

Atribuída ao 13º Distrito Naval após sua recomissionamento para operar no Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Wash., Wando executou seus serviços de rebocador vitais, mas não celebrados, desde o final dos anos 1930 até a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Por fim colocado fora de serviço e fora de serviço em 3 de julho de 1946, Wando foi entregue à Administração de Transporte de Guerra da Comissão Marítima para descarte. Seu nome foi retirado da lista da Marinha em 30 de dezembro de 1946, e ela foi adquirida pela Puget Sound Tug and Barge Co. em 28 de abril de 1947.


História e # 038 Patrimônio Cultural

Antes de 1600: A natureza selvagem cercada por vários rios que fluem dentro e ao redor de Lowcountry era habitada por índios Tidewater por milhares de anos antes da chegada dos europeus. Todos eram caçadores habilidosos e prosperavam com a generosidade da terra e das águas. Os nativos americanos usavam o Broad Path, que seguia o rio Ashley, para fazer comércio com as tribos vizinhas.

Década de 1600: Algumas tribos nativas americanas forneceram assistência aos colonos ingleses enquanto eles pesquisavam a área para construir assentamentos. Tribos como Wando, Etiwan, Kiawah e Sewee ajudaram os ingleses a se defenderem dos ataques espanhóis. As tribos Stono e Kussoe eram conhecidas por ameaçar os primeiros colonos com ataques. Herdades e fazendas foram estabelecidas ao longo das margens do rio Ashley e em toda a área.

Década de 1700: Mais de 60 plantações foram estabelecidas entre os rios Ashley e Cooper, como Accabee, Archdale, Belmont, Elms, Windsor, Marshlands, Oak Grove, White Hall, Turnbull e outros. Grande progresso botânico e hortícola foi feito por Eliza Lucas Pinkney com a produção de seda e índigo Phillipe Noisette com o desenvolvimento da internacionalmente famosa rosa Noisette e por Andre Michaux, o pai da Horticultura Americana, que estabeleceu um jardim botânico (próximo ao que é hoje Aviation Ave.) e introduziu novas plantas na área, como camélias e mimosas.

Durante a Revolução Americana (1775-1783): O Broad Path tornou-se conhecido como Road to Dorchester (agora Dorchester Road), usada pelas tropas britânicas como a estrada principal de seu Fort Dorchester britânico a Charles Towne. O Quarter House Inn, nesse caminho, foi estabelecido como uma guarnição britânica.

Década de 1800: As primeiras linhas de ferrovia foram estabelecidas de Charleston à Área Norte, perto do que hoje é a Rivers Avenue. A agricultura e a extração de madeira foram vitais no início de 1800 e a mineração de fosfato para uso em fertilizantes criou um boom econômico após a Guerra Civil. Liberty Hill, o bairro mais antigo da Área Norte, foi estabelecido por libertos que compraram terras e construíram casas e fazendas para suas famílias por volta de 1864. Em 1898, duas plantações ao longo do Rio Cooper foram compradas para criar o Chicora Park, projetado pelo Olmstead Irmãos, como um destino de um dia para os ricos Charlestonians.

O E.P. A Burton Lumber Co. operava em 5.000 acres na década de 1890 entre a Base Naval de Charleston e Goose Creek. À medida que a área foi limpa e cortada com madeira. Burton vendeu o terreno. Em 1912, partes do trato foram vendidas para Oakdene Cotton Compress, Texaco e Read Phosphate Co.

1900-1972: Chicora Park foi comprado pela Marinha e o Charleston Naval Yard foi estabelecido em 1901. O Estaleiro ostentava o maior píer e doca seca na Costa Leste, usado para construção e reparo de navios antes da Primeira Guerra Mundial. A Base se expandiu ainda mais durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial e permaneceu ativa até ser fechada em janeiro de 1996. Por quase 100 anos, o Naval Yard impulsionou a economia e o desenvolvimento de North Charleston como uma nova cidade, baseado nos princípios de planejamento da era progressista.

O prefeito de Charleston, R. Goodwyn Rhett, chefiou um grupo de investidores que organizou a North Charleston Corp. e a Filbin Corp. Depois de comprarem a área de Burton, o marquês WB da Olmsted Brothers Engineering Co. projetou a cidade proposta. Em 1914, a North Charleston Development Corp foi organizada para construir casas para a área. Os primeiros residentes mudaram-se para lá no mesmo ano. Foi nessa época que o termo “North Charleston” surgiu.

Em 1925, a North Charleston Corp e a Filbin Corp. foram reorganizadas como Charleston Farms. Foi absorvido pela North Charleston Co. neste ano.

Após o pânico financeiro de 1929, Joseph Franc comprou o controle da holding. Ele também comprou mais 44 acres de área, incluindo Park Circle.

Em 1930, havia apenas 2.000 residentes na área norte e o país estava em uma depressão. No entanto, a West Virginia Pulp and Paper Co. mudou-se para a área, criando muitos empregos e a população residencial aumentou.

Um distrito de serviço público foi formado em 1934 para servir a área com iluminação pública, água, esgoto, coleta de lixo e proteção contra incêndio. Também em 1934, a Administração Federal de Obras Públicas concluiu um centro comunitário e um ginásio na North Charleston High School.

A população então era de mais de 4.000. Ele cresceu rapidamente em 1940 com a Segunda Guerra Mundial se aproximando. Em 1942, a população saltou para mais de 18.000 quando o Navy Yard aumentou seu pessoal e o Exército trouxe seu porto de embarque para lá. As bases militares em North Charleston trouxeram prosperidade à área tanto nas Guerras Mundiais quanto nos conflitos da Coréia e do Vietnã.

Após o fim da Segunda Guerra Mundial, muitos militares continuam a viver e trabalhar em North Charleston, permitindo que a comunidade industrial continue a produzir.

A área de North Charleston procurou se tornar uma cidade já na década de 1940. Casper Padgett liderou uma das primeiras tentativas de incorporação há cerca de 36 anos. O esforço falhou quando os eleitores revelaram sua oposição ao conceito de oito a um.

No final dos anos 1950, Arthur H. Burton liderou outro grupo que esperava reacender o interesse pela incorporação. No entanto, Burton encontrou um grande obstáculo na Constituição do Estado de SC. A constituição exigia que os eleitores aprovassem uma nova cidade, e a Área Norte não tinha isso.

Foi necessária uma emenda constitucional que permitiria às cidades incorporar a maioria dos eleitores que vão para os pools. Esta emenda foi finalmente concedida em 1972.

North Charleston em 1961 tentou novamente incorporar e, antecipadamente, até elegeu um prefeito, F. C. Ott. No entanto, a resposta positiva não foi suficiente.

O terceiro esforço de incorporação, em 1969, foi encabeçado pelo Rep. Robert W. Turner, o candidato sem oposição a prefeito da nova cidade.

Foi depois dessa tentativa malsucedida que John E. Bourne começou a lutar em 1971.

Bourne reduziu a votação da área para incorporação a quatro distritos onde o interesse pela incorporação era alto e onde os votos geralmente iam para os pools. Os incorporadores sabiam que, se pudessem incorporar uma área menor, poderiam então estabelecer os procedimentos de anexação para o restante da Área Norte. Esse esforço fez de North Charleston uma cidade.

1972: A cidade de North Charleston foi estabelecida como a nona maior cidade da Carolina do Sul em 12 de junho de 1972, com John E. Bourne, Jr. como o primeiro prefeito. Em dezembro, North Charleston se tornou a quarta maior cidade de SC após anexar a Base Naval, a Base da Força Aérea e o Aeroporto Internacional de Charleston. Em um ano, a população da cidade aumentou de 22.000 para 53.000.

1972-1982: Em 3 de julho de 1975, a cidade se tornou a 3ª maior cidade do estado. Em 12 de junho de 1982, North Charleston havia crescido 250%. Tinha $ 15 milhões em investimentos de capital $ 1,95 milhões investidos em parques e instalações recreativas e $ 2,28 milhões em desenvolvimento econômico.

1982-1996: A cidade celebrou a inauguração do Northwoods Mall em 1986, este importante shopping center de varejo ajudou a promover North Charleston como líder estadual em vendas no varejo.

21 de setembro de 1989 O furacão Hugo atingiu, causando mais de US $ 2,8 bilhões em danos ao Lowcountry da Carolina do Sul. O impacto físico e econômico foi devastador.

Bobby Kinard foi eleito segundo prefeito de North Charleston em 1991. Ken McClure assumiu as funções de prefeito interino após a renúncia do prefeito Kinard em 1994.

Em 1993, o esquadrão de aeronaves C-17 Globemaster III foi estabelecido na Base Aérea de Charleston, fornecendo apoio militar em todo o mundo.

O North Charleston Coliseum foi inaugurado em 1993 e o time de hóquei South Carolina Stingrays da ECHL começou a chamar North Charleston de sua casa.

O prefeito R. Keith Summey foi eleito em 1994 como o terceiro prefeito de North Charleston. Ele foi reeleito a cada eleição desde 1994 e agora está cumprindo seu quarto mandato completo como prefeito.

A Base Naval e o Estaleiro de Charleston foram oficialmente fechados em 1996, encerrando uma história de quase 100 anos como o maior empregador de trabalhadores civis na Carolina do Sul. Aproximadamente $ 1,4 bilhão de dólares em despesas anuais foram perdidos devido ao fechamento.

1996-presente: Centenas de acres de terra que compunham a Base Naval de Charleston e o Estaleiro foram revertidos para a cidade de North Charleston após o fechamento da base. A indústria privada e as empresas começaram a celebrar contratos de arrendamento de armazéns e escritórios.

O North Charleston Performing Arts Center e o Charleston Area Convention Center foram inaugurados em 1999.

O desenvolvimento Center Pointe de 400 acres começou no início de 2000 e agora inclui Wal-Mart, Sam's Club, Tanger Outlet Mall e outras lojas de varejo vizinhas e restaurantes nacionalmente conhecidos.

O Noisette Community Plan foi iniciado em 2004 e promoveu os esforços de revitalização de North Charleston. Líderes políticos e comunitários, empresas e residentes da área começaram a abraçar a ênfase e promoção da preservação, sustentabilidade, recreação, educação, saúde, crescimento cultural, proporcionando um ambiente social agradável e atraindo novos empregos técnicos e ambientais.

O Riverfront Park de North Charleston foi oficialmente aberto ao público em 4 de julho de 2005, estabelecendo um belo acesso às vistas ao longo do Rio Cooper com um grande local para apresentações ao ar livre e áreas para piquenique. Mais tarde, um cais de pesca, um calçadão e um local do Memorial da Base Naval foram adicionados.

North Charleston continua liderando a Carolina do Sul em vendas no varejo, excedendo US $ 6 bilhões de dólares a cada ano.

A Boeing Aircraft anunciou em 2009 que North Charleston se tornaria a nova casa do centro de preparação e montagem do 787 Dreamliner Aircraft, proporcionando milhares de novos empregos em um mercado mundial.

North Charleston oferece o maior número de acomodações de hotel na área, muitos novos hotéis de 4 estrelas estão sendo adicionados anualmente para atender às necessidades dos visitantes.


Wando (Rebocador nº 17) foi estabelecido em 14 de junho de 1915 pelo Charleston Navy Yard. Lançada em 7 de março de 1916, ela foi comissionada em 3 de abril de 1917 com Boatswain J. W. Bettens no comando.

Wando permaneceu no Charleston Navy Yard até 15 de abril de 1917, quando partiu para as águas da Nova Inglaterra e, com a balsa USS Aceno (YFB-10) a reboque, navegou para o norte, via Lynnhaven Roads, Virginia e o New York Navy Yard na cidade de Nova York, chegando a Newport, Rhode Island, em 21 de abril de 1917. Mudança para Boston, Massachusetts pelo Canal de Cape Cod em breve depois disso, ela rebocou uma barcaça de carvão para o Estaleiro da Marinha de Nova York em 25 e 26 de abril de 1917 e, posteriormente, rebocou o cruzador explorador USS Salem (CL-3) da Filadélfia, Pensilvânia, para o Boston Navy Yard antes de retornar, via Filadélfia, para o Charleston Navy Yard em 19 de maio de 1917, rebocando o torpedeiro USS Barney (TB-25).

Após breves missões em Georgetown, Carolina do Sul e Jacksonville, Flórida, Wando navegou para Hampton Roads, Virgínia, ancorando com a frota no rio York em 11 de junho de 1917. Durante o verão de 1917, o rebocador executou várias funções de utilidade - principalmente rebocar alvos e isqueiros, mudar jangadas de alvo e plantar bóias - operando fora de Tânger Sound e Yorktown, Virginia. Durante esse tempo, ela ajudou o encouraçado USS Louisiana (Battleship No. 19) em 6 de julho de 1917.

Em meados de agosto de 1917, Wando passou por reparos no Norfolk Navy Yard e lá recebeu um "equipamento de varredura de minas". Ela partiu de Norfolk, Virgínia, em 23 de agosto de 1917, rumo às águas de Nova York e alcançou a "Base 10" - Port Jefferson, Long Island, Nova York - na manhã de 25 de agosto de 1917. De lá, ela mudou para New London, Connecticut, onde ela recebeu equipamento adicional de varredura de minas do USS Baltimore (C-3). Na noite de 8 de setembro de 1917, Wando Embarcou o Capitão Reginald R. Belknap, Comandante da Força de Minas e o transportou para Newport, Rhode Island, chegando lá mais tarde naquela noite. Wando subsequentemente, executou funções de bóia e controle de rede no Cornfield Light Vessel de 10 de setembro de 1917 a 13 de setembro de 1917.

Wando voltou a New London em 16 de setembro de 1917 e no dia seguinte teve mais equipamento de varredura de minas instalado. Ela novamente transportou o capitão Belknap como passageiro, de New London a Newport, antes de seguir para Norfolk. Para o restante de setembro, Wando operou na "Base One", Tangier Sound, atracando balsas de alvos, trabalhando em amarrações de alvos e fazendo breves viagens ao Estaleiro da Marinha de Norfolk para reparos ou suprimentos. Wando posteriormente permaneceu na região de Chesapeake Bay-Hampton Roads-Tangier Sound durante os meses de outono de 1917 e no inverno.

Desapegada de seu dever com a Força Mineira em 19 de novembro de 1917, Wando retomou suas operações com o Trem da Frota do Atlântico. No entanto, ela continuou a realizar as mesmas funções básicas, servindo como alvos e fornecedores de rede e entregando correspondências e despachos até o final de março de 1918. Posteriormente, ela rebocou alvos para navios de guerra engajados em exercícios de artilharia fora dos campos de perfuração ao sul, ao largo de Virginia Capes e mais tarde colocou bóias na Cordilheira do Torpedo do Rio Potomac, na foz do Rio St. Mary.

Wando implantado no Caribe pela primeira vez no início de 1919. A caminho de Norfolk em 6 de fevereiro de 1919, ela chegou à Baía de Guantánamo, Cuba, em 14 de fevereiro de 1919, com Pontoon No. 23 a reboque. Ela desempenhou suas funções de serviço nada glamorosas para a Frota - rebocando alvos, cargueiros e barcaças e entregando homens e correio - nas águas cubanas da Baía de Guantánamo, Baía de Guacanayabo e Baía de Manzanillo até 17 de abril de 1919, quando voltou aos Estados Unidos.

Chegando a Nova York em 18 de abril de 1919, Wando posteriormente mudou-se para Hoboken, Nova Jersey, onde passou por reparos nos primeiros dias de maio de 1919. Retornando a Norfolk em 6 de maio de 1919, Wando Rebocou alvos e realizou serviço de utilidade geral com o Atlantic Fleet Train até meados de julho de 1919 e, em seguida, operou em águas ao largo da parte norte da costa leste dos Estados Unidos, saindo de Newport, New London e New York. Ela permaneceu na cidade de Nova York de 10 de agosto de 1919 a 10 de janeiro de 1920.

Em andamento para Norfolk em 10 de janeiro de 1920, Wando chegou lá no dia seguinte, mas, em 14 de janeiro de 1920, navegou para o sul para Charleston. que ela alcançou em 16 de janeiro de 1920. Separado do Trem da Frota do Atlântico em 26 de janeiro de 1920, Wando foi simultaneamente designada para funções como embarcação de pátio no Charleston Navy Yard, e sua tripulação foi reduzida a 14 homens. Enquanto estava na ativa em Charleston, ela foi classificada como AT-17 em 17 de julho de 1920, durante a atribuição de números alfanuméricos de casco a toda a frota.

Wando operou no 6º Distrito Naval, fora do Estaleiro de Marinha de Charleston, até 18 de abril de 1922, quando foi desativada e colocada na reserva.

Wando Recomissionado no Mare Island Navy Yard em Vallejo, Califórnia, em 15 de março de 1933. Ela foi reclassificada em 27 de fevereiro de 1936 de um rebocador marítimo (AT-17) para um rebocador do porto, YT-123.

Atribuída para o 13º Distrito Naval após sua recomissionamento para operar no Puget Sound Navy Yard em Bremerton, Washington, Wando executou seus serviços de rebocador vitais, mas não celebrados, do final dos anos 1930 até a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Em 15 de abril de 1944, ela foi reclassificada novamente para um grande rebocador de porto, YTB-123, uma classificação que ela carregou para o restante de seu serviço naval ativo.

Por fim, colocado fora de serviço e fora de serviço em 3 de julho de 1946, Wando foi entregue à Administração de Transporte de Guerra da Comissão Marítima para eliminação. Seu nome foi retirado da Lista da Marinha em 30 de dezembro de 1946 e ela foi adquirida pela Puget Sound Tug and Barge Company em 28 de abril de 1947.

Este artigo incorpora texto de domínio público Dicionário de navios de combate navais americanos. A entrada pode ser encontrada aqui.


História do Wando II - História

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Cortesia da coleção Segars - 2006

A paróquia de São Tomás também foi criada em 1706, e a primeira igreja paroquial construída em 1708 no estreito de terra entre os rios Wando e Cooper, a cerca de duas milhas da vila de Wando, anteriormente conhecida como Cainhoy. No entanto, a capela de Pompion Hill foi construída em 1703 no que se tornou a paróquia de St. Thomas. Dalcho denominou-a a primeira igreja construída na província fora da cidade de Charles Town. Pesquisas posteriores indicaram que a primeira capela em Goose Creek foi erguida alguns anos antes disso, talvez já em 1680. A primeira capela em Pompion Hill foi erguida logo após a chegada do Rev. Samuel Thomas, primeiro missionário da Carolina do Norte recém-organizada Igreja da Inglaterra Sociedade para a Propagação do Evangelho no Exterior. Criado em 1701, eles enviaram o Rev. Mr. Thomas para Carolina em 1702. Ele foi o terceiro missionário enviado para a América e serviu o povo do Rio Cooper de Goose Creek a Pompion Hill, fazendo sua casa em Silk Hope, a plantação de o governador, Sir Nathaniel Johnson. Escrevendo de “Sir N. Johnson's Study” em 1705 para a Sociedade em Londres, o Sr. Thomas disse: “Aqui está uma igreja já erguida desde minha chegada pela direção peculiar e cuidado religioso de Sir Nathaniel Johnson e a cargo da paróquia . ” A capela de Pompion Hill, no lado leste do braço leste do rio Cooper, recebeu o nome da plantação no rio ao qual era adjacente. A pronúncia local é Punkin, ou como o juiz H. A. M. Smith escreveu "a grafia contemporânea de abóbora é pompion". A plantação foi escrita como Ponkin Hill ou Ponkinhill Plantation em alguns atos antes de o nome ser estendido para cobrir a área maior de plantação que foi agregada pelo Rev. Thomas Hasell. Ele foi o primeiro reitor da Paróquia de St. Thomas, nomeado em 1709 após a criação da Paróquia em 1706. Ele se casou com Elizabeth Ashby, filha de John Ashby, a Segunda Cassique de Quinby Barony. Quando o Rev. Sr. Hasell morreu em 1744, ele serviu a paróquia de St. Thomas e Pompion Hill Chapels of Ease por trinta e cinco anos. A plantação de Pompion Hill de 1540 acres foi herdada por seu filho mais velho, Thomas Hasell. Em 1750 foi comprado por Samuel Thomas, neto do primeiro missionário SPG com esse nome, e que era genro do Rev. Thomas Hasell, já que Samuel Thomas, II, havia se casado com Elizabeth Ashby, II. Antes de 1784, a plantação de Pompion Hill tornou-se propriedade da paróquia, por meio da compra ou doação de Samuel Thomas. Anos mais tarde, depois de 1823, a plantação de Pompion Hill era propriedade de Alfred Huger e seu nome foi mudado para Longwood, e o nome Pompion Hill restrito ao penhasco acima do rio de dez ou doze acres onde fica a bela e velha capela. (Informação de: Nomes na Carolina do Sul por C.H. Neuffer, publicado pelo S.C. Dept. of English, USC)

Cortesia do S.C. Dept. de Arquivos e História

Cortesia do S.C. Dept. de Arquivos e História

Thomas T. Waterman fotógrafo 1940 & # 8211 Imagens e informações de: The Library of Congress & # 8211 HABS Photo Collection

Thomas T. Waterman fotógrafo 1940 & # 8211 Imagens e informações de: The Library of Congress & # 8211 HABS Photo Collection


História do Wando II - História

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Geologia, hidrogeologia e potencial de biorremediação intrínseca no local do National Park Service Dockside II e áreas adjacentes, Charleston, Carolina do Sul, 1993-94

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Detalhes adicionais da publicação
Tipo de publicação Relatório
Subtipo de Publicação USGS Numbered Series
Título Geologia, hidrogeologia e potencial de biorremediação intrínseca no local do National Park Service Dockside II e áreas adjacentes, Charleston, Carolina do Sul, 1993-94
Título da série Relatório de Investigações de Recursos Hídricos
Número de série 96-4170
DOI 10.3133 / wri964170
Edição -
Ano publicado 1996
Língua INGLÊS
Editor U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Information Services [distribuidor],
Escritório (s) contribuidor (es) Centro de Ciência da Água do Atlântico Sul
Descrição viii, 69 p. : il., mapas de 28 cm.
País Estados Unidos
Estado Carolina do Sul
Cidade charleston
Google Analytic Metrics Página de métricas

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Carolina Colônias

& quotCarolina foi assim chamada pelos franceses, em 1563 ou 1564, em homenagem a Carlos IX, rei da França (Carolus em latim, significando Carlos), sob cujo patrocínio sua costa foi descoberta.

O território assim denominado posteriormente incluía as terras entre os 30º e 36º graus de latitude norte, e se estendia do Oceano Atlântico ao Pacífico. Em 1663, este território definido foi transferido, por Carlos II, rei da Inglaterra, que o reivindicou em virtude da descoberta de Cabot, a Lord Clarendon, Sir William Berkley, Sir George Carteret e quatro outros com amplos poderes para resolver e governar isto.

Entre 1640 e 1650, antes da concessão acima para Clarendon e outros, um assentamento foi iniciado por fazendeiros da Virgínia, perto da foz do rio Chowan, na costa norte de Albemarle Sound. Este assentamento foi colocado pelo governador Berkley, da Virgínia, sob a superintendência de William Drummond. A pequena plantação recebeu o nome de Colônia do condado de Albemarle, em homenagem ao duque de Albemarle, um dos proprietários.

Em 1665, um segundo assentamento permanente foi efetuado, próximo à foz do rio Clarendon ou Cape Fear, por emigrantes da Ilha de Barbados. Isso foi chamado de Clarendon County Colony. Ele tinha uma constituição semelhante à da Virgínia. Sir John Yeamans foi o primeiro governador. Ambos os acordos acima estavam dentro dos limites atuais de Carolina do Norte.

Em 1670, uma terceira colônia foi fundada, chamada de Colônia do condado de Carteret, após Sir George Carteret. Os colonos foram acompanhados pelo governador Sayle, que já havia explorado a costa. Os navios que transportaram os emigrantes entraram primeiro no porto de Port Royal, perto de Beaufort, mas, não ficando satisfeitos com o lugar, eles logo navegaram no rio Ashley, e lançaram as fundações de Old Charleston. Em 1680, este assentamento foi abandonado por Oyster Point, onde foi iniciada a atual cidade de charleston. Este foi o início de Carolina do Sul.

Durante a administração do governador Sayle, uma forma de governo foi preparada para essas colônias, a pedido do célebre Lord Shaftesbury, agindo em nome dos proprietários, pelo ainda mais célebre John Locke. Propôs um tribunal, para consistir. dos proprietários, um dos quais seria eleito presidente vitalício, uma nobreza hereditária e um parlamento, este último composto pelos dois primeiros, e representantes de cada distrito. Todos deveriam se reunir em um apartamento e ter uma voz igual. Esse plano de governo mal planejado e absurdo foi tentado para ser aplicado na prática, mas foi considerado impraticável. No condado de Albemarle, causou uma insurreição. Portanto, foi abandonado e o antigo governo proprietário restaurado.

No ano de 1671, o governador Sayle morrendo, Sir John Yeamans, governador de Clarendon, foi nomeado para sucedê-lo. Em conseqüência desse evento, e da pouca prosperidade da colônia, decorrente principalmente da esterilidade de seu solo, os habitantes deste posterior assentamento, em poucos anos, foram transferidos para o de Charleston, e os três governos, conseqüentemente, foram reduzidos para dois. Estando amplamente separados, os nomes distintivos de 'Carolina do Norte e Carolina do Sul começaram a ser usados ​​em relação a eles.

Colônia da Carolina do Norte

O progresso da Colônia Albemarle ou Carolina do Norte foi retardado por dissensões domésticas. Um estado de insurreição dos habitantes surgiu de uma tentativa de fazer cumprir o plano de governo do Sr. Locke - os impostos eram enormes e as restrições comerciais embaraçosas. Em 1677, após uma tentativa de fazer cumprir as leis de receita contra um contrabandista da Nova Inglaterra, o povo se rebelou contra o governo e prendeu o presidente da colônia e seis membros do conselho e, tendo feito isso, assumiu a prerrogativa de governar eles mesmos.

Em 1683, os proprietários enviaram Seth Sothel, um deles, esperando por meio dele restaurar o silêncio e o contentamento. Mas ele apenas aumentou os distúrbios existentes. Por seis anos, os habitantes suportaram sua injustiça e opressão, e então o prenderam e, depois de julgá-lo, o baniram da colônia. Um historiador comentou certa vez sobre Sothel, & # 39As sombras escuras de seu personagem não foram aliviadas por um único raio de virtude. & # 39

Philip Ludwell, da Virgínia, sucedeu ao infame e exigente Sothel e corrigiu os erros que ele havia cometido. Sob ele, e seu sucessor, Sir John Archdale, em 1695, um quaker e um homem excelente, a ordem foi restaurada na colônia. Os emigrantes começaram a afluir e várias outras partes do território, ao longo de alguns anos, foram colonizadas. As atribuições liberais de terras foram feitas pelos proprietários, e aqui muitos, que haviam fugido das perseguições religiosas ou das devastações da guerra em terras estrangeiras, encontraram um asilo pacífico e agradecido. Isso foi particularmente verdadeiro para uma companhia de protestantes franceses, que chegaram em 1707, e se estabeleceram no rio Trento, um braço do Neuse, e de um grande número de alemães, que fugiram da perseguição em 1710, e se plantaram no mesmo. parte da província.

But the inhabitants of this colony were destined soon to experience a sad, and, to many, a fatal calamity. The Indian tribes on the seacoast, once numerous and powerful, were fast dwindling before the enterprise of the colonists. To the more inland tribes, especially the Tuscaroras and the Corees, this was an indication not to be mistaken that the days of their prosperity were fast numbering. Grieved and exasperated at the prospect before them, they now combined with other tribes to utterly exterminate the new settlers. This purpose they attempted to carry into effect and so successful were they, that in one night, October 2nd, 1711, they massacred one hundred and thirty persons belonging to the settlements along the Roanoke River and Pamlico Sound.

A few colonists, escaping, hastened to South Carolina for assistance. Governor Craven immediately dispatched to their aid nearly a thousand men, under Colonel Barnwell. On his arrival, he defeated the enemy in several actions and, at length, pursued them to their fortified town, which capitulated, and peace was
concluded.

But it proved of short duration. The Indians renewed their hostilities, and the assistance of the southern colony was again involved. In response, Colonel Moore set out for the hostile territory, with a competent force &mdash forty white men and eight-hundred friendly Indians. They reduced the fort of the Tuscaroras, and with it took eight hundred prisoners. Broken and disheartened by this defeat, the tribe, in 1713, migrated north, and became the sixth nation of the great Iroquois Confederacy &mdash sometimes called the Five, and after this event, the Six Nations. In 1715, a treaty was concluded with the Corees.

In 1719, the proprietary government, which had continued from the settlement of the colony until now, was terminated in consequence of difficulties between the inhabitants and the proprietors. Their charter was vacated by the crown, and royal government substituted. Ten years after in 1729, the proprietors surrendered their right to the government, and interest in the soil, to the king upon which the province was divided into North and. South Carolina, and their governors and councils were appointed by the crown.

South Carolina Colony

The foundation of the Carteret or Southern Colony, was laid by Governor Sayle and emigrants accompanying him, in the settlement of Old Charleston, in 1670. Sayle fell victim to some disease of the climate early in the following year, and Sir John Yeamans, then Governor of Clarendon Colony, was appointed his successor. On being transferred, he drew after him a considerable portion of the latter colony.

The progress of the southern colony was, from the commencement, more rapid than the northern. Several circumstances contributed to this. The soil was more feasible and fertile. Many Dutch families from New York, dissatisfied with the transfer of their home to the English, in 1664, were ready to find a home here and, in 1671, shiploads of them were transported by the proprietors to Carolina, free of expense, and liberal grants of land were made to them. They chiefly concentrated at a place called Jamestown, west of the Ashley River, where they were, from time to time, enforced by emigrants from Holland. The profanity and licentiousness of the court of Charles II, also, drove many Puritan refugees across the Atlantic, a considerable number of whom settled in Carolina.

In 1680, the people of Old Charleston, attracted by the more pleasant location of a point of land between thee rivers Ashley and Cooper, called Oyster Point, removed there, and there laid the foundation of the present City of Charleston, which, from that time, has had the honor of being the capital of the colony and state.

They were, however, immediately afterward, annoyed, and the safety of the place even endangered, by the hostile and predatory conduct of the Westoes, a powerful tribe of Indians in the neighborhood. Retaliatory measures became necessary numbers of the Indians were shot and others, who were captured, were sent into slavery in the West Indies. Fortunately, peace was made with them the following year.

In 1686, soon after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, by Louis XIV, a large number of Huguenots, or French Protestants, came over, and settled in the colony. To the English settlers, who were Episcopal, these refugees being of so different a faith, were by no means welcome and they were quite disposed to drive them from the colony, notwithstanding the latter had been introduced by the proprietors under an assurance of enjoying the rights of citizenship.

About this time, James Colleton, a brother of Sir John, was appointed governor, under an expectation that he would be able to reduce the people to a proper submission to proprietary authority, to which they had for a long time seemed averse. But his arbitrary conduct, in excluding refractory members from the colonial assembly, and in attempting to collect rents claimed by the proprietors as due, drove the people to open resistance. The public records were seized, the colonial secretary imprisoned, the governor defied, and, at length, banished from the colony.

In 1690, that notable person, Seth Sothel, who, for his corrupt conduct, had been driven from North Carolina in disgrace, appeared in the province, and was allowed by the people to assume the government. But, impelled by his avarice to acts of meanness and oppression, as formerly at the expiration of two years he was banished from the colony. Next, Philip Ludwell was appointed by the proprietors as the person to teach the South Carolinians submission and good manner but they were too turbulent, as he thought, and he became glad, at no distant day, to retire.

In 1695, John Archdale, the Quaker, was appointed governor, with power to redress all grievances. The people had long complained against their rulers, and had quarreled among themselves. Archdale, by a wise and conciliatory course, restored harmony, and removed the causes of civil dissatisfaction. He introduced a more republican form of government, thus restoring to the people rights and privileges which had been monopolized by the proprietors, or their agents.

One difficulty, however, still remained, and which he was compelled to leave to the 'softening influence of time' to remove. This was the jealousy and antipathy already alluded to, of the English Episcopalians against the French Protestants. The latter, it was contended, could not legally hold real estate in the colony that the French ministers could not lawfully solemnize marriages and that the children of the refugees must be debarred inheriting the property of their fathers.

But these animosities and differences found an end. When, at length, the inoffensive and even exemplary lives of these exiles, were observed by the English, and also their uniform and liberal efforts to sustain and advance the interests of the colony, prejudice and opposition yielded and, in a few years, the colonial assembly gladly extended to them all the rights of citizens and freemen.

Soon after the declaration of war in 1702, by England against France and Spain, called Queen Anne's War, Governor Moore proposed to the assembly of the colony an expedition against the Spanish settlement of St. Augustine, in Florida. To this the more considerate of the assembly were opposed but, the enterprise being approved by a majority, nearly ten thousand dollars were appropriated for the object, and twelve hundred troops raised, one half of whom were Indians. With the forces above named, and some merchant vessels impressed as transports, Governor Moore sailed for St. Augustine. The design for Colonel Daniel, an enterprising officer, was to proceed by the inland passage, and then attack the town by land, with a party of militia and Indians while Moore was to proceed by sea, and take possession of the harbor. Daniel advanced against the town, entered and plundered it, before the governor's arrival. The Spaniards, however, retired to the castle, with their principal riches, and with provisions for four months.

The governor, on his arrival, could effect nothing, for want of artillery. In this emergency, Daniel was dispatched to Jamaica for cannon, mortars, etc. During his absence, two large Spanish ships appearing off the harbor, Governor Moore hastily raised the siege, abandoned his shipping, and made a precipitate retreat into Carolina. Colonel Daniel, having no intelligence that the siege had been raised, on his return, stood in for the harbor, and narrowly escaped the ships of the enemy. In consequence of this rash and unfortunate enterprise, the colony was loaded with a debt of nearly thirty thousand dollars, which gave rise to the first paper currency in Carolina, and was the means of filling the colony with dissension and tumult.

The failure of this expedition was soon after, in a measure, compensated by a successful war with the Appalachian Indians, who, in consequence of their connection with the Spaniards, became insolent and hostile. Governor Moore, with a body of white men and Indian allies, marched into the heart of their country, and compelled them to submit to the English. All the towns of the tribes between the rivers Altamaha and Savannah were burnt, and between six hundred and eight hundred Indians were made prisoners.

In 1704, Sir Nathaniel Johnson succeeded Governor Moore and now, under his influence, a long-cherished object of the proprietors was accomplished. This was the establishment of the Church of England forms of worship as the religion of the province, and the exclusion of dissenters from all participation in the government. But, in 1706, these laws of exclusion or disfranchisement were repealed, by direction of the English Parliament, which decided that they were inconsistent with the laws of England. But the acts establishing the Church of England religion continued in force, until they were abrogated by the American Revolution.

In 1706, while yet Queen Anne's War continued, a French and Spanish squadron, consisting of a French frigate and four armed sloops, appeared before Charleston, with a design of annexing Carolina to Florida but, by the prompt and energetic efforts of the governor, seconded by Colonel Rhett and the inhabitants, this issue was averted. When, at length, the enemy had passed the bar, he sent a summons to the governor to surrender. Four hours were allowed him to return his answer. But the governor informed the messenger that he did not wish one minute. On the reception of this answer, the enemy seemed to hesitate, and attempted nothing that day.

The day succeeding, a party of the enemy, landing on James Island, burnt a village by the river's side. Another party landed at Wando Neck. The next day both these parties were dislodged the latter party being surprised, and nearly all killed or taken prisoner.

This success so animated the Carolinians, that it was determined to attack the enemy by sea. This was attempted with a force of six vessels, under command of Rhett but, on his appearance, the enemy weighed anchor, and precipitately fled.

In 1715, the province came near the verge of ruin, by reason of a combination of the Yamassees and other Indian tribes&mdashstretching from Cape Fear to Florida&mdashagainst them. The 15th of April 1715, was fixed upon as the day of their general destruction. Owing, however, to the wisdom, dispatch and firmness of Governor Craven, and the blessing of Providence, the calamity was, in a measure, averted, and the colonies saved, though at the expense during the war, of near four hundred of the inhabitants. The Yamassees were expelled from the province, and took refuge among the Spaniards in Florida.

In 1719, the people of Carolina, having been long disgusted with the management of the proprietors, were resolved, at all hazards, to execute their own laws, and defend the rights of the province. A subscription to this effect was drawn up, and generally signed. On the meeting of the assembly, a committee was sent with this subscription to the governor, Robert Johnson, requesting him to accept the government of the province, under the king, instead of the proprietors. Upon Johnson's refusal, the assembly chose Colonel James Moore governor, under the crown and on the 21st of December, 1719, the convention and militia marched to Charleston fort, and proclaimed Moore governor, in his majesty's name.

The Carolinians, having thus assumed the government, in behalf of the king, referred their complaints to the royal ear. On a hearing of the case, the privy council adjudged that the proprietors had forfeited their charter. From this time, therefore, the colony was taken under the royal protection, under which it continued until the Revolution. This change was followed, in 1729, by another, nearly as important. This was an agreement, between the proprietors and the crown, that the former should surrender to the crown their right and interest, both to the government and soil, for the sum of seventeen thousand five hundred pounds sterling. This agreement being carried into effect, the province was divided into North and South Carolina, each province having a distinct governor, under the crown of England.

Fonte: A History of the United States, by Charles A. Goodrich, 1857


Barbados and the Roots of Carolina, Part 1

If you pick up any book about the origins of South Carolina in the late 1600s, you’ll be sure to find references to the island of Barbados and the great influence it exerted on our early history. Nearly 350 years later, in November 2017, a number of Lowcountry residents are collaborating with officials in Barbados to commemorate the cultural ties that continue to bind our two communities together. The Barbados and Carolina Legacy Foundation, founded by Bajan native Rhoda Green, is leading a coterie of Carolinians to Bimshire (as some natives call the island) this month to celebrate our shared past. I’ll be traveling along with the Charleston delegation, and I look forward to sharing the fruits of my journey when I return.

In preparation for my trip, I’ve been reading a lot and searching for clues to answer this fundamental question: How exactly did Barbados influence the early history of South Carolina? If you peruse a few of the many books and articles written about this topic, you’ll find discussions of a number of specific connections. The Charleston single house, for example, is often described as being a local interpretation of a Barbadian (or Bajan) predecessor. The drinking culture of early Charleston has been described as an extension of the influence of the Bajan rum industry. Several of the early governors and major landowners of colonial Carolina came here from Barbados. Some of South Carolina’s earliest laws for the governing of African slaves were based on legal precedents established in Barbados. The local language we call Gullah, created by the enslaved Africans who lived along the coast of South Carolina, is remarkably similar to the Afro-Barbadian dialect known as Bajan.

After reading about such connections between Barbados and early South Carolina, I have to admit that I still felt a bit unsatisfied. The cultural connections I’ve just described are legitimate, bona fide examples of the historical links between our two communities, but there has to be more to the story. After further reading, digging into the early history of that Caribbean island, however, I found a theme that strikes me as a deeper, more fundamental link between Barbados and Carolina. To illustrate my point, we’ll need to travel back to the early days of European exploration in the New World, and try to understand how the small island of Barbados fits into the larger historic context of this age of discovery.

Barbados is the easternmost island of the Caribbean or West Indian Islands. It contains approximately 166 square miles of land, or just over 106,000 acres. That makes the island of Barbados approximately one-tenth the size of Charleston County, or twice the size of John’s Island. That may be difficult to visualize, so here’s another way to think about it: the pear-shaped island of Barbados is approximately 21 miles long and 14 miles across at its widest point.

European settlement of Barbados began in the 1490s, when Spanish and Portuguese explorers first visited the island. There they found a population of native Amerindians, but did not attempt to create a permanent settlement. Throughout the sixteenth century, Spanish colonists dominated the land of Central America and the islands of the Caribbean Sea, while Portuguese colonists established a vast sugar empire in Brazil in South America.

At the beginning of the seventeenth century, England was poised to launch its first permanent colonies in the New World. The settlement at Jamestown, Virginia, was established in 1607, followed by a permanent settlement in Bermuda in 1609. In 1623 English settlers claimed part of the island of St. Christopher (St. Kitts), in the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles, just a bit north of Barbados. French settlers claimed the other half of St. Kitts in 1625, leading to years of conflict, so the English kept searching for Caribbean islands to call their own. Also in 1625, English explorers landed at Barbados, found it completely deserted, and claimed the island for their king.

Two years later, in 1627, a small band of about fifty white men and perhaps ten African slaves established the first permanent English settlement on Barbados. Over the next several decades, the island served as the base for other English settlements in the Caribbean, including Nevis in 1628, Antigua in 1632, and then a number of other small islands. As England’s first solid foothold in the West Indies, Barbados quickly became a major destination for adventuring merchants and investors, as well as white indentured servants and exiled criminals. By the early 1640s, when the colony was not quite twenty years old, Barbados was home to approximately 30,000 people, mostly men, making it the most densely populated English-speaking settlement outside of London.

In this crowded society, scores of urban merchants traded with neighboring ports while hundreds of middling landowners cultivated relatively small tracts of lands. They grew tobacco, cotton, indigo, and ginger for export, and raised cattle and provision crops to feed themselves. Indentured white servants, mostly poor Irish, did the bulk of the labor, but Barbados in the early 1640s was also home to nearly 1,000 enslaved Africans, whom the English had purchased through Dutch merchants. English colonists first embraced slavery in Virginia in 1619, but it was not yet the dominant form of labor in their New World settlements. In Virginia in 1650, for example, the population demographics were nearly identical to that of 1640s Barbados: approximately 30,000 whites and nearly 1,000 enslaved Africans.

During its first twenty years of English occupation, Barbados was not a financial success. Tobacco prices declined as the quantity and quality of the Virginia product surpassed Caribbean exports. French and Spanish indigo dominated European markets, and so the English dye faced stiff competition. In response to these conditions, settlers began to stream away from Barbados in search of new opportunities in places like Virginia and New England.

As Barbados struggled to find its niche in the world in the early 1640s, a few planters began experimenting with the cultivation of sugar cane. The Portuguese in Brazil had already turned sugar cane production into an extremely profitable business, using Dutch merchants to market sugar and sugar by-products to European customers who couldn’t get enough of the sweet stuff. Trying to emulate their neighbors, English planters in Barbados started growing the cane and experimenting with the laborious process of converting it into sugar products. At first the results were not promising. The quantity was too small to be profitable, and the quality of their sugar was inferior to that produced by the Portuguese. Within a few years of experimentation, however, and with the important help of Dutch merchants and Sephardic Jews who bridged the gap between Portuguese, Dutch, and English trade networks, Barbadian planters soon perfected their sugar production techniques.

By the end of the 1640s, Barbados was on the cusp of an explosion of sugar production. Planters had mastered both the cultivation of the cane and the techniques of processing it into sugar, molasses, and rumbullion (rum), alias “kill-divil.” The last step in this expansion was to increase production dramatically, a step that would require a larger labor force. In sixteenth-century Brazil, Portuguese planters created an empire of sugar cane by importing large numbers of enslaved Africans. Around the year 1650, Barbadian planters decided to follow a similar path. Within a decade, the island had been radically transformed. Wealthy planters bought out their less-affluent neighbors to create a smaller number of farms, or plantations, cultivating larger tracts of land. Simultaneously, they purchased large numbers of Africans through Dutch merchants, effectively displacing thousands of poor white laborers. By 1660, the population of Barbados stood at approximately 26,000 whites, a decline of a several thousand people since the early 1640s. Conversely, the number of enslaved people of African descent increased from less than 1,000 people around 1640 to approximately 27,000 in 1660.

The transformation of the Barbadian economy in the mid-1600s was a turning point in that island’s history, but it also had important ramifications for the rest of the Caribbean and mainland North America as well. By investing a large amount of capital into large-scale agricultural ventures that focused on a single crop, combined with an emphasis on the use of forced African labor, Barbadian planters were creating a new mode of capitalism in the English-speaking world. The business of exploitative factory farming, as we might call it, produced incredible profits for a relatively small number of investors, while condemning a disproportionately large number of people to a life of labor and poverty. The Spanish and Portuguese had already embarked down this economic road in South America, of course, but for the English nation this was a bold new step that would have long and painful repercussions.

The rapid economic success of Barbados between the late 1640s and the early 1660s, what we might call the Great Sugar Rush, also created a series of immediate challenges for the small island. The great potential for profits drove planters to clear more land to grow more sugar cane and import ever more Africans to do the work. As a result of these changes, Barbadians found it increasingly difficult to sustain their own population. There were far more mouths to feed, but fewer acres of land dedicated to cattle grazing and the cultivation of provisions like wheat and peas. As forests were cleared to create new cane fields, the island grew increasingly desperate for essential wood products like lumber for houses, shingles for roofs, staves for barrels, and firewood to boil the cane juice into sugar and rum. To maintain the fabulously profitable economic dynamo it had recently created, Barbados desperately needed to expand.

The Barbadian model of sugar production enticed English adventurers to carry the business to the other English possessions in the Caribbean, including Antigua, St. Kitt’s, and Nevis. These were small islands with limited resources, however, so they alone could not satisfy the demand for land, wood products, and provisions. In 1655 England captured the much larger island of Jamaica from the Spanish, a feat that promised much needed relief for the strained Barbadian resources. The Jamaican soil proved to be less fertile than that of Barbados, however, and the island’s extensive mountains provided ample shelter to African slaves seeking to escape a life of bondage. In the late 1600s the Jamaican economy developed a sort of auxiliary of the Barbadian sugar model, but the collective resources of the larger island were not sufficient to solve the smaller island’s lingering challenges.

What Barbados merchants and planters of the early 1660s ideally wanted was a cheap, limitless supply of timber for wood products and land for cattle grazing and planting provision crops. Such needs could only be found on the mainland, perhaps, and England’s long, turbulent era of Civil War, Commonwealth, and Protectorate, 1642–1659, precluded the creation of any new mainland colonies in North America. With the restoration of the English monarchy under Charles II in 1660, however, the leading figures of Barbados saw an opportunity to press the new king for assistance in expanding their respective fortunes. Conversations commenced between Barbadians and their allies in the new English government about potential investments and profit schemes. In the spring of 1663, these private negotiations bore fruit in the Royal charter granted by Charles II to a group of eight investors, styled Lords Proprietors, for the vast and verdant new colony called Carolina.

In short, the historical connection between Barbados and Carolina is far deeper than a handful of influential colonists, or an architectural form, or a style of cuisine, or a dialect. Barbados, or more precisely the spirit of late-seventeenth-century Barbados, was encoded in the DNA of Carolina from the moment this colony was conceived. Tune in next week, when we’ll continue this conversation by investigating some of the features of early South Carolina that we can identify as family traits inherited from Barbados.


History of Wando II - History

For most of its history Korea was an independent kingdom, or at least an autonomous kingdom under Chinese influence. This came to an end in 1910 when Japan annexed all of Korea. At the end of World War II in 1945 the 38° parallel was established as the dividing line between U.S. and Soviet zones of occupation, and in 1948 separate civil administrations were established in the two halves of the country. The Korean War (1950-53) ended in a draw with the armistice line falling close to the prewar 38° line. The Republic of Korea (ROK), commonly called South Korea, occupies the Korean peninsula south of the armistice line.

This page covers lighthouses of the northern section of the island county of Wando located off South Korea's southwest coast. Wando is a county of Jeollanam Province in the region of southwestern Korea formerly known known as Jeolla or Cholla. There is another page for the southern islands of the county. Also included on this page are several lighthouses of Jangheung County and Gangjin County, which are on the mainland facing Wando.

In 2000 South Korea adopted a Revised Romanization System to replace systems formerly used in the West. In the Revised System, the word for a lighthouse is deungdae ( 등대 ) dan (formerly bronzeado) is a cape, seom (som) or Faz (para) is an island, am ou amseog is a rock, cara is a bay, and hang is a harbor. Some place names may be more familiar to Westerners in the spellings of older systems.

Navigational aids in the ROK are regulated by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF). Most of the lights on this page are maintained by the Mokpo Regional Oceans and Fisheries Administration , but several of the lights in the southeastern part of the Wando archipelago are maintained by the Yeosu Regional Oceans and Fisheries Administration.

ARLHS numbers are from the ARLHS World List of Lights . Admiralty numbers are from volume M of the Admiralty List of Lights & Fog Signals . U.S. NGA List numbers are from Publication 112.

General Sources Port of Mokpo - Lighthouses Photos and information in English for the major lighthouses of the area. World of Lighthouses - South Korea Photos by various photographers available from Lightphotos.net. Kiso's Lighthouses - Korea Photos posted by a Japanese lighthouse fan. Online List of Lights - Korea Photos by various photographers posted by Alexander Trabas. Navionics Charts Navigation chart for Wando.


East Breakwater Light, Wando, September 2009
Daum.net Creative Commons photo by 사비오 (Sabio)

Northeastern Wando County Lighthouses


Geumdangdo Light, Geumdang District
ex-Daum.net Creative Commons photo by 고기잡는어부


Seopdo Light, Geomildo District
Yeosu Regional Port Administration photo

Dojang Hang Detached Breakwater Lights, Geomildo District, October 2018
Google Maps photo by Hunseok Shin

Jangheung County Lighthouses

Hoejin District Lighthouses Hoejin Hang Breakwater East End 2007. Active focal plane 11 m (36 ft) four yellow flashes every 8 s. 10 m (33 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower. Entire lighthouse is yellow. A photo of the two breakwater lighthouses is available and Google has a satellite view . Hoejin is a mainland port opposite the Wando islands. Located at the northeast end of the detached breakwater of Hoejin harbor. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty M4281.78 NGA 17303.2. Hoejin Hang Breakwater West End 2007. Active focal plane 11 m (36 ft) red flash every 4 s. 10 m (33 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower. Entire lighthouse is red. A photo of the two breakwater lighthouses is available and Google has a satellite view . Located at the southwest end of the detached breakwater of Hoejin harbor. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty M4281.79 NGA 17303.3..

Gangjin County Lighthouses


West Breakwater Light, Maryang Hang, May 2020
Google Maps photo by Hyunyong Kim

Northwestern Wando County Lighthouses


Wando Hang Light, Wando, August 2019
Google Maps photo by Banana

Information available on lost lighthouses:

  • Wando Tower, Wando, is a 76 m (250 ft) observation tower it is not listed as an aid to navigation. The tower appears the photo of the Wando East Breakwater Light at the top of this page and Google has a satellite view.

Posted January 9, 2008. Lighthouses: 45. Checked and revised February 10, 2021. Site copyright 2021 Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.


The Enduring Fascination – And Challenge – Of World War II

Earl Ofari Hutchinson is the author of multiple books on race and politics in America, a military history analyst specializing in World War II, and a member of the Society for Military History. His books include the trilogy on the Obama Years: The Obama Legacy, How Obama Governed The Year of Crisis and Challenge, e How Obama Won. His most recent books are The Trump Challenge to Black America and From King to Obama: Witness to a Turbulent History. Seu How World War II Changed America will be released in August, 2021.

More than seven decades after the end of World War II, why are we still so fascinated by it? On a primal level, World War II is the complete package. Violence, action, adventure, romance, drama, death defying feats, passions, race, gender, new inventions, crisis decision making, colorful personalities and leaders, evil personalities and leaders, horror, heroism, and a triumphant ending. It doesn&rsquot get any better (or worse) in the realm of human experience.

World War II also serves to remind us what happens when a country is caught flatfooted and unprepared to respond to a crisis. The Pearl Harbor attack made clear that preparedness for a crisis is paramount. Failure to learn that lesson almost always leads to disaster. The 9/11 attack in 2001, first. Then twenty years after, the nation&rsquos failure to prepare and have plans in place to combat the COVID Pandemic. In both cases, the U.S. paid a terrible price for its lack of preparedness as it did with Pearl Harbor.

It&rsquos simplistic to say that World War II is a case of wanting to hang onto a feel-good, nostalgic past triumph. History is never past. It continues to repeat itself in many ways, and most importantly in many of the eternal issues--war and peace, violence and non-violence, authoritarian rule and democratic government, conservative and liberal ideology, civil liberties and national security, and terrorism and intervention.

Author and World War II expert Michael Bess says the war continues to challenge us to never lose sight of the nation&rsquos principles and values:

The issue raised here is a vital one for any democratic society: how to balance a commitment to constitutional rights and liberties with the demands of security in wartime. The lesson of World War II, in this regard, is clear: take the long view don&rsquot get lost in the panic of the moment. In 1942, in the name of national security, we Americans seized a racially demarcated subset of our citizenry and threw them in the slammer. In both cases, the justification was the same: We are at war. We have to do this in order to survive. But this turned out not to be true. Not a single case of Japanese-American subversion was ever prosecuted during World War II.

History should be approached as a living, breathing organic day-to-day experience. The events of the past that continually influence, shape, and contain important lessons for the present and the future are perpetually invaluable. One of my favorites is nicely summed up on the University of People website:

Learn from the past and notice clear warning signs. We learn from past atrocities against groups of people, genocides, wars, and attacks. Through this collective suffering, we have learned to pay attention to the warning signs leading up to such atrocities. Society has been able to take these warning signs and fight against them when they see them in the present day. Knowing what events led up to these various wars helps us better influence our future.

Do &ldquogenocide,&rdquo, &ldquoatrocities,&rdquo, &ldquowars,&rdquo, &ldquoattacks,&rdquo &ldquocollective suffering,&rdquo &ldquowarning signs,&rdquo &ldquofight against them,&rdquo or &ldquobetter influence our future,&rdquo sound familiar? The message is to be forewarned is to be forearmed. That&rsquos the purpose of knowing and taking to heart the great lessons of, and from, the past. In the end the past is the present and the future.

Here are three immediate examples that painfully underscore that. The U.S. stamped an everlasting stain on its claim to be the global champion of democracy when it interned 120,000 Japanese Americans during the war. The interned not only committed no crime but were productive citizens that made integral contributions to the nation in agriculture, trade, and the manufacturing industries.

The U.S. learned from that heinous act. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attack, fear and hysteria did not run rampant in the nation. There was no wholesale lock-up of Muslims in the country under the guise that they posed a threat to national security. Nearly two decades later, then President Trump&rsquos demand to exclude citizens from nations deemed &ldquoterrorist&rdquo from entrance into the U.S. ignited major resistance and legal challenges. It was soon modified and then scrapped. We learned again.

There were assorted identifiable white nationalist, supremacist and neo-Nazi supporters involved in the violence during the Capitol takeover January 6, 2021. The reaction from the government, media and public was swift condemnation, mass arrests, and prosecutions of the perpetrators. Congressional hearings were held that decried the laxity of response and ignoring intelligence warnings of possible violence. There would be no Reichstag type takeover here.

There is the always public tremor over the use of atomic power. When the Biden administration in April 2021 approved a plan to bankroll a multibillion-dollar project in New Mexico to manufacture key components for the nation&rsquos nuclear arsenal, antinuclear and environmental watchdog groups sprang into action. They threatened lawsuits, court action, and public protests over the plan.

I could name many more examples of how World War II hold lessons for the present.

The monumental destruction World War II wreaked should never blind us to the fact that the war was first and foremost a major historical event. As with all major historical events, they happen in a continuum of time and place. As such, they have important social, political, and economic consequences long after their end. No What is History?, eminent historian E.H. Carr ruminated at length about the inseparable linkage between the past and the present, &ldquoIt is at one the justification and the explanation of history that the past throws light on the future, and the future throws light on the past.&rdquo

Carr goes further. He insists that history has value only when it sheds light on the present and future, &ldquoHistory establishes meaning and objectivity only when it establishes a coherent relation between past and future.&rdquo

America&rsquos master oral history chronicler Studs Terkel published many books in which regular folk told their stories about just about every aspect of American life. There was no surprise then that the Good War had the sledgehammer impact on the public it did when it was released in 1984.

The stories the men and women of World War II told had instant and moving resonance for legions of readers born years, even decades, after the war. They could identify with the human emotions and drama that poured forth in their remembrances. It was the epitome of living history. It was no accident in May 2021, thirty-seven years afterA boa guerra, was published, and thirty-six years after it won a Pulitzer Prize, the book still ranked among the top 20 bestsellers in two non-fiction categories on Amazonas.

This literally speaks volumes why World War II, the good war, still fascinates us. And undoubtedly will continue to.


A History of the College’s Land

The story of the land that encompasses the College or Charleston campus reflects the history of the city.

The peninsula of Charleston was home to Native Americans long before the first permanent European settlers arrived in 1670. As soon as they entered the harbor, the first settlers saw a large oyster midden, the mounds of discarded oyster shells left by the indigenous people. (They named that area White Point, the site for White Point Garden today.) The tribes in the area included the Wando and the Etiwan. Relations between natives and newcomers started out equitably, but the sad tragedy of native displacement by the Europeans (through enslavement, conflict and disease) that is part of American history also played out here.

No one owned the lands, until they were claimed by England’s King Charles II, who granted them to the Lords Proprietors, who, in turn, granted them to others. What is now our campus was beyond the limits of Charles Towne, which was moved from its original location at Albermarle Point, west of the Ashley River, to the peninsula in 1680. Our land, granted first to Henry Hughes in the 1670s, passed to John Coming. In 1698, a part of that parcel, containing the core of the campus, was conveyed by Coming’s widow, Affra Harleston Coming, to the Pinckney family. (The names of Coming St., which runs through campus, and Harleston Village, just west of it, reflect this early history.) In 1724, a Pinckney heir sold some of this land to the Commissioners of the Free School, making public education the land’s now fulfilled destiny. The large tract of land bounded to the north on a marsh (now Calhoun St.between St. Philip and Coming streets, an area that still floods occasionally) and southerly (south of present-day George St.) on a tract donated by Affra Harleston Coming to St. Philip’s Church. (This gave rise to other street names in the neighborhood – St. Philip and Glebe – the latter word meaning property of a church.) Some of the first structures on the land in the Colonial era were wooden barracks, soon replaced by two brick barracks. The barracks were used in the American Revolution by the Second SC Regiment under William Moultrie. Plats indicate that those buildings were in the approximate area of what is now Cistern Yard.

The College’s first president Bishop Robert Smith, who lived nearby, was not just a clergyman, but a plantation owner whose wealth came from enslaved people who worked his land. (Almost all early endowments came from similar sources: Benjamin Smith, the first contributor to the College, no relation to Robert Smith, was a wealthy slave and plantation owner, as well, and Miles Brewton, another donor, was a slave trader.) President Smith, who would own more than 200 human beings at his death in 1801, was in the position to advance the struggling College funds to repair the barracks classrooms records also reveal that people he enslaved worked on related projects, for which he billed the institution. To pay off those debts after his death, the College trustees, mostly wealthy slave owners themselves, cut Green Street (now Green Way, converted to a pedestrian mall in the 1970s) through its lands, attempting to rent lots along it. The College’s land was now quartered into four approximately equal squares or blocks, the extreme outer limits being Boundary (now Calhoun), St. Philip, George and Coming streets, with College Street running north/south through the parcel, and Green Street running east/west through it. In 1817, the College was forced to sell most of its land to satisfy the debt, restricting its precincts to the southeast square of land bounded by George, College, Green and St. Philip streets.

On these lands, fringing the compact campus, rose houses, large and small, of men and women white and black, free and enslaved, many of whom could not legally attend the school whose student body consisted mostly of the white slave-owning elite. (There were religious, educational civic buildings and graveyards in the neighborhood, too.) As the College grew and eventually became state supported in the 20th century, it began to acquire more of the surrounding property. Many buildings were torn down, some were saved, and others relocated. After all these changes, the College of Charleston now includes the approximate parcel it possessed at its founding, and more: the campus now extends north of Calhoun Street, east of St. Philip Street, across Coming Street and as far south as Wentworth Street. There are other non-contiguous College lands on the peninsula and others across both the Ashley and Cooper Rivers.

Within the over 30 acres of the downtown campus are innumerable stories to discover.


Assista o vídeo: WANDO NO PROGRAMA HISTÓRIA DA MÚSICA 3ª PARTE COM ULYSSES GASPAR (Dezembro 2021).