Notícia

Linha do tempo da dinastia Shang

Linha do tempo da dinastia Shang

  • 1600 AC - 1046 AC

    Dinastia Shang na China.

  • 1600 AC - 1046 AC

    A escrita se desenvolve na China durante a Dinastia Shang.

  • c. 1300 AC

    A dinastia chinesa Shang muda sua capital para Yin (moderna Anyang).

  • c. 1250 AC - c. 1150 AC

    O I-Ching, o Livro das Mutações, está escrito.

  • 1250 a.C. - 1192 a.C.

    Reinado do grande imperador Wu Ding da Dinastia Shang na China.

  • c. 1250 a.C. - 1046 a.C.

    Oracle Bones em uso na China durante a Dinastia Shang.

  • 1046 a.C. - 771 a.C.

  • 1046 AC

    Batalha de Mue, Imperador Shang Zhou derrotado pelo Rei Wu de Zhou. Fim da Dinastia Shang.


As cidades muradas da dinastia Shang da China Antiga

As cidades da dinastia Shang foram os primeiros assentamentos urbanos historicamente documentados na China. A dinastia Shang [c 1700-1050 a.C.] foi a primeira dinastia chinesa a deixar registros escritos, e a ideia e a função das cidades assumiram uma importância elevada. Os registros escritos, principalmente na forma de ossos de oráculo, registram as ações dos últimos nove reis Shang e descrevem algumas das cidades. O primeiro desses governantes registrados historicamente foi Wu Ding, o vigésimo primeiro rei da dinastia.

Os governantes Shang eram alfabetizados e, como outros primeiros habitantes urbanos, os Shang empregavam um calendário útil e veículos com rodas, e praticavam metalurgia, incluindo objetos de bronze fundido. Eles usavam bronze para itens como vasos para oferendas rituais, vinho e armas. E eles residiam e governavam em grandes e ricos assentamentos urbanos.


Dinastia Shang

Nossos editores irão revisar o que você enviou e determinar se o artigo deve ser revisado.

Dinastia Shang, Romanização Wade-Giles Shang, a primeira dinastia chinesa registrada para a qual há evidências documentais e arqueológicas. A dinastia Shang foi a suposta sucessora da quase lendária primeira dinastia Xia (c. 2070–c. 1600 AC).

As datas fornecidas para a fundação da dinastia Shang variam de cerca de 1760 a 1520 aC, e as datas da queda da dinastia também variam, de 1122 a 1030 aC. O período do governo da dinastia foi tradicionalmente datado de 1766-1122 aC. No entanto, trabalhos arqueológicos mais recentes colocaram a data de início de Shang em cerca de 1600 AC e identificou o fim da dinastia como sendo 1046 AC. A última parte da dinastia Shang, do reinado do imperador Pangeng em diante (ou seja, c. 1300 aC), também foi chamada de dinastia Yin.

Shang China estava centrado na planície do norte da China e se estendia ao norte até as modernas províncias de Shandong e Hebei e para o oeste até a atual província de Henan. Acredita-se que os reis dos Shang ocuparam várias capitais, uma após a outra, uma delas possivelmente na moderna Zhengzhou, onde existem ricos achados arqueológicos, mas eles se estabeleceram em Anyang no século 14 aC. O rei nomeou governadores locais, e havia uma classe estabelecida de nobres, bem como de massas, cujo trabalho principal era na agricultura. O rei emitiu pronunciamentos sobre quando plantar safras, e a sociedade tinha um sistema de calendário altamente desenvolvido com um ano de 360 ​​dias de 12 meses de 30 dias cada. Foi durante o Shang que a escrita chinesa começou a se desenvolver, e o símbolo para "lua" era - como tem permanecido - também para "mês". O calendário conhecia os ciclos lunar e solar e, quando foi necessário ajustar o ano basicamente lunar à realidade sazonal do ano solar, foram acrescentados meses intercalares.

Os instrumentos musicais evidentemente vieram do Xia ou de qualquer sociedade anterior aos Shang, pois os primeiros instrumentos Shang eram bem desenvolvidos e incluíam uma ocarina de argila, sinos de pedra afinados e sinos e tambores de bronze. (A lenda traça a origem dos cachimbos de bambu antes, mesmo antes do mítico Xia.)

Os arquitetos do período Shang construíram casas de madeira sobre pisos de taipa, com paredes de vime e tetos de palha. Os túmulos foram escavados em argila e suas paredes exibem vestígios de pinturas que se assemelham fortemente a algumas das ornamentações e formas de animais refletidas no notável trabalho em bronze da época. Os primeiros bronzes dos Shang eram primitivos, mas um curso de desenvolvimento é evidente que culmina em objetos cerimoniais elegantes, bem como em uma variedade substancial de pratos para cozinhar e servir e vários utensílios e ornamentos. Havia um de três pernas li para cozinhar, e sobre ele poderia ser colocado um bronze zeng, uma tigela com fundo perfurado para funcionar como um vaporizador - juntos chamados de yan. Tigelas de servir eram muitas vezes com hastes, e vasos de servir, como o gu, tinha bicos longos. Essas e muitas outras embarcações eram freqüentemente ricamente decoradas.

Os objetos de cerâmica eram abundantes, e os oleiros Shang faziam moldes seccionais de argila cozida para moldar bronzes. Eles também usaram moldes de argila para imprimir decorações em vasos de argila - cujas formas em muitos casos inspiraram claramente os desenhos em bronze. Parte da cerâmica evidencia a possibilidade de ter sido moldada em uma roda de oleiro. A cerâmica incluía pratos e tigelas em esmalte branco para uso cerimonial e ritual, bem como cerâmica preta e um esmalte marrom rico para fins mais mundanos.

A escultura em jade tornou-se bastante avançada durante a dinastia Shang. Armas cerimoniais de jade foram feitas, bem como acessórios de jade para armas reais. As estatuetas de jade incluíam formas humanas e animais, esculpidas em redondo com detalhes cuidadosos. Muitos desses objetos foram encontrados em tumbas do período. Outras artes funerárias variavam em tamanho, desde pequenos objetos de jade ou osso entalhado e marfim (às vezes incrustados com turquesa) até carruagens de madeira laqueada. Esculturas maiores em mármore seguiram motivos de animais.

Nenhuma literatura sobreviveu dos Shang, mas existem muitos registros e inscrições cerimoniais e nomes de famílias ou clãs, esculpidos ou escovados em ossos ou cascos de tartaruga. Três tipos de caracteres foram usados ​​- pictogramas, ideogramas e fonogramas - e esses registros são os primeiros escritos conhecidos na China.


Tecnologia militar Shang

A carruagem era uma tecnologia militar que permitia aos Shang se destacarem na guerra. Sob os Shang, os chineses domesticaram o cavalo. Os cavalos daquela época ainda eram pequenos demais para cavalgar, mas os chineses gradualmente desenvolveram a carruagem, que controlava a força do cavalo. A carruagem era uma arma devastadora na batalha e também permitia que os soldados Shang se movessem por grandes distâncias em grande velocidade. O cemitério de uma carruagem em Anyang (Henan dos dias modernos) data do governo do Rei Wu Ding da Dinastia Shang (c. 1200 aC). Inscrições em ossos do oráculo mostram que os Shang usavam carruagens como veículos de comando móveis e em caçadas reais. Os membros da família real eram freqüentemente enterrados com uma carruagem, cavalos e um cocheiro.

Essas tecnologias militares eram importantes, porque os Shang estavam constantemente em guerra. Um número significativo de ossos do oráculo Shang estava relacionado com a batalha. Os exércitos Shang expandiram as fronteiras do reino e capturaram recursos preciosos e prisioneiros de guerra, que poderiam ser escravizados ou usados ​​como sacrifício humano. Os ossos do oráculo também mostram profunda preocupação com os & # 8220 bárbaros & # 8221 que viviam fora do império, que eram uma ameaça constante à segurança e estabilidade do reino, os militares precisavam estar constantemente prontos para combatê-los.

Machado de Batalha de Bronze da Dinastia Shang. Este machado de bronze é um exemplo do trabalho de bronze Shang.


Tag: dinastia shang

A Dinastia Shang governou a China por muitos anos até ser derrotada pelo clã Zhou por volta de 1200 a 1000 a.C. que é onde aparece no Bible Timeline com a História Mundial. Quando a Dinastia Zhou assumiu a China, eles alteraram as instituições políticas, sociais e religiosas. Os Zhou criaram uma lei chamada & # 8220Mandate of Heaven & # 8221 que lhes deu o direito de governar a antiga sociedade Shang. Eles usaram essa legislação para mudar as diferentes partes da cultura, incluindo a arquitetura. Os governantes Zhou sabiamente deixaram a maior parte da arquitetura Shang no lugar, mas fizeram alguns ajustes nas principais estruturas políticas, sociais e religiosas que refletiam seu estilo de governo.

Quando os Zhou assumiram, instituíram um sistema semelhante ao feudal, em que o imperador governava toda a terra e os senhores eram instituídos de uma forma semelhante à dos reis e nobres da Idade Média. Havia outras classes de pessoas que incluíam guerreiros, plebeus e escravos. O imperador governou as terras de seu palácio e seu império foi construído como uma cidade murada, já que a guerra era uma prática comum durante este período. Os Lordes permitiam que os plebeus trabalhassem na terra na forma de agricultura. Suas fazendas consistiam em nove lotes de terra dispostos em nove quadrados pares. Esse arranjo deveria seguir o caractere chinês ou letra & # 8220Jing & # 8221. A parcela do meio deveria ser cultivada para fins de tributação. Muitos dos plebeus viviam em cabanas ou casas feitas de madeira e também existiam em estruturas feitas de tijolo e pedra. Muitas das caixas de armazenamento, paredes e torres nas aldeias também foram construídas com esses materiais.

Estes artigos são escritos pelos editores da The Amazing Bible Timeline
Veja rapidamente 6.000 anos de Bíblia e história mundial juntos

Formato Circular Único - veja mais em menos espaço.
Aprenda fatos que você não pode aprender apenas lendo a Bíblia
Design atraente ideal para sua casa, escritório, igreja e # 8230

Quando os Zhou construíram suas cidades, eles as traçaram em um padrão paralelo que permitiu que nove quarteirões se cruzassem. Dessa forma, eles poderiam controlar o movimento de pessoas e carrinhos dentro da cidade. Isso também foi feito com o propósito de proteção. Como na maioria das cidades, o distrito administrativo estava localizado nas partes centrais da cidade e o palácio do imperador & # 8217 estava situado dentro da cidade, em vez de estar localizado longe da principal área metropolitana. Os Zhou usaram esse método para administrar o império com mais eficácia e para manter a ordem e a civilidade dentro do império. O palácio do imperador & # 8217 foi construído com pedra, tijolo e argamassa. O Zhou continuou a usar as mesmas técnicas e estilos de construção que o Shang, mas mais uma vez eles fizeram algumas mudanças.

As dinastias Shang e Zhou governaram a China durante a Idade do Bronze. Muitas construções da Idade do Bronze na China foram erguidas com ferramentas e equipamentos que permitiram aos trabalhadores construir e fabricar os edifícios com eficácia. Ao longo do período Zhou posterior, quando os Zhou orientais se separaram de suas contrapartes ocidentais, as técnicas e estilos de construção permaneceram inalterados. Muitas das construções de tijolo e pedra que sobreviveram ao período Zhou ainda permanecem na China moderna. Embora a maioria dessas estruturas tenha sobrado da Dinastia Shang, a influência dos Zhou e # 8217 ainda pode ser vista nesses edifícios, templos e palácios.


A Estrutura Governamental do Shang

A Dinastia Shang foi o pico do comércio de escravos entre as três antigas dinastias chinesas. A classe dominante consistia em proprietários de escravos.

O governo também tinha uma estrutura hierárquica rígida com muitos níveis de líderes. Quanto mais próximos estavam do rei, maior seu status, poder e riqueza. Os vassalos podiam governar áreas de terra, mas eram obrigados a pagar tributo ao rei e fornecer tropas em tempos de guerra.

O povo Shang acreditava em sacrifício humano, e muitos escravos foram sacrificados.


Linha do tempo da dinastia Shang - História

A Dinastia Shang foi a primeira dinastia chinesa com registros escritos. Os Shang governaram de cerca de 1600 aC a 1046 aC. Alguns historiadores consideram Shang como a primeira dinastia chinesa. Outros historiadores consideram ser a segunda dinastia, vinda depois da lendária Dinastia Xia.

A tribo Shang cresceu em poder por volta de 1600 AC. Diz a lenda que os Shang foram unidos sob a liderança de Cheng Tang. Cheng Tang derrotou o malvado Rei Jie dos Xia para iniciar a Dinastia Shang.

Os Shang governaram uma área ao redor do Vale do Rio Amarelo por cerca de 500 anos. Eles tiveram muitos governantes e capitais durante esse tempo. O governo tornou-se corrupto sob o governo do Rei Di Xin. Ele foi derrubado por Wu de Zhou e a Dinastia Zhou foi fundada.

Como sabemos sobre o Shang?

Muito do que sabemos sobre os Shang vem de ossos de oráculos. Esses foram os ossos que os Shang usaram para tentar determinar o futuro. Homens religiosos escreviam uma pergunta em um lado do osso e depois queimavam o osso até rachar. Eles então interpretariam as rachaduras das respostas e escreveriam as respostas no outro lado do osso. Os historiadores são capazes de decifrar muito da história dos Shang por meio dessas perguntas e respostas. Milhares de ossos de oráculos foram encontrados por arqueólogos.

Outras informações sobre os Shang vêm de antigos historiadores chineses, como Sima Quian, da Dinastia Han. Algumas inscrições curtas também são encontradas em itens religiosos de bronze dos Shang.

Os Shang foram a primeira dinastia chinesa a inventar a escrita e a ter uma história registrada. Esta escrita antiga é bastante semelhante à escrita chinesa moderna. A escrita permitiu que os Shang tivessem uma sociedade e um governo razoavelmente organizados.

O governo dos Shang era bastante avançado. Eles tinham muitos níveis de líderes, começando pelo rei. A maioria dos oficiais de alto escalão eram parentes próximos do rei. Os senhores da guerra freqüentemente governavam áreas de terra, mas deviam lealdade ao rei e forneciam soldados durante os tempos de guerra. O governo arrecadou impostos do povo e tributos dos aliados vizinhos.

Os Shang também desenvolveram a tecnologia do bronze. Eles não faziam ferramentas normais de bronze, mas usavam o bronze para itens religiosos e armas. Armas de bronze, como lanças, deram aos Shang uma vantagem na guerra contra seus inimigos. Os Shang também usavam carros puxados por cavalos na batalha, dando-lhes uma vantagem adicional.


Conteúdo

A primeira menção escrita de uma “escola” na China aparece nos ossos do oráculo da dinastia Shang (por volta de 1800-1050 a.C.), que constituem os primeiros registros escritos na China e o principal registro histórico daquele período. [1] Usado para adivinhação, as perguntas seriam escritas nos ossos antes de serem colocados no fogo e, em seguida, os resultados impressos nos ossos. Várias dessas adivinhações contêm perguntas sobre a escola: ‘É auspicioso para as crianças irem à escola? Choverá no caminho de casa? '[2] No entanto, os ossos do oráculo contêm pouca informação sobre a função ou propósito das escolas. Na dinastia Zhou, as inscrições de vasos de bronze e o Livro dos Ritos sugerem que os reis Zhou fundaram escolas para jovens aristocratas servirem ao rei. [3] O Livro dos Ritos sugere que a maioria dessas escolas estava localizada perto de lagos e florestas e, portanto, os historiadores inferem que essas escolas focavam principalmente no ensino de artes marciais, especialmente arco e flecha. [2] Do período Zhou em diante, o governo imperial teria uma forte influência no sistema educacional. As tradições desse período foram transmitidas através do Livro dos Ritos, que mais tarde se tornou um dos Cinco Clássicos do Cânon Confucionista. Durante o final do outono e a primavera, essas escolas se tornaram comuns em toda a dinastia Zhou, mas o poder do governo central estava aos poucos cedendo aos senhores da guerra locais.

O Período dos Reinos Combatentes viu o surgimento de várias filosofias influentes, incluindo o confucionismo, o moísmo e o taoísmo. Dessas filosofias, o confucionismo teria o impacto de mais longo prazo na educação estatal e imperial.

O enfraquecimento do império Zhou e a ascensão dos senhores da guerra locais deram início ao Período dos Estados Combatentes. Alguns senhores da guerra locais podem ter fundado academias para consolidar seu poder e ganhar legitimidade. [3] As diferentes escolas eram frequentemente organizadas em entidades políticas para ganhar influência social. Acadêmicos rivais foram convidados aos tribunais. O patrocínio governamental levou ao desenvolvimento das primeiras academias chinesas. A importância da educação e do respeito aos professores foi enfatizada nos Anais de Lü Buwei.

Uma instituição educacional que existia durante este período era a Academia Jixia. A atmosfera aberta e tolerante nesta academia atraiu estudiosos confucionistas e taoístas de todo o país para debates e estudos. No entanto, a instituição não teve impacto de longo prazo nas instituições chinesas subsequentes. [1]

O imperador Wu de Han favoreceu o confucionismo e fez dele a doutrina educacional nacional. Em 124 AC, As origens do statecraft na China foi criada para se tornar funcionário público do estado, que ensinava os Cinco Clássicos do Confucionismo. A atitude tradicional chinesa em relação à educação seguia o conselho de Mêncio de que "Aqueles que trabalham com suas mentes governam os outros, aqueles que trabalham com suas forças são governados por outros."

O exame imperial começou em 605, o que exigia que os competidores passassem na nota de corte local antes do exame final na capital. Então a escola particular prevaleceu. White Deer Grotto Academy e Donglin Academy foram seus modelos. Enquanto isso, a escola de arte Pear Garden apareceu no início do século VIII, e em 1178 uma escola militar nacional foi fundada.

A invenção do papel e dos tipos móveis impulsionou enormemente a indústria educacional.

A educação durante a dinastia Qing era dominada por academias provinciais, que não cobravam propinas e davam bolsas para alunos pré-selecionados. Eles se dedicavam à busca de um estudo independente dos clássicos e da literatura, ao invés da preparação para o governo, como era o caso das academias imperiais. Os professores raramente davam lições aos alunos, em vez disso, ofereciam conselhos e criticavam as pesquisas. [5]

A negligência quase total da engenharia, matemática e outras ciências aplicadas pelo estado contribuiu para uma vasta lacuna no poder militar entre a China e os impérios europeus, conforme evidenciado pelos resultados da Primeira e Segunda Guerras do Ópio e da Guerra Sino-Francesa entre outros. Em resposta, os Qing embarcaram em um movimento de auto-fortalecimento, fundando o Tongwen Guan em 1861, que contratou professores estrangeiros para ensinar línguas europeias, matemática, astronomia e química. Depois que Qing foi derrotado pelo Japão durante a primeira Guerra Sino-Japonesa, a Peiyang University (ou Imperial Tientsin University), a primeira universidade moderna na China foi fundada em 1895, cujo sistema de ensino de graduação era totalmente baseado na contraparte nos EUA. Em 1898, foi fundada a Universidade de Pequim, com um currículo baseado no sistema japonês. Em 1905, os exames imperiais foram abolidos. Em 1906, o presidente americano Theodore Roosevelt foi aprovado no Programa de Bolsas de Estudo de Indenização da Boxer, que desviou o excesso de recursos da Boxer Indemnity para o ensino superior na China. A Universidade Tsinghua foi fundada em 1911 por suas disposições.

República da China Editar

O Movimento da Nova Cultura de 1919 foi uma reação contra a ênfase do governo chinês no conhecimento técnico e resultou em um novo entusiasmo pelo conhecimento teórico, mas com foco na filosofia ocidental em vez do confucionismo. A educação foi principalmente descentralizada neste período, uma vez que a China estava politicamente desunida, com senhores da guerra chineses e imperialistas estrangeiros, especialmente japoneses, ocupando partes significativas do território chinês.

A migração interna na China comunista era quase inexistente devido às políticas implementadas pelo governo comunista anterior antes de 1978. Essas políticas urgentes limitaram a quantidade de educação que era limitada aos cidadãos devido à falta de financiamento, especificamente mulheres como mencionado anteriormente, e o tipo de emprego que estava disponível para eles, que na maioria dos casos indicava trabalho em fábrica que só oferecia ambientes de trabalho difíceis com pouca remuneração e para adicionar à negatividade, o salário que os funcionários estavam recebendo não estava nem perto de poder pagar as despesas médicas e muitas das organizações “populares” não ofereciam nenhum tipo de assistência médica para seus funcionários. Apesar das dificuldades enfrentadas pela China, várias universidades foram reconhecidas por manter a excelência acadêmica e educacional durante esse período. As chamadas quatro universidades famosas foram especialmente bem documentadas durante o período de guerra, a saber, a National Central University, a Wuhan University, a Zhejiang University e a National Southwestern Associated University. [6]

Após a derrota do Kuomintang em 1949, o governo recuou para Taiwan. Durante os primeiros 20 anos de governo nacionalista, a escolaridade obrigatória consistia em seis anos de educação primária, que também era a duração do governo japonês. Em 1968, o governo ROC o estendeu para nove anos.

Educação islâmica Editar

Jingtang Jiaoyu foi uma forma de educação islâmica desenvolvida durante a dinastia Ming entre os Hui, centrada em torno das mesquitas. [7] Os Treze Clássicos das línguas Árabe e Persa faziam parte do currículo principal. [8] Nas madrassas, alguma literatura muçulmana chinesa, como o Han Kitab, era usada para fins educacionais. [9] Liu Zhi (estudioso) escreveu textos para ajudar Hui a aprender árabe. [10] Persa foi a principal língua estrangeira islâmica usada pelos muçulmanos chineses, seguido pelo árabe. [11]

Jingtang Jiaoyu foi fundada durante a era de Hu Dengzhou, de 1522 a 1597. Havia 5 livros persas e o Alcorão estava entre os 8 livros árabes que compunham os "Treze Clássicos" (سابقة). [12]

Os estudiosos de escrita árabe muçulmana chinesa Ma Lianyuan 馬 聯 元 1841–1903 foi treinado por Ma Fuchu 馬 复 初 1794–1874 em Yunnan [12] com Ma Lianyuan escrevendo livros sobre a lei 'Umdat al-'Islām (عمدة الإسلام) شىي ش livro de gramática sobre ṣarf ( صرف) chamado Hawā e Ma Fuchu escrevendo um livro de gramática sobre naḥw (نحو) chamado Muttasiq (متسق) e Kāfiya (كافية). Šarḥ al-laṭā'if (شرح اللطائف) de Liu Zhi A Filosofia da Arábia 天 方 性理 (Tianfang Xingli) Tradução árabe por (Muḥammad Nūr al-Ḥaqq ibn Luqmān as-Ṣīnī) (محمد نور الحق إبن لقمان الصيني), o nome árabe de Ma Lianyuan. [13] Nomes islâmicos, du'ā '(دُعَاء), ġusl (غسل), orações e outras cerimônias foram ensinadas no Estudos diversos (Zaxue) 雜 學 enquanto 'āyāt (آيات) do Alcorão foram ensinados no Xatm al-Qur'an (ختم القرآن) (Haiting). [14] Ma Fuchu trouxe um poema árabe Qasidat (Gesuide jizhu 格 随 德 集注) para a China. [15] [16]

Os generais muçulmanos de Hui como Ma Fuxiang, Ma Hongkui e Ma Bufang financiaram escolas ou patrocinaram estudantes no exterior. Imam Hu Songshan e Ma Linyi estiveram envolvidos na reforma da educação islâmica na China.

Funcionários muçulmanos do Kuomintang no governo da República da China apoiaram a Academia de Professores de Chengda, que ajudou a inaugurar uma nova era de educação islâmica na China, promovendo o nacionalismo e a língua chinesa entre os muçulmanos e incorporando-os totalmente aos principais aspectos da sociedade chinesa. [17] O Ministério da Educação forneceu fundos à Federação de Salvação Nacional Islâmica da China para a educação de muçulmanos chineses. [18] [19] O presidente da federação era o general Bai Chongxi (Pai Chung-hsi) e o vice-presidente era Tang Kesan (Tang Ko-san). [20] 40 escolas primárias sino-árabes foram fundadas em Ningxia pelo governador Ma Hongkui. [21]

Imam Wang Jingzhai estudou na Universidade Al-Azhar, no Egito, junto com vários outros estudantes chineses muçulmanos, os primeiros estudantes chineses nos tempos modernos a estudar no Oriente Médio. [22] Wang relembrou sua experiência de ensino em madrassas nas províncias de Henan (Yu), Hebei (Ji) e Shandong (Lu), que ficavam fora do reduto tradicional da educação muçulmana no noroeste da China, e onde as condições de vida eram piores e os alunos tiveram um tempo muito mais difícil do que os alunos do noroeste. [23] Em 1931, a China enviou cinco alunos para estudar em Al-Azhar, no Egito, entre eles Muhammad Ma Jian [24] e eles foram os primeiros chineses a estudar em Al-Azhar. [25] [26] [27] [28] Na Zhong, um descendente de Nasr al-Din (Yunnan) foi outro dos alunos enviados para Al-Azhar em 1931, junto com Zhang Ziren, Ma Jian e Lin Zhongming . [29]

Os muçulmanos Hui das Planícies Centrais (Zhongyuan) diferiam em sua visão da educação das mulheres do que os muçulmanos Hui das províncias do noroeste, com os Hui das províncias das Planícies Centrais, como Henan, tendo uma história de mesquitas femininas e ensino religioso para mulheres, enquanto as mulheres Hui em as províncias do noroeste foram mantidas na casa. No entanto, no noroeste da China, reformadores, como Cai Yuanpei, começaram a trazer a educação feminina na década de 1920. Em Linxia, ​​Gansu, uma escola secular para meninas Hui foi fundada pelo senhor da guerra muçulmano Ma Bufang, a escola foi chamada de Escola Primária de Shuada Suqin Wmen em homenagem a sua esposa Ma Suqin, que também esteve envolvida em sua fundação. [30] Refugiados muçulmanos Hui fugiram das planícies centrais para o noroeste da China após a invasão japonesa da China, onde continuaram a praticar a educação feminina e a construir comunidades femininas nas mesquitas, enquanto a educação feminina não foi adotada pelos muçulmanos Hui do noroeste local e os dois diferentes as comunidades continuaram a diferir nesta prática. [31]

O general Ma Fuxiang doou fundos para promover a educação dos muçulmanos Hui e ajudar a formar uma classe de intelectuais entre os Hui e promover o papel dos Hui no desenvolvimento da força da nação. [32]

Embora a educação religiosa para crianças seja oficialmente proibida por lei na China, o Partido Comunista permite que os muçulmanos Hui violem essa lei e tenham seus filhos educados na religião e freqüentem mesquitas enquanto a lei é aplicada aos uigures. Após a conclusão do ensino médio, a China permite que os alunos Hui que desejam embarcar em estudos religiosos sob a orientação de um Imam. [33] A China não aplica a lei contra crianças que frequentam mesquitas em áreas fora de Xinjiang. [34] [35] Desde a década de 1980, escolas privadas islâmicas (escolas sino-árabes (中 阿 學校)) têm sido apoiadas e permitidas pelo governo chinês entre áreas muçulmanas, apenas excluindo especificamente Xinjiang de permitir essas escolas devido ao sentimento separatista ali. [36] [37] [38] [39]

República Popular da China Editar

Depois de chegar ao poder em 1949, as autoridades comunistas colocaram o sistema educacional sob controle nacional. Eles condenaram o estudo excessivo das ciências humanas e sociais, considerando-as um desperdício e deletérias para a industrialização da China. A Academia Chinesa de Ciências foi criada no ano em que os comunistas chegaram ao poder. A educação foi reformada seguindo o modelo soviético, e pequenos departamentos de engenharia foram amalgamados em institutos politécnicos gigantes, como a Universidade Tsinghua e a Universidade de Tianjin. O ensino tornou-se altamente especializado, com alunos estudando disciplinas como "construção de pontes ferroviárias". [5]

Desde a década de 1990, o modelo soviético foi amplamente abolido na China, com muitas universidades se expandindo ou se fundindo com outras para fornecer uma educação mais abrangente em paralelo com o treinamento técnico especializado. [40] [41]

A educação moral comunista versus a educação profissional informal era outra luta em si mesma. Devido a esse controle comunista, a educação continuada do governo não era uma opção para a maioria. Isso também inclui mulheres. "A maioria das moças de fábrica acreditava que eram tão mal educadas que assistir a um curso não ajudaria." [42] Com isso dito, muitos ainda decidiram fazer a escola noturna junto com o trabalho nas fábricas para se ajudarem melhor. Eventualmente, começou a se tornar mais comum entre os trabalhadores começar a mudar os horários de trabalho entre si para ajudar a fazer o tempo extra necessário para a educação. No entanto, criar o tempo pessoal necessário para esse sucesso independente não foi fácil. "O estado pós-socialista controlou ainda mais a auto-organização dos trabalhadores e, conseqüentemente, os salários para facilitar as exportações de baixo custo." [43] Os trabalhadores migrantes também foram muito importantes para esta operação, representando mais de 75%.


​CMS Curriculum Companion

Os alunos analisam as estruturas geográficas, políticas, econômicas, sociais e religiosas das civilizações da China Antiga.

Um mapa antigo da Ásia. Foi criado em 1680. Relevo mostrado pictoricamente. Mapas inseridos: Kamchadka para a Coreia para a Indochina Pequim, da China para o Mar Amarelo. Escala não fornecida.

O Festival Qing Ming (também conhecido como Festival do Brilho Puro ou Dia da Varrição da Tumba) ocorre no dia 4 ou 5 de abril do calendário solar. Paus de Joss [incenso] são colocados perto da sepultura e acesos e uma oferta de comida e papel-moeda é colocada no túmulo. Papel-moeda é queimado enquanto os membros da família mostram seu respeito fazendo uma reverência aos antepassados.

Além de visitar cemitérios, as pessoas também fazem caminhadas no campo, plantam salgueiros e empinam pipas no Dia da Varrição do Túmulo. Aqueles que não podem viajar de volta aos túmulos de seus ancestrais podem optar por prestar seus respeitos nos parques dos mártires para homenagear os mártires revolucionários.

Um mapa antigo da Ásia. Foi criado em 1680. Relevo mostrado pictoricamente. Mapas inseridos: Kamchadka para a Coreia para a Indochina Pequim, da China para o Mar Amarelo. Escala não fornecida.

PERGUNTAS ESSENCIAIS

Descreva a geografia da China e diga como a geografia influenciou o modo como as pessoas viviam na China antiga.

O que os significados de alguns caracteres na língua chinesa podem nos dizer sobre os papéis de gênero na antiga sociedade chinesa?

Descreva as características da arte produzida durante a dinastia Shang.

Identifique alguns elementos importantes da religião Shang e explique como a religião na época da dinastia Shang era diferente das religiões de hoje, como o judaísmo, o cristianismo e o islamismo.

O que é uma dinastia e por que a ideia de um “ciclo dinástico” é importante entender quando você está estudando as antigas dinastias chinesas?

Que tipo de “mensagem” Confúcio estava tentando enviar?

Você gostaria que os Estados Unidos adotassem o legalismo? Por que ou por que não?

A construção da Grande Muralha da China foi uma decisão boa ou ruim para a China? Apoie sua resposta com detalhes.

Compare e contraste o taoísmo com as idéias do confucionismo.

Descreva as condições de viagem ao longo da Rota da Seda.

Como a Rota da Seda impactou a China e que efeito isso teve no resto do mundo?

Quais das invenções chinesas da dinastia Han e do tempo de outras dinastias chinesas você acha que foram as mais importantes?

Qual foi a maior conquista da Dinastia Sui?

Descreva a contribuição cultural mais importante da Dinastia Tang.

Descreva a prática cultural pela qual a Dinastia Sung é mais conhecida.

Por que os mongóis tiveram tanto sucesso em estabelecer um império?

Que tipo de pressão acabou levando ao fim da última dinastia chinesa?

"Escolha um emprego que você ame e nunca terá que trabalhar um dia em sua vida."

"Eu ouço e esqueço. Eu vejo e lembro. Eu faço e entendo."

Confúcio passou a maior parte de sua vida viajando pela China, ensinando sobre a importância do dever, do ritual e da virtude. Ele ensinou que um governante deve dar o exemplo para inspirar as pessoas a se empenharem por uma vida moral. Anos depois de sua morte, os alunos reuniram seus ensinamentos em um livro, os Analectos, e uma nova escola de pensamento se desenvolveu - o confucionismo. Essa filosofia influenciou profundamente a China ao longo da maior parte de sua história.

VOCABULÁRIO

Doaism: religião que ensina as pessoas a desistir dos desejos terrenos em favor da natureza.

Shi Huangdi: primeiro imperador da China.

Rota da Seda: rota comercial de 4.000 milhas entre a China e a Europa. Classe social: três níveis de sociedade - camponeses, nobres, rei

pictogramas: caracteres que representam objetos na escrita.

dinastia: linha de governantes que pertencem à mesma família.

Legalismo: obedecer aos governantes por medo.

Oracle Bones: usado para prever esse futuro na dinastia Shang.

Confucionismo: filosofia que ensina responsabilidade e comportamento moral.

Piedade filial: os filhos devem respeitar seus pais

North China Plain: fertile land for farming. Where China started. accupuncture: method of relieving the pain by sticking tiny needles in the skin.

Great Wall of China: built for defensive purposes.

Ancient China is 20 percent larger than the United States.

It is one of the world's oldest continuous civilization.

It is also home to the largest population on Earth.

The first calendar, ice cream, kites, soccer, mechanical clock, paper, the compass, explosive powder, fireworks, silk, porcelain, printing, the wheel and toilet paper all had their start in China.

There are Twelve animals in the Chinese Zodiac.

A full Zodiac is 12 years.

When you write your name in Chinese you always begin with your family's name then your first name.

The Chinese dragon is not evil, it is a symbol of prosperity, wisdom and power.

The color red symbolizes happiness in China.

Using Primary Sources Inventions and Technology of the Ancient Chinese by Kathy Simpson, Carlisle, Massachusetts


Shang Dynasty (China 1600 BC - 1046 BC)

TÓPICOS CHAVE
The Shang ruled from around 1600 BC to 1046 BC. Some historians consider the Shang to be the first Chinese Dynasty. [1] Shang dynasty, also known as the Yin dynasty, ruled a part of China during the Bronze Age for around 550 years from probably 1600 BC to 1046 BC. The Shang Dynasty Timeline Timeline Description: From about 1766 BC to about 1046 BC, the Shang Dynasty was a stronghold of Chinese power, innovation, and culture. [1] According to the ancient Chinese scholar Liu Xin (c. 50 BC - AD 23), the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC but Bamboo Annals, a chronicle of ancient China, dates its reign from 1558 to 1046 BC. Shang dynasty, also known as the Yin dynasty, ruled a part of China during the Bronze Age for around 550 years from probably 1600 BC to 1046 BC. Documented history begins with the Shang dynasty, founded about 1600 BC. China has long been the most populous country in the world. [1] According to the ancient Chinese scholar Liu Xin (c. 50 BC - AD 23), the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC but Bamboo Annals, a chronicle of ancient China, dates its reign from 1558 to 1046 BC. According to the Chinese traditional sources Shang Dynasty was the second Chinese ruling dynasty founded by Tang who overthrown Jie, the last ruler of the Xia Dynasty about 1600 BC and established himself as king. [1]

The Shang dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 1600 BC and continued until 1046 BC. It was preceded by the Xia dynasty and was followed by the Zhou dynasty. [1] This week in part two of our dynasty overview, we examine the Shang Dynasty 1600 BC to 1046 BC. Chinese characters make their appearance for the first time. [1] According to the project the reign of the Shang dynasty lasted from around 1600 to 1046 BC. Although the Zhou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the Ji (Chinese: 姬) family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as the Western Zhou. [1] Shang dynasty, also known as the Yin dynasty, ruled a part of China during the Bronze Age for around 550 years from probably 1600 BC to 1046 BC. The written history of China can be found as early as the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600 - 1046 BC) although ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian (ca. 100 BC) and Bamboo Annals say that a Xia Dynasty existed before the Shang. [1] Shang dynasty, also known as the Yin dynasty, ruled a part of China during the Bronze Age for around 550 years from probably 1600 BC to 1046 BC. A bronze fragment found at the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600- c. 1050 BC) site at Anyang (or Yinxu ) contains the first known written reference to silk. [1] Shang dynasty, also known as the Yin dynasty, ruled a part of China during the Bronze Age for around 550 years from probably 1600 BC to 1046 BC. It was founded by Tang of Shang who overthrew the last ruler of the preceding Xia dynasty. [1] Shang dynasty, also known as the Yin dynasty, ruled a part of China during the Bronze Age for around 550 years from probably 1600 BC to 1046 BC. There is no evidence that can prove that there was some dynasty before 1600 BC. There were found some archaeological excavations from 1500 BC which may come from the Xia dynasty. [1] Shang dynasty, also known as the Yin dynasty, ruled a part of China during the Bronze Age for around 550 years from probably 1600 BC to 1046 BC. Sanxingdui is believed to have once been a huge city in southern China during the Shang Dynasty between 1600 BC and 1046 BC, and may have had its own emperor. [1]

KEY TOPICS " alt"Shang Dynasty 1600 BC - 1046 BC The Shang and Zhou Dynasties have helped China become a powerful and prosperous civilization. [1] The Shang Dynasty was a period of time in China that began in 1600 BC and lasted to 1046 BC. The Shang Dynasty is known for its technological advancement and sophisticated craftsmanship in bronze and ceramic. [1] Bronze ox-shaped Zun wine vessel, Shang Dynasty (between 1600 BC and 1046 BC) China. [1]

The Jue and Gu are both Chinese bronze ceremonial wine cups from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600 BC- 1046 BC). [1] According to the project the reign of the Shang dynasty lasted from around 1600 to 1046 BC. Much of Chinese culture, literature and philosophy further developed during the Zhou Dynasty (1045 - 256 BC). [1] The earliest traditional Chinese dynasty for which there is both archeological and written evidence is the Shang dynasty (1600 to 1046 BC). [1] It was Chinese astronomers who first spotted Halley's Comet, in 240 BC. The Shang Dynasty succeeded the Xia around 1600 lasting until 1046 B.C. and also centering itself on the Yellow River valley. [1] It is known that early Shang Dynasty (c. 1600 BC - 1046 B.C. ) thought was based on cyclicity, from observation of the cycles of day and night, the seasons, the moon, etc., a concept which remained relevant throughout later Chinese philosophy, and immediately setting it apart from the more linear Western approach. [1]

Some scholarsincluding the XiaShangZhou Chronology Projectidentify it with as to have been the first Capital of the (emerging) Shang Dynasty (1766 BC - 1121 BC or alternatively 1600 BC - 1046 BC), which is known to have been named Western Bo (, Xb) and which was traditionally credited to King Tang after his defeat of the Xia Dynasty. [1] Shang dynasty, also known as the Yin dynasty, ruled a part of China during the Bronze Age for around 550 years from probably 1600 BC to 1046 BC. Ancient China: Wine Jug (Jia), Shang Dynasty, 1600 -1027 BC, Tripod vessel in bronze. [1] The Shang dynasty ruled a part of China, probably from around 1600 BC to 1046 BC, with its empire being centered in North China Plain. [1] According to the chronology based upon calculations by Liu Xin, the Shang ruled between 1766 BC and 1122 BC, however according to the chronology based upon the Bamboo Annals, it is between 1556 BC and 1046 BC. The results of the Xia Shang Zhou Chronology Project places them between 1600 BC and 1046 BC. According to historical tradition the Shang Dynasty followed the (possibly mythical) Xia Dynasty and preceded the Zhou Dynasty. [1] According to the project the reign of the Shang dynasty lasted from around 1600 to 1046 BC. The founding of Yanshi city marked the fall of the Xia Dynasty (2100 - 1600 BC) and the start of the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BC). [1] The Shang dynasty lasted from 1600 BC until 1046 BC. It started when Tang took control from the last Xai emperor, Jie. [1]

KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS The Zhou, a people from the northeast, defeated the Shang in the battle of Muye and established a new dynasty in 1046 BC. Zhou religion is the basis of Chinese Native Religion, so the downfall of the Shang is the subject of much popular literature, including Investiture of the Gods. [1] CHINA - Shang Dynasty(1600 BC 1046 BC Zhou Dynasty(1200 BC. Wang states that many lacquerware items from the Shang Dynasty (c.1600- c.1050 BC), such as fragments of boxes and basins, were found, and had black designs such as the Chinese dragon and taotie over a red background. [1] According to the ancient Chinese scholar Liu Xin (c. 50 BC - AD 23), the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC but Bamboo Annals, a chronicle of ancient China, dates its reign from 1558 to 1046 BC. The skill of produce bronze was mastered by ancient Chinese by 1700 B.C. The Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 B.C.) and Zhou dynasties (1046-256 BC) brought China into the Bronze Age and the making of bronze wares reached its peak in this period. [1] The written history of China can be found as early as the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600 - 1046 BC) although ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian (ca. 100 BC) and Bamboo Annals say that a Xia Dynasty existed before the Shang. [1] According to the project the reign of the Shang dynasty lasted from around 1600 to 1046 BC. There are written records of the history of China which date from 1500 BC in the Shang dynasty (c. 1600-1046 BC). [1]

CHINA - Shang Dynasty(1600 BC 1046 BC Zhou Dynasty(1200 BC. Early in the 16th century BC during the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC-1046 BC), the ancient prototypes of porcelain had already appeared in China. [1] The Bronze Age dates back from the 21st century BC to the 5th century BC, from which Chinese civilization starts, and it ranged from the Xia Dynasty (2070 BC-1600 BC) to the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC-1046 BC) and to the Zhou Dynasty (1046 BC-221 BC). [1] Beginning as far back as 2400 B.C., and especially during the Shang dynasty (1600 B.C. to 1046 B.C.)a thousand years before the Chinese began to use paperoracle bones were commonly used for divinations. [1]

The Shang Dynasty (the earliest dynasty of which there are written records) was founded around 1600 BC (or precisely 1766 BC according to Chinese historians) when the tyrannic King Jie (the 17th King of the Xia) was overthrown by Cheng Tang, who became the first king of the Shang dynasty. [1] According to the Chinese traditional sources Shang Dynasty was the second Chinese ruling dynasty founded by Tang who overthrown Jie, the last ruler of the Xia Dynasty about 1600 BC and established himself as king. [1]

The Shang Dynasty or Yin Dynasty (1600 BC-1046 BC) is the first confirmed historic Chinese dynasty and ruled in the northeastern region of China proper. [1] The Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project dated them from c.1600 to 1046 BC, the Shang dynasty is the earliest dynasty of traditional Chinese history supported by archaeological evidence. [1] According to the project the reign of the Shang dynasty lasted from around 1600 to 1046 BC. In the year 1959 A.D. new and additional Shang Dynasty Era (1766 B.C. - 1121 B.C.) archeological finds are uncovered in Yanshi, a village situated some ways south of the Yellow River near the famous "Ancient Capital" of Luoyang in Henan Province. [1] According to the project the reign of the Shang dynasty lasted from around 1600 to 1046 BC. The winner, in this case, was the Zhou dynasty, which supplanted the Shang dynasty in 1046 BC. It is unclear if the Xia even existed, but for the Zhou it was of utmost importance that people believed they did. [1] According to the project the reign of the Shang dynasty lasted from around 1600 to 1046 BC. Copper-tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before trading in bronze began in the 3rd millennium BC. A Shang Dynasty two-handled bronze gefuding gui (1600-1046 BC). [1] According to the project the reign of the Shang dynasty lasted from around 1600 to 1046 BC. In 1046 BC, a clan from the west overthrew the Shang dynasty and established Zhou dynasty. [1] According to the ancient Chinese scholar Liu Xin (c. 50 BC - AD 23), the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC but Bamboo Annals, a chronicle of ancient China, dates its reign from 1558 to 1046 BC. The Zhou dynasty existed for 790 years, from 1046 BC to 256 BC. The foremost early dynasty was the Qin Dynasty, dating 226 - 201 BC. Under the Qin, kings subdued the parts of the Han Chinese homeland and united them under a central, legalized government. [1] According to the ancient Chinese scholar Liu Xin (c. 50 BC - AD 23), the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC but Bamboo Annals, a chronicle of ancient China, dates its reign from 1558 to 1046 BC. The article "The Shang (ca. 1600-1046 BC) and Zhou dynasty (ca. 1045-256 BC) Shigushan cemetery in Baoji, Shaanxi Province" has been translated into and published in the journal Chinese Cultural Relics. [1]

The Shang, found in 1600 BC, was China's first fully historical dynasty. [1] The Zhou was the longest reigning dynasty and its rule lasted from 1046 to 256 BC. The end of the Xia dynasty in 1600 BC, marked the beginning of the Shang dynasty. [1] Lei was a kind of ritual vessel and wine container in the late Shang Dynasty (1600 BC-1046 BC) and early Zhou Dynasty (1046 BC - 771 BC) in China. [1] Archaeological findings provide evidence for the existence of the Shang dynasty (商), ca. 1600 to 1046 BC, and the archaeological evidence is divided into two sets. [1]

CHINA - Shang Dynasty(1600 BC 1046 BC Zhou Dynasty(1200 BC. There was a rebellion and Tang conquered the Shang in 1600 BC. Jie&aposs own people sided with the Shang. [1] The dynasty ends around 1600 BC with a corrupt king Jie who is ousted by Tang, the head of the Shang people. [1]


Chinese bronze casting and pottery advanced during the Shang dynasty, with bronze typically being used for ritually significant, rather than primarily utilitarian, items. [2] Smith, Howard (1961), "Chinese Religion in the Shang Dynasty", International Review for the History of Religions, 8 (2): 142-150, doi : 10.1163/156852761x00090, JSTOR 3269424. [2] The Shang dynasty is the earliest dynasty of traditional Chinese history supported by archaeological evidence. [2]

The Zhou (Chou) dynasty followed the Shang as China's rulers, arising out of nomads from the west and conquering much of China by 1045 B.C. Even as early as the Shang Dynasty, about 1500 BC, Chinese buildings looked pretty much like this, with curved tile roofs and long rows of pillars. [1] A History of the Shang Dynasty in China, Ruling from 1766 to 1122 B.C. 3,120 words 7 pages Zhou Dynasty (1046 BC - 221 BC) (the spring-autumn period, the warring period, Confucius, Laozi, Zhuangzi, Mengzi, Xunzi.) [1]

The change takes place in 770 BC. This is also when some historians date the end of the Bronze Age in China, although bronze continued to be the primary metal well into the second century AD. Documented history begins with the Shang dynasty, founded about 1600 BC. China has long been the most populous country in the world. [1] The Shang dynasty began in 1600 BC and lasted until 1050 BC. During those 600 years, almost 30 kings ruled China. [1]

King Zhou, Shang Dynasty (? - 1046 BC), setting fire to his palace and leaping into the flames upon the overthrow of his reign. [1] In 1046 BC, the Zhou force, led by King Wu of Zhou, overthrew the last king of the Shang Dynasty. [1] In 1046 BC, the Duke of Zhou "had enough of this shit" he gathered an army of Chinamans, nerds, pirates, paraplegics, African-Americans, and disgruntled ex- Disneyland employees to fight the Shang Dynasty. [1]

At the Battle of Muye (1046 BC) which saw the Shang toppled by the Zhou, China’s longest lasting dynasty, it was the latter’s chariots that managed to stay in formation, whilst the numerically superior Shang were disorganised and consequently defeated. [1]

Ruling from 1046 BC to 256 BC, it is notable as the longest dynasty in Chinese history, although the actual political and military control of China by the dynasty only lasted during the Western Zhou. [1] It lasted from 1600 BC to 1046 BC. The dynasty was at a time we would also call the Bronze Age. [1] KEY TOPICS He also cited several ancient Chinese classics, in one passage quoting the historian Sima Qian description of the topography of the Xia Empire, traditionally considered the dynasty of the founders of China, dating from 2070 to 1600 BC. To the north the stream is divided and becomes nine rivers, writes Sima Qian in his first-century historiography, "Records of the Great Historian." [1] KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS CHINA - Shang Dynasty(1600 BC 1046 BC Zhou Dynasty(1200 BC. The key dynasties in ancient China were the Xia 2070-1600, Shang 1523-1028, Zhou 1046-221, Qin 221-207 and the Han in 206 B.C. to 220 A.D. Each of these ancient Chinese dynasties had their own systems of taxation and tithing which helped China to prosper at different periods within its history. [1] Qi, Tang and Jifa were the founders of the Xia (2070 BC-1600 BC), the Shang (1600 BC-1046 BC) and the Zhou (1046 BC-221 BC) dynasties respectively. [1] During the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC-1046 BC) to the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (1050 BC-256 BC), China went into a flourishing period for steel smelting. [1] The Xia ruled from around 2070 BC to 1600 BC when the Shang Dynasty took control. [1] In about 1600 BC, people overthrew the last tyrant of Xia dynasty and established Shang dynasty. [1] Bo was radiocarbon dated to 1600 BC. This date is considere d to be the founding of the Shang dynasty. [1]

A History of the Shang Dynasty in China, Ruling from 1766 to 1122 B.C. 3,120 words 7 pages According to legend, the Shang Dynasty was founded sometime around 1600 BCE by a virtuous man named Cheng Tang, who overthrew the evil king of the legendary Xia. [1] A History of the Shang Dynasty in China, Ruling from 1766 to 1122 B.C. 3,120 words 7 pages Shang Dynasty emperor Cheng Tang some Chinese historians stated his reign began in 1747 B.C. There are others who believe his reign began in 1675 B.C. Chinese emperor Cheng Tang (or: Da Yi) was recorded having a seven year famine verifying Joseph’s seven year famine in Genesis chapter 41. [1] Qin dynasty - The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BCE. The strength of the Qin state was increased by the Legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the fourth century BC. It is also the shortest dynasty in Chinese history, lasting only 15 years with two emperors, Qin administration was by no means purely punitive, and was not harsher than was generally prevalent at the time. [1] Bronze Large Covered Ritual Wine Container (Fangyi), Chinese, late Shang or early Western Zhou period, century BC, Harvard Art Museums/Arthur M. King Cheng Tang of Shang (simplified Chinese: 汤 traditional Chinese: 湯 pinyin: Tāng, ancestral name is Zi (子), given name is 履) (ca. 1675 BC-1646 BC) was the first ruling king of the Shang dynasty in Chinese history. [1] Belt hook Period: Eastern Zhou dynasty, Warring States period B. The first universally accepted true Chinese dynasty was the Bronze Age Shang Dynasty, 1766-1050 BC. According to old Chinese legend, tea was first discovered by Shennong, Chinese Father of Agriculture, around 2,737 BC. In the Tang Dynasty (618-907) tea became a popular drink enjoyed by all social classes. [1] The first universally accepted true Chinese dynasty was the Bronze Age Shang Dynasty, 1766-1050 BC. Acupuncture : Acupuncture, the traditional Chinese medicinal practice of inserting needles into specific points of the body for therapeutic purposes and relieving pain, was first mentioned in the Huangdi Neijing compiled from the 3rd to 2nd centuries BC ( Warring States period to Han Dynasty). [1] The first universally accepted true Chinese dynasty was the Bronze Age Shang Dynasty, 1766-1050 BC. From 434 BC to around 403 BC the various independent states of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty sat tight and consolidated their resources. [1] The first universally accepted true Chinese dynasty was the Bronze Age Shang Dynasty, 1766-1050 BC. According to old Chinese legend, tea was first discovered by Shennong, Chinese Father of Agriculture, around 2,737 BC. In the Tang Dynasty (618-907) tea became a popular drink enjoyed by all social classes. [1]

Shang Dynasty The Shang dynasty (Chinese: 商朝 pinyin: Shāng cháo) or Yin dynasty (殷代 Yīn dài), according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty. [1]

In 1046 BC, a clan from the west overthrew the Shang dynasty and established Zhou dynasty. [1] King Wu of Zhou tribe joined hands with neighboring dukes and destroyed Shang’s forces at the Battle of Muye in c. 1046 BC, leading to the end of Shang and the beginning of Zhou dynasty. [1] A rare small grey and black jade figure of a recumbent buffalo, Shang dynasty to Western Zhou dynasty, ca. Zhou Dynasty (1046 BC - 221 BC) (the spring-autumn period, the warring period, Confucius, Laozi, Zhuangzi, Mengzi, Xunzi.) [1] Shang Dynasty Military The Shang Dynasty (1600 BC -1046 BC) is said to have amassed a thousand chariots to overthrow the Xia, this is certainly a greatly exaggerated figure. [1] Study shows that beer with an alcoholic content of 4% to 5% was widely consumed in ancient China and was even mentioned on oracle bone inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC-1046 BC). [1] The findings at Anyang include the earliest written record of Chinese past so far discovered: inscriptions of divination records in ancient Chinese writing on the bones or shells of animals -- the so-called " oracle bones ", dating from around 1500 BC. Written records of the history of China date from as early as 1500 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600-1046 BC). [1] Turtle shells with writing like ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty ( Chinese : 商朝 ) have been carbon dated to about 1500 BC. They say that China began as city-states in the Yellow River valley. [1] This literary unit has been important to the historical unity of the Chinese people since the Shang dynasty (1766 1027 BC) the invention of Chinese writing system is attributed to Fu-Shi, a legendary emperor who lived 5 millennia ago. [1] How do you write a history of three thousand years of Chinese literature in a concise and insightful way accessible to people from all walks of life? The answer to this near impossible challenge is Sabina Knight's beautifully written little book in which she describes, in 120 pocket-size pages, the development of Chinese writing from Shang dynasty (1600-1046 b.c. ) oracle bones to the present time. [1] To be completely exact, that is Chinese terms, it is said that King Yu of the Xia Dynasty (21 Century B.C. - 17th Century B.C.) had a "Nine Ding", a ceremonial cauldron made which was an amazing bronze item that came into the possesion of the Shang Dynasty Royal House upon their take over of the Xia Capital. [1] The rule of the Xia Dynasty ended with a rebellion led by Tang of Shang Dynasty who replaced the Xia Dynasty as Chinese ruling dynasty in the 16th century BC. These amazing figures appear to be individual portraits, and they show the grooming and appearance of Chinese military men of the 3rd century BC. In the Shang Dynasty, such men had themselves been buried with the kings. [1]

Early in the 16th century BC during the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC-1046 BC), the ancient prototypes of porcelain had already appeared in China. [1]

Shang dynasty, also known as the Yin dynasty, ruled a part of China during the Bronze Age for around 550 years from probably 1600 BC to 1046 BC. [3] The Shang Dynasty Timeline Timeline Description: From about 1766 BC to about 1046 BC, the Shang Dynasty was a stronghold of Chinese power, innovation, and culture. [4]

The Shang Dynasty (1600� BC) was the second of the three ancient Chinese dynasties, preceded by the Xia Dynasty and succeeded by the Zhou Dynasty. [1] Turtle shells with markings reminiscent of ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty have been carbon dated to around 1500 BC. Chinese civilization originated with city-states in the Yellow River valley. [1] The ancient Chinese war chariot was used for attack and pursuit, plus mobile command from about 1200 BC (the Shang Dynasty). [1]

Bronze Large Covered Ritual Wine Container (Fangyi), Chinese, late Shang or early Western Zhou period, century BC, Harvard Art Museums/Arthur M. Other information about the Shang comes from Ancient Chinese historians such as Sima Quian from the Han Dynasty. [1] The early Chinese Civilization included the Xia Dynasty which remained from around 2100 BC until 1600 BC, and is described in the ancient Records of the Grand Historians, from which pottery and shells have been excavated that belonged to this period. [1] The Xia dynasty (2070 to 1600 BC) is the first dynasty to be described in ancient Chinese historical records such as the Bamboo Annals, first published more than a millennium later during the Western Zhou period. [1] The Xia dynasty lasted from 2070 BC until 1600 BC. It was the first ruling dynasty in Chinese history. [1] Archeological evidence states that many cultures flourished in the region during the Neolithic and the bronze age however, the Xia dynasty, which existed from 2070 to 1600 BC is the first dynasty to have been mentioned in certain ancient Chinese historical records. [1]

The first Chinese civilization was the Shang Dynasty, which rose along the banks of the Huang He River around 1750 B.C. The Shang were exceptionally warlike and engaged in near constant battles with the nomads to the north and west. [1] A SMALL CHINESE ARCHAIC BRONZE TRIPOD WINE VESSEL, JUE, LATE SHANG DYNASTY (12TH 11TH CENTURY BC), together with a small bronze tripod vessel, Han Dynasty or later The jue, the larger, 8in. [1] Two Chinese archaic bronze bells, zhong, Eastern Zhou dynasty B. Zhou (Chou) Dynasty • The Zhou dynasty was the longest-lasting dynasty in Chinese history, from 1066 BC to approx. 256 BC. By the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the Zhou dynasty began to emerge in the Yellow River valley, overrunning the territory of the Shang. • There had been a lot of big palaces and shrines. [1]

They made up one of the earliest dynasties in Chinese history (1600 BC - 1046 BC) and are a playable civilization in Age of Empires. [1]

CHINA - Shang Dynasty(1600 BC 1046 BC Zhou Dynasty(1200 BC. Anyway, in 1046 BC, Jiang Ziya and Wu of the Zhou defeated the Shang army at Muye. [1] It lasted around 500 years and was defeated by the Shang around 1600 BC. Eannatum, the Sumerian king of Lagash, established one of the first verifiable empires in history in 2500 BC. The neighboring Elam, in modern Iran, was also part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period. [1] There was a rebellion and Tang conquered the Shang in 1600 BC. Jie&aposs own people sided with the Shang. [1] The Shang tribe grew into power around 1600 BC. Legend has it that the Shang were united under the leadership of Cheng Tang. [1]

In 1046 BC, King Wu took advantage of Shang disunity to launch an attack along with many neighboring dukes. [1] The Shang ruled from 1556 to 1046 BC. More than 20,000 were discovered in the initial scientific excavations during the 1920s and 1930s, and over four times as many have been found since. [1] Anyang in modern day Henan has been confirmed as the last of the six capitals of the Shang (ca. 1300 to 1046 BC). [1]

The earliest archaeological evidence of chariots in China dates to the rule of King Wu Ding of the late Shang dynasty whose reign lasted from approximately 1250 to 1192 BC. China, late Shang dynasty BC), Anyang phase BC) to early Western Zhou dynasty (c. [1] Bronze ritual wine container - Shang dynasty, China - 15th century B.C. Early bells not only have an important role in generating metal sound, but arguably played a prominent cultural role, with the emergence of other kinds of bells during the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600- c. 1050 BC), they were relegated to subservient functions at Shang and Zhou sites, they are also found as part of the horse-and-chariot gear and as collar-bells of dogs. [1] A History of the Shang Dynasty in China, Ruling from 1766 to 1122 B.C. 3,120 words 7 pages As far back as c. 1500 BC, the early Shang dynasty engaged in large-scale production of bronze -ware vessels and weapons. [1] The Ancestral Landscape: Time, Space, and Community in Late Shang China, CA. 1200-1045 B.C. by David N. Keightley (no photo) The earliest evidence suggests the existence of the Pengtoushan culture in northern Hunan province from about 7500 BC to 6100 BC and of the Peiligang culture in Henan province around from about 7000 BC to 5000 BC. People first used cowrie shells for money in China as early as 1800 BC, under the Shang Dynasty. [1] The Ancestral Landscape: Time, Space, and Community in Late Shang China, CA. 1200-1045 B.C. by David N. Keightley (no photo) The Shang Dynasty 商朝 (Shāng Cháo) is also difficult to date and is dated as (

1700 BC to 1045 BC -- 656 years, or

A History of the Shang Dynasty in China, Ruling from 1766 to 1122 B.C. 3,120 words 7 pages The Zhou dynasty (1046-256 BC) were chariot warriors who overthrew the Shang dynasty. [1] Petrified tortoise shell with oracle bone inscriptions, possibly Shang Dynasty, China, c1400 BC. Altered jade flanged ring, Shang dynasty or earlier, China, c1600-1100 BC. In c.1046 BC, the Zhou and Shang armies fought at the Battle of Muye, which resulted in the end of the Shang dynasty and the start of the Zhou. [1] During the latter part of the Shang dynasty (ca. 1,200-1,050 BC), northern China already featured a clearly discernible cultural complex undeniably distinct from that of the Central Plain (Zhongyuan ), This Northern Complex cannot be regarded as a single culture rather different communities shared a similar inventory of bronze objects across a wide area. [1] Inventions which made their first appearance in China after the Neolithic age, specifically during and after the Shang Dynasty ( c. 1600-1050 BC), are listed in alphabetical order below. [1] People first used cowrie shells for money in China as early as 1800 BC, under the Shang Dynasty. [1] Later, before the ambitious Wu Ding (?-1192 BC, the 23rd ruler of the Shang Dynasty) and his later generations had had time to broaden their territory to the surrounding regions, their cultural system of bronzeware had already spread to areas beyond the reach of their power, having a significant influence on the progress of civilization in these places, including those who would eventually become their greatest rival: the people of Zhou. [1]

Chinese Shang dynasty bronze face The Shang believed that their ancestors held power over them and masks. and lead The Shang China's first historical dynasty. [1]

Legge, James (translator) (1865), "The Annals of the Bamboo Books: The Dynasty of Shang", The Chinese Classics, volume 3, part 1, pp.128-141. [2] Chinese historians were accustomed to the notion of one dynasty succeeding another, and readily identified the Erligang and Erlitou sites with the early Shang and Xia dynasty of traditional histories. [2]

Since many historians question whether the Xia Dynasty really existed, the Shang Dynasty may have actually been the first in China and the origin of what has come to be recognized as Chinese culture. [5] By the time of the Zhou and Qin dynasties, Chinese culture was already formed, so if one discounts the Xia Dynasty as a politically motivated fabrication of later historians, one must conclude that the Shang Dynasty is responsible for the foundations of Chinese culture and civilization. [5]

"Since the oracle bones belonging to the Shang dynasty were discovered, it is no longer doubted by sinologists that Chinese writing is an autochthonous and very ancient invention of the Chinese Some southern states, such as Chu and Wu, claimed independence from the Zhou, who undertook wars against some of them (Wu and Yue ). [1] "Since the oracle bones belonging to the Shang dynasty were discovered, it is no longer doubted by sinologists that Chinese writing is an autochthonous and very ancient invention of the Chinese It is generally believed that gunpowder spread to Europe during the Mongol expansion of 1200-1300 A.D. The interesting fact is that Chinese used this discovery mainly for firecrackers while Europeans created cannons and guns and dominated China in the mid-1800s. [1] The beginning of the Shang Dynasty emerged in China in this period, and there was evidence of a fully developed Chinese writing system. [1] The Shang Dynasty establishes the first Chinese state for which clear written records remain, uniting much of north central China. [1] The Shang Dynasty is important because it is the first centralized kingdom in China to levy taxes, build an army that was effective over generations of people and to use the early pictographs that would become the modern characters of Mandarin Chinese. [1]

SHANG DYNASTY THE CHAVIN Major Event of the Shang Dynasty SHANG DYNASTY The Shang Dynasty was founded sometime around 1600 BCE by Cheng Tang, Cheng Tang established the dynasty’s first capital at a town called Shang but later kings moved the capital many more times, the last being a place called Yin. [1] The Shang dynasty was the reputed successor to the quasi-legendary first dynasty, the Xia ( c. 2070- c. 1600 bce ). [6] The Bronze Age Shang Dynasty is the name of an early state society in China, roughly dated between 1700-1050 BC, and, according to the 1st century BC history called the Shi Ji, it began when the first Shang emperor, T'ang, overthrew the last of the Xia (also called Erlitou) dynasty emperors. [1] According to tradition, the last Shang king was overthrown in 1046 BC. The succeeding dynasty was called the Zhou Dynasty. [1] The Zhou dynasty existed for 790 years, from 1046 BC to 256 BC. During the dominance of the semi-legendary Xia Dynasty (around 2100-1700 BC), the ancient Chinese practiced divination and veneration of deceased ancestors. [1] The Chinese discovered and made extensive use of deep drilled groundwater for drinking, the Chinese text The Book of Changes, originally a divination text of the Western Zhou dynasty (1046 -771 BC), contains an entry describing how the ancient Chinese maintained their wells and protected their sources of water. [1]

The recorded history of Chinese civilization began on the banks of the Yellow River with the Xia Dynasty from 2100 to 1600 B.C. According to Sima Qian's "Records of the Grand Historian" and the "Classic of Rites," a number of different tribes originally united into the Xia Kingdom in order to find a solution to devastating floods on the river. [1] The Xia dynasty of China (from c. 2070 to c. 1600 BC) is the first dynasty to be described in ancient historical records such as Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian and Bamboo Annals. [1] According to ancient records, the dynasty ended around 1600 BC as a consequence of the Battle of Mingtiao. [1] It lasted around 500 years, from 2000 BC to 1600 BC. According to legend, a leader named Yu the Great established this dynasty. [1] According to mythology, the dynasty ended around 1600 BC as a result of the Battle of Mingtaio. [1] The Xia Dynasty of China (2100 to 1600 BC) is the first dynasty to have written historical records. [1]

Oracle bones were used in divination and feature inscriptions of the Shang kings dating from the 14th to the 11th centuries BC. The inscriptions on the bone oracles contain important informations about religion in the period of the Shang Dynasty as well as about the form of government, culture, economy, astronomy and medicine. [1] As it has been previously reported in an Ancient Origins article, oracle bones are a type of artifact best known for its association with the Shang Dynasty of ancient China (1600-1046 BC). [1] Although proto-porcelain wares exist dating from the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BC), by the time of the Eastern Han Dynasty period (206 BC - 220 AD), glazed ceramic wares had developed into porcelain. [1]

There were probably a number of early centers of bronze technology, but the area along the Yellow River in present-day Henan Province emerged as the center of the most advanced and literate cultures of the time and became the seat of the political and military power of the Shang dynasty (ca. 1600-1050 B.C.), the earliest archaeologically recorded dynasty in Chinese history. [7] The dynasty's reign was marked by a highly developed social structure, advanced writing, and the use of bronze The Shang dynasty, also known as the Yin dynasty, was the first historic(of which there are artifacts) Chinese dynasty. [1] During the second part of the Shang dynasty, three almost contemporary and intersecting cultures appeared in Gansu, Ningxia, and northern Qinghai, known as Siwa, Xindian, and Kayue (Lijianshan people of Kayue culture morphologically have a general character of primitive Mongoloids, close to modern Evenks, Mongolians, North Chinese, Japanese and Buryats, and they differ from the Neolithic populations of Qinghai). [1] At minimum, the Xia period marked an evolutionary stage between the late Neolithic cultures and the typical Chinese urban civilization of the Shang dynasty. [1] The pre-Classical period is further divided into Oracular Chinese ( Shang dynasty ), Archaic Chinese (Zhou and Qin dynasties ), and Han Chinese (Han dynasty ). [1] The Shang Dynasty was the first Chinese dynasty with written records. [8] Shang dynasty, Wade-Giles romanization Shang, the first recorded Chinese dynasty for which there is both documentary and archaeological evidence. [6] The Chinese Shang dynasty moves its capital to Yin (modern Anyang). [5] "Since the oracle bones belonging to the Shang dynasty were discovered, it is no longer doubted by sinologists that Chinese writing is an autochthonous and very ancient invention of the Chinese Since then, and especially in the 1960s and 1970s, archaeologists have uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs that point to the existence of Xia civilization in the same locations cited in ancient Chinese historical texts. [1] Through the 1960s and 1970s, archaeologists have uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs in the same locations cited in ancient Chinese historical texts regarding Xia at a minimum, the era traditionally denoted as the Xia dynasty marked an evolutionary stage between the late Neolithic cultures and the urban civilization of the Shang dynasty. [1]


In 1046 BC, a powerful Chinese leader from the state of Zhou led a rebellion against King Zhou. [1] Bronze ritual wine container (zun) from the Shang Dynasty, dated 12th to 11th century BC. This creature was meant to be an elephant but the tusks broke off. [9]

The Shang dynasty Houmuwu Ding is the heaviest piece of bronze work found in China so far. [2] As far back as c. 1500BC, the early Shang dynasty engaged in large-scale production of bronze -ware vessels and weapons. [2] Since the Records of Emperors and Kings by Huangfu Mi (3rd century AD), it has often been used specifically to describe the later half of the Shang dynasty. [2] Working from all the available documents, the Han dynasty historian Sima Qian assembled a sequential account of the Shang dynasty as part of his Records of the Grand Historian. [2]


The last Shang king was decisively defeated in the Battle of Muye in 1046 BC and committed a suicide. [1] According to the ancient Chinese scholar Liu Xin (c. 50 BC - AD 23), the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC but Bamboo Annals, a chronicle of ancient China, dates its reign from 1558 to 1046 BC. [3] He became the King Zheng of Qin when he was thirteen, then Chinas first emperor when he was 38 after the Qin had conquered all of the other Warring States and unified all of China in 221 BC. Rather than maintain the title of king borne by the previous Shang and Zhou rulers and his self-invented title emperor, as indicated by his use of the word First, would continue to be borne by Chinese rulers for the next two millennia. [1] Maybe in the future the Xia will be verified, but for now, the Shang are the oldest certain Chinese dynasty The Tang dynasty was founded by Emperor Gaozu on 18 June 618, it was a golden age of Chinese civilization and considered to be the most prosperous period of China with significant developments in culture, art, literature, particularly poetry, and technology. [1] POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL POSSIBLY USEFUL " alt"NEXT Section 4 River Dynasties in China Early rulers introduce ideas about government and society that shape Chinese civilization Shang Rulers a. first dynasty, Huang He valley b. 1,750-1,000bc c. [1] The Shang made many contributions to Chinese civilization, but four in particular define the dynasty: the invention of writing the development of a stratified government the advancement of bronze technology and the use of the chariot and bronze weapons in warfare. [1] The Shang were the first Chinese Dynasty to invent writing and have a recorded history. [1] Before the twentieth century, historians were uncertain if the Shang was a real dynasty, but archaeologists have uncovered their artistic past which not only proves the existence of the Shang, but it also served to explain this early Chinese people. [1]

#Chinese, Late #Shang dynasty, Anyang period, 13th-12th century B.C.E. Late Eastern Zhou Chinese Bronze Round Lid with Inlay Bronze with silver and gold foil inlay, late century BCE. Chinese Inventions: Can You Name Them? Exploring the many inventions that China has contributed to our daily existence, this unit provides an excellent starting point for discussing both the achievements of Chinese civilization and China's influence on the West. [1] Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties has been called bronze dynasty in China's history. [1] The dynasty comes to an end in 1122 BC when the Shang lose a major battle to the Zhou and the last Shang leader Shang Zhou commits suicide. [1] Although this dynasty was the longest in Chinese history, the Ji clan actually maintained control until 771 BC, during the period called Western Zhou. [1] Han Dynasty The Han dynasty (Chinese: 漢朝 pinyin: Hàn cháo) was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC-220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221-206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220-280 AD). [1] Although earlier temporary pontoon bridges had been made in China, the first secure and permanent ones (and linked with iron chains) in China came first during the Qin Dynasty (221 BC-207 BC), the later Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) Chinese statesman Cao Cheng once wrote a description of the early pontoon bridges in China. [1] The tradition says that the Xia (1994-1766 BC) were the first Chinese hereditary dynasty, that only disappeared when its last ruler was expelled due to the tyrannical rule that he exerted on his people. [1] It was Chinese astronomers who first spotted Halley's Comet, in 240 BC. Do final da dinastia Han (220 aC) até o início da dinastia Sui, vários períodos aconteceram: Os Três Reinos e a dinastia Jin Ocidental e a Dinastia Jin Oriental, os Dezesseis Reinos e as Dinastias do Norte e Dinastias do Sul. [1] Although built in several stages, the first stage was built by instructions from Qin Shi Huangdi, also Shi Huangdi, or Ts'in She Huang-Ti (259-210 BC), the first Chinese emperor and founder of the Ch'in dynasty. [1]

Yayoi Culture (ca. Fourth Century B.C. -Third Century A.D.) " alt"NEXT Section 4 River Dynasties in China Early rulers introduce ideas about government and society that shape Chinese civilization The king often performed oracle bone divinations himself, especially near the end of the dynasty. [1] Lista 3.2.1 Cloze Passage Vocabulary: invasores, ancestrais, construção, imperador, Grande Muralha, classes, embaixador, senhorios, legalismo, Confúcio, dinastia, filósofo Uma série de ___________ governou a China de 1600 a.C. a 220 DC. [1]

Segundo consta, Tai Wu governou por 75 anos, de 1450 a 1375 aC, tornando-se o mais antigo imperador da dinastia Shang. [3] Informações diretas sobre a Dinastia Shang vêm de inscrições Shang em artefatos de bronze, mas principalmente de ossos de oráculos - cascos de tartaruga, escápulas de gado ou outros ossos nos quais foi escrito o primeiro corpus significativo de caracteres chineses registrados. [10] Embora muitos historiadores acreditem que a dinastia Xia seja a primeira dinastia na história tradicional chinesa, a dinastia Shang é a primeira dinastia chinesa registrada para a qual há evidências documentais e arqueológicas. [3] A Dinastia Shang (chinês: 商朝) ou Dinastia Yin (殷代) foi, de acordo com fontes tradicionais, a segunda dinastia chinesa, após a Dinastia Xia. [10] A Dinastia Shang trouxe avanços culturais para o povo chinês, mas seu fracasso em governar com sabedoria eventualmente trouxe sua própria destruição. [4]

Embora a era Shang tenha sido mencionada na literatura chinesa antiga, evidências concretas da existência da dinastia foram fornecidas por achados arqueológicos no final do século 19 e no século 20. [1]

FONTES SELECIONADAS RANKED(26 documentos de origem organizados por frequência de ocorrência no relatório acima)


Assista o vídeo: A História da China Parte 1 (Dezembro 2021).