Notícia

Anúncio 1910-1911 - História

Anúncio 1910-1911 - História

História Mundial 1910-1911 DC

Revolução em Portugal, Revolução em Portugal, União da África do Sul N.A.A.C.P., Guerra Tripolitana, Revolução na China Central, Canhoneira Alemã em Agadir, Standard Oil Broken, Triangle Fire, First Landing on Ship, First Coast-to-Coast US,

1910 Revolução em Portugal - (10/5/10) Após o assassinato de um importante líder republicano, eclodiu uma revolta contra a monarquia. A revolta foi liderada pelo Exército e pela Marinha. O rei Manuel II foi forçado a fugir de Portugal para a Inglaterra. A República foi declarada e Teófilo Braga, um notável autor, foi nomeado presidente interino.
1910 Japão anexa Coreia - (22/08/10) Em 22 de agosto, o Japão anexou oficialmente a Coreia. Ela rebatizou o país como Cho-sen. O Japão continuou a ocupar a Coréia até o final da Segunda Guerra Mundial.
1910 Fundação da União da África do Sul - (31/05/10) Em 31 de maio, foi criada a União da África do Sul. A união era entre o Transvaal, o Estado Livre de Orange, a Colônia do Cabo e Natal. Nas primeiras eleições realizadas, o Partido Sul-Africano, liderado por Louis Botha, derrotou o Partido Unionista.
1910 N.A.A.C.P. Fundada - (5/1/10) A Associação Nacional para o Avanço das Pessoas de Cor foi fundada em Nova York, em novembro. O N.A.A.C.P. publicou a revista chamada "The Crisis", cujo primeiro editor foi W.E.B. Dubois. A organização esteve na vanguarda de todas as tentativas dos negros para alcançar a igualdade.

1911

1911 Guerra Tripolitana - (28/09/11) Os italianos declararam guerra à Turquia em setembro. Os italianos estavam interessados ​​em anexar a Líbia, única terra disponível no Norte da África. Todas as potências europeias se opuseram à ação, mas nenhuma estava suficientemente motivada para agir. Os italianos esperavam que a guerra fosse breve, mas levou mais de um ano para conquistar a vitória contra uma forte oposição.
1911 Revolução na China Central - (10/10/11) Em 10 de outubro, eclodiu uma revolução contra o governo Manchu. O governo estava em tal desordem e o poder central era tão limitado que não demorou muito para entrar em colapso total. No final do ano, o Dr. Sun Yat-sen foi eleito presidente da China pela Assembleia Provisória Revolucionária em Yanking.
1911 A canhoneira alemã em Agadir -Morocco continuou a ser uma fonte de crise. Em abril, a França foi forçada a comprometer substancialmente mais forças para assumir o controle da cidade de Fez. Os alemães decidiram desafiar o crescente domínio francês no Marrocos, enviando um caça a um porto fechado, ostensivamente para proteger os direitos dos cidadãos alemães. A intervenção resultou em crise em toda a Europa. As partes envolvidas chegaram a uma espécie de resolução, quando os alemães concordaram em reconhecer os direitos franceses de estabelecer um protetorado no Marrocos - em troca da França ceder à Alemanha uma pequena área no Congo francês.
1911 Standard Oil Broken- (5/15/11) No maior e mais viável caso antitruste da história americana até hoje, a Standard Oil Company de New Jersey foi condenada a se desfazer de suas 37 firmas interligadas. Um recurso para a Suprema Corte foi rejeitado.
1911 Triângulo Fogo -(25/03/11) Cento e quarenta e seis jovens funcionárias da Triangle Shirtwaist Company perderam a vida em um trágico incêndio. O incêndio ressaltou as más condições de trabalho nas fábricas de roupas. Como resultado do incêndio, houve inspeções muito maiores das condições de segurança nas fábricas.
1911 Primeiro desembarque no navio -(18/01/11) Eugene Ely pilotou uma aeronave Curtiss especialmente adaptada para o convés do USS Pennsylvania, quando o navio estava ancorado na Baía de São Francisco. O convés da Pensilvânia foi equipado de forma personalizada com uma pequena plataforma de pouso e uma série de cordas, que foram usadas para parar a aeronave.
1911 Primeiro voo de costa a costa nos Estados Unidos -(11/5/11) No dia 5 de novembro, milhares de pessoas compareceram a Pasadena, na Califórnia, para testemunhar a chegada de Calbraith Rodgers, após um voo de 49 dias pelos Estados Unidos. Rodgers fez 69 paradas ao longo do caminho e foi seguido por um trem especial que transportava peças sobressalentes. Ele fez 16 pousos forçados. A viagem de Rodgers foi patrocinada pela Armor Meat Packing Company para promover "Vin Fiz", um refrigerante. Rodgers recebeu $ 5 para cada milha da Armor, totalizando $ 21.605.


HistoryLink.org

Em 23 de fevereiro de 1921, uma nova confecção chamada Aplets é anunciada em The Seattle Times. Os cunhados Mark Balaban (ca. 1881-1957) e Armen Tertsagian (1881-1953) produzem o doce, que é composto principalmente de maçãs, mel e nozes, usando frutas de sua fazenda Liberty Orchards em Cashmere, um pequeno Cidade do condado de Chelan às margens do rio Wenatchee, no centro-norte de Washington. Comercializados em todo o noroeste do Pacífico usando o slogan "A confecção das fadas", os aplets são um sucesso imediato. Liberty Orchards apresentará Cotlets, um doce semelhante feito de damascos e nozes, alguns anos depois, e Aplets & Cotlets se tornarão e permanecerão um item de presente popular e embaixador saboroso para a indústria de frutas de Washington.

Novos começos, novos negócios

Armen Logofet Tertsagian chegou a Seattle vindo de sua Armênia natal em 1906. Durante seus primeiros anos em Seattle, enquanto construía sua carreira empresarial, Tertsagian morou no centro de Seattle YMCA. Seu primeiro empreendimento comercial foi uma concessionária de tapetes orientais, Armen & Emmanuel, aberta em parceria com J. M. Emmanuel na 1118 Third Avenue.

Mark (Marcar) Sarkis Balaban nasceu na Turquia e veio para Seattle por volta de 1913. Em 1914, Tertsagian e Balaban operavam a Elzem Company, uma empresa de laticínios cujo produto principal era o iogurte, um produto então praticamente desconhecido para a maioria dos consumidores americanos. O negócio acabou falindo. Em 1914, a irmã mais nova de Mark, Elizabeth Balaban (1886-1944), juntou-se ao irmão em Seattle. Elizabeth acabou se casando com Armen Tertsagian, tornando os amigos íntimos cunhados.

Delícias turcas

Aplets e Cotlets estão intimamente relacionados à confecção conhecida como Delícia Turca. A delícia turca também é chamada de locum rahat (algumas fontes dizem "rahat locum" ou usam a grafia "locoum" ou "lokum") e é apreciada há centenas de anos. As receitas tradicionais para a delícia turca envolvem misturar mel ou xarope de açúcar com amido de amido de milho, aromatizantes como suco ou essências florais e, às vezes, nozes. O doce resultante é então cortado em cubos e polvilhado com um agente para evitar que grude, como açúcar em pó.

O livro de 2002 Doces: A História dos Doces diz: "Locum rahat significa 'alívio da garganta' em turco e foi provavelmente inventado por boticários árabes por volta do século IX, como uma espécie de lohoch, uma goma, que derrete lentamente um medicamento prescrito para dores de garganta e outras doenças. . A delícia turca é feita em todo o Oriente Médio, Rússia e Bálcãs, e é extremamente popular na Grécia "(Richardson, 38). Turkish Delight (chamado de "pedaços de prazer") aparece no último romance de Charles Dickens, O mistério de Edwin Drood (1870), e em C. S. Lewis's O Leão, a Feiticeira e o Guarda-Roupa (1950), onde a perversa personagem da Rainha Branca usa o doce para encantar o jovem Edmund Pevensie.

Uma maçã por dia

Em 1915, Balaban e os tertsagianos compraram um pomar de maçãs no vale de Cashmere, localizado ao longo do rio Wenatchee no condado de Chelan, batizando seu novo empreendimento de pomares de liberdade. Para utilizar o excedente de frutas, Balaban e Tertsagian iniciaram um empreendimento de desidratação de frutas que chamaram de evaporação do noroeste. A desidratação forneceu uma saída para o excesso de frutas do Liberty Orchards e também para os de outros agricultores da área. Frutas desidratadas podiam ser facilmente enviadas, inclusive para o exterior, onde ajudaram a alimentar americanos que lutaram na Primeira Guerra Mundial. Balaban e Tertsagian mais tarde operaram uma fábrica de conservas, que se tornou seu principal negócio durante as décadas de 1930 e 1940.

Por volta de 1920, Balaban e Tertsagian tiveram a ideia de usar o excesso de maçãs para fazer Locum rahat, um doce que tanto gostava quando crianças e que não era amplamente produzido comercialmente nos Estados Unidos. Usando suas próprias cozinhas domésticas, os parceiros desenvolveram uma receita feita de maçãs e nozes e começaram a comercializá-la em todo o Noroeste do Pacífico sob a marca registrada Aplets. Em 23 de fevereiro de 1921, um anúncio em The Seattle Times para a rede de supermercados Augustine & Kyer, que também oferecia "salmão enlatado", "queijo de Nova York", "macarrão com leite" e "brownies de café da manhã", elogiava os Aplets como "Uma nova confecção, feita em Cashmere, com as melhores maçãs de Washington e mel e nozes "(anúncio gráfico). Vários anos depois, Liberty Orchards desenvolveu Cotlets, feito de damascos e nozes.

As primeiras caixas de aplets apresentavam uma ilustração em aquarela representando fadas com asas delicadas e vestidas de branco carregando retângulos de balas polvilhadas com açúcar para uma garota loira que esperava ansiosamente, aninhada entre flores. Desde o início, Washington - onde as maçãs, um importante produto de exportação, já eram sinônimo de estado - foi incluído no discurso de vendas do doce. Uma caixa de aplets de meia libra proclamava com orgulho: "Fabricado no país de pomar de maçã escolhido pela natureza - o famoso Vale Wenatchee - estado de Washington." Aplets e Cotlets se tornaram um item de presente popular.

Confecções Continuadas

O racionamento de açúcar durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial reduziu muito a capacidade de Liberty Orchards de produzir Aplets e Cotlets, e os doces eram fabricados esporadicamente. Depois da guerra, Tertsagian e Balaban venderam a fábrica de conservas e se concentraram nos confeitos. Aplets e Cotlets foram comercializados nacionalmente e apresentados tanto na Feira Mundial de Seattle / Century 21 Exposition de 1962 quanto na Spokane's Expo '74, onde foram homenageados como os doces oficiais da feira.

Liberty Orchards expandiu a linha ao longo do tempo, adicionando muitos novos sabores de frutas. A empresa continuou sendo propriedade de uma família em 2016, quando seu site informou que o tour pela fábrica de cozinhas de doces Liberty Orchards em Cashmere recebia 80.000 visitantes a cada ano. Aplets e Cotlets são populares em Washington e continuam sendo um embaixador saboroso do estado.

Para ver o currículo de História da Alimentação, Terra e Pessoas do Nosso Estado, clique aqui

Caixa de aplets de Liberty Orchard, ca. 1925

Foto HistoryLink.org por Paula Becker

Fundadores do Liberty Orchards (Aplets e Cotlets), Mark Balaban e Armen Tertsagian, Cashmere, 1920

Cortesia Liberty Orchards

Aplets fairies (promoção para Aplets, originalmente conhecida como The Confection of the Fairies), em pomar, Cashmere, 1920

Cortesia de Liberty Orchards

Sala de embalagem da fábrica de aplets e cotlets, Cashmere, 1920

Cortesia de Liberty Orchards

Ezra Meeker (1830-1928) na fábrica dos Aplets, Cashmere, anos 1920


Anúncio 1910-1911 - História


The Hamilton (Modelo nº 102, 150) ($ 1.023 a $ 2.385)


The Chelsea (Modelo nº 111) ($ 943 a $ 2.740)


Modelo nº 113 ($ 1.062 a $ 1.270)


Modelo nº 137 ($ 1.140 a $ 1.342)


Modelo nº 158 ($ 1.548 a $ 1.845)


The Niota (Modelo nº 161) ($ 788 a $ 1.585)


Modelo nº 157 ($ 1.521 a $ 1.866)


The Maytown (Modelo No. 167) ($ 645 a $ 2.038)


The Arlington (Modelo No. 145) ($ 1.294 a $ 2.906)


Modelo nº 147 (nenhum preço fornecido)


Modelo nº 154 ($ 2.287 a $ 2.702)


Modelo nº 164 ($ 1.259 a $ 1.623)


Pandemia de HIV / AIDS (em seu pico, 2005-2012)

Número de mortos: 36 milhões
Causa: HIV / AIDS
Identificado pela primeira vez na República Democrática do Congo em 1976, o HIV / AIDS provou ser uma pandemia global, matando mais de 36 milhões de pessoas desde 1981. Atualmente, há entre 31 e 35 milhões de pessoas vivendo com HIV, a grande maioria delas estão na África Subsaariana, onde 5% da população está infectada, cerca de 21 milhões de pessoas. Com o aumento da conscientização, novos tratamentos foram desenvolvidos que tornam o HIV muito mais controlável, e muitos dos infectados passam a ter uma vida produtiva. Entre 2005 e 2012, as mortes anuais globais por HIV / AIDS caíram de 2,2 milhões para 1,6 milhões.


Obrigado!

O governo alinhou uma gama formidável de mais de 20 testemunhas críticas à empresa de refrigerantes e seu produto. Entre eles estavam toxicologistas que testemunharam que a bebida causava & ldquoreflex irritabilidade & rdquo cientistas comportamentais que advertiram que era viciante & mdash observando que a bebida foi apelidada de & ldquoDope & rdquo e & ldquoCoke & rdquo & mdash e consumidores que se descreveram como viciados na bebida. O depoimento terminou com Kebler, que declarou que & ldquocaffeine é uma droga com tendência venenosa. & Rdquo

A Coca-Cola naturalmente contestou tudo isso. O vice-presidente Charles Howard Candler enfatizou que & ldquoA empresa nunca anunciou ou vendeu Coca-Cola sob os nomes & lsquoDope & rsquo ou & lsquoCoke & rdquo ou quaisquer outros termos relacionados a drogas. & Rdquo (Não registrou o uso de & ldquoCoke & rdquo até 1945). de refrigerantes felizes e uma lista de toxicologistas que contestaram o testemunho do governo declarando que a cafeína é segura. "Não conheço nenhum caso de cafeína em qualquer quantidade que tenha causado a morte", afirmou John Marshall, da Universidade da Pensilvânia, famoso como um dos principais toxicologistas do país.

Mas foi o testemunho de Harry Hollingworth & rsquos que ganhou mais atenção. A Coca-Cola percebeu que não havia dados humanos sérios sobre os efeitos da cafeína. A empresa contratou Hollingworth, um jovem psicólogo treinado em Columbia, para fazer esse trabalho rapidamente. Hollingworth, então professor do Barnard College e mais tarde chefe do departamento de psicologia de lá, assinou apenas com a condição de que a empresa concordasse que ele publicasse os resultados favoráveis ​​ou não.

Seu estudo de 40 dias, executado com a ajuda de sua esposa Leta Stetter Hollingworth (que mais tarde se tornaria aclamada por sua pesquisa sobre crianças superdotadas), foi meticuloso em design. Ele recrutou 16 participantes, dez homens e seis mulheres, todos testados para se certificar de que estavam com boa saúde. Os participantes receberam cápsulas diárias que continham um placebo, cafeína ou xarope de Coca-Cola em uma variedade de doses. O estudo foi duplo-cego, o que significa que nem as cobaias nem os cientistas sabiam quem havia recebido o quê até que os testes fossem concluídos.

Os Hollingworths testaram a velocidade de reação, estabilidade, coordenação e acuidade mental. Exemplos deste último incluem reconhecimento de cores, testes de palavras opostas, cálculos matemáticos e velocidade de discriminação. Quando terminaram, Hollingworth tinha 64.000 pontos de dados, que apresentou ao júri ligeiramente atordoado do Tennessee por meio de uma série de gráficos e tabelas.

& ldquoSeu testemunho foi de longe o mais interessante e técnico de todos os já apresentados & rdquo The Chattanooga Daily Times relatado. "O exame cruzado não abalou nenhuma de suas deduções." O cientista relatou sobre "aumento da capacidade" claramente relacionado à cafeína. Foi, disse Hollingworth, rápida e temporariamente edificante, e seu efeito predominante parecia ser reações mentais mais rápidas e coordenação motora mais apurada.

Mesmo assim, seu trabalho não venceu para a Coca-Cola. Em vez disso, o julgamento terminou alguns dias depois, exatamente quando o governo planejava chamar testemunhas de refutação, quando o juiz rejeitou o caso por uma questão técnica & mdash um novo argumento da empresa de que a cafeína era um ingrediente natural, em vez de um aditivo como O USDA reivindicou e, portanto, não poderia ser contestado sob a lei federal.

O governo lutaria contra essa decisão mesmo após a aposentadoria de Wiley & rsquos no ano seguinte e, em 1916, a Suprema Corte dos EUA reverteu a decisão e declarou que a cafeína era um aditivo perante a lei. Pouco depois, a Coca-Cola resolveu o caso concordando em pagar todas as custas judiciais & mdash e reduzindo a quantidade de cafeína em seu refrigerante pela metade.

Cem anos mais tarde, ainda estudamos a cafeína e fica claro que o excesso realmente causa efeitos nocivos à saúde e que uma dose extremamente alta (comparável a cerca de 100 xícaras de café) pode ser letal. Mas o restante dos estudos continua a sugerir que o uso moderado tem efeitos positivos genuínos - como Hollingworth relatou em 1911, e para o alívio indubitável dos bebedores de café em todos os lugares.


1910 a 1919 Notícias importantes, eventos significativos, tecnologia chave

Jack Johnson venceu Tommy Burns, Jack Johnson se tornou o primeiro boxeador negro a ganhar o campeonato de boxe peso-pesado quando nocauteou o campeão em título Tommy Burns em 26 de dezembro de 1910. Sua vitória gerou muita controvérsia e também o desejo de um homem branco para reclamar o título.

Imigração para os EUA, A imigração para os EUA atinge o pico de todos os tempos, com 8,8 milhões de imigrantes em 10 anos de 1901-1910.

Boy Scouts of America, após uma visita à Inglaterra em 1909 e uma reunião com o general britânico Robert Baden-Powell, que fundou o movimento de escotismo na Inglaterra, o editor de Chicago W. D. Boyce incorpora os Boy Scouts of America.

Morre o rei Eduardo VII, o rei Eduardo VII morre após ser rei da Grã-Bretanha por 9 anos. Ele era freqüentemente referido como "Bertie", que era o nome que a família real usava para ele.

Idaho Big Burn, 20-21 de agosto de 1910 - O Grande Incêndio, também conhecido como Big Burn ou Big Blowup, começou como um incêndio florestal. No momento em que foi contido e apagado, o fogo havia queimado quase três milhões de acres de terra em três estados diferentes - Idaho, Montana e Washington. Mais de 80 pessoas morreram e costuma ser considerado o pior incêndio da história do país.

Assassinatos de Houndsditch, em 16 de dezembro 2 policiais são assassinados enquanto investigavam um assalto a tiros e mortos pela gangue, em janeiro do ano seguinte após uma denúncia do cordão policial em uma área de Stepney no leste de Londres e um grande tiroteio entre a polícia e a gangue dura quase o dia todo, deixando alguns dos membros mortos.

First Auto Electric Start, The First Electric Self Start foi instalado em um Cadillac pela GM. Até este momento, todos os carros precisavam ser acionados acionando uma alavanca de partida, o que era um trabalho árduo e causava vários ferimentos leves quando o tiro saiu pela culatra durante o processo de partida.

A descoberta de Machu Picchu, Hiram Bingham encontra Machu Picchu nos Andes. Ele havia seguido a rota de Sim & oacuten Bol & iacutevar para a Colômbia e continuou com uma caminhada da Argentina para o Peru. Ele era professor de história em Yale e estava realizando a expedição como membro desse corpo docente. Ele foi capaz de confirmar sua localização em 24 de julho. Ele voltou para escavar o local em 1912. Fica perto da extremidade oeste do vale Huatanay.

Madame Butterfly, a ópera 'Madame Butterfly' de Puccini que conta a história de um marinheiro americano, BF Pinkerton, que se casa e abandona uma jovem gueixa japonesa, Cio-Cio-San, ou Madame Butterfly, teve sua estreia mundial no La Scala em Milão, Itália .

Manhattan Sweatshop Fire, A Fire eclodiu na Triangle Shirtwaist Company em Manhattan em 25 de março. O prédio estava superlotado com mulheres trabalhadoras imigrantes e os padrões de segurança insatisfatórios, incluindo as portas para as escadas e as saídas bloqueadas, não permitindo a saída do incêndio no oitavo, nono e décimo andares, o que significava que as mulheres queimaram no incêndio ou arriscaram de sobreviver pulando de janelas 30 metros acima da rua. O incêndio causou a morte de 146 operárias da confecção, quase todas mulheres, que morreram com o incêndio ou pularam da altura fatal.

Primeiro Indianápolis 500, a primeira corrida do Indianápolis 500 é vencida por Ray Harrounat a uma velocidade média de 74,59 milhas por hora.

O primeiro Dia Internacional da Mulher (IWD) foi celebrado em março de 1911. Foi celebrado pela primeira vez na Dinamarca, Áustria, Suíça e Alemanha por mais de um milhão de pessoas que compareceram aos comícios do Dia Internacional da Mulher. A criação do feriado foi resultado de movimentos socialistas e trabalhistas que faziam campanha pelos direitos das mulheres. O objetivo original era chamar a atenção para a luta pelo direito de votar e concorrer a cargos públicos, o direito ao trabalho e à educação e pelo fim da discriminação. Em 1975, as Nações Unidas começaram a comemorar a IWD e dois anos depois adotou uma resolução para os estados membros designarem um feriado dedicado à celebração dos direitos das mulheres e da paz internacional.

Naufrágio do Titanic, o Titanic zarpa em sua viagem inaugural de Southampton a Nova York. O Titanic foi descrito como o hotel flutuante mais luxuoso do mundo, que é inafundável, e estava apenas 5 dias fora quando bateu em um iceberg e afundou no Atlântico, com a perda de muitas vidas. O Titanic foi construído em Belfast (entre 1909 e 1911) e registrado em Liverpool em 1912. Liverpool era o porto de origem, embora ela nunca tenha entrado nele. O White Star Liner deixou Belfast em 2 de abril de 1912 e chegou a Southampton em 4 de abril. A tripulação embarcou antes da madrugada de 10 de abril, e os passageiros entre 9h30 e 11h30. Ela deixou o porto por volta das 14h00. e chegou a Queenstown, Irlanda, antes de cruzar o Atlântico. Ela atingiu um iceberg no domingo, 14 de abril, e o sinal de socorro do navio deu sua posição como Latitude 41 & ordm 46 'N e Longitude 50 & ordm 14 W.

A verdadeira maionese da Hellmann, Richard Hellmann era dono de uma delicatessen na cidade de Nova York, onde vendia a deliciosa receita de maionese de sua esposa, que se tornou tão popular que Hellmann começou a vendê-la em "barcos de madeira" usados ​​para pesar manteiga. Devido a essa alta demanda em 1912, Hellmann projetou o que é hoje o icônico rótulo "Blue Ribbon", para ser colocado em potes de vidro maiores.

Último imperador da China, Hsian-T'ung, o último imperador da China, é forçado a abdicar após a revolução republicana de Sun Yat-sen, encerrando 267 anos de governo Manchu na China e 2.000 anos de governo imperial.

Fundação das Girl Scouts of America, Juliette Gordon Low fundou o Girl Guides nos Estados Unidos. Ela viveu na Inglaterra com seu primeiro marido por muitos anos e foi uma líder de guia feminina enquanto morava na Inglaterra. Em 12 de março de 1912, ela reuniu 18 meninas para registrar a primeira tropa de American Girl Guides em Savannah, Geórgia. O nome foi mudado para Girl Scouts of America no ano seguinte.

Jogos Olímpicos, Os Jogos Olímpicos de Verão da V Olimpíada foram realizados em Estocolmo, Suécia. Essas Olimpíadas marcaram a introdução do equipamento eletrônico de cronometragem e foto-acabamento.

Taiwan, em 1º de janeiro de 1912, a República da China (Taiwan) foi criada após a Revolução Xinhai (Revolução Chinesa de 1911)

Primeiro quebra-cabeça de palavras cruzadas, o primeiro quebra-cabeça de palavras cruzadas foi publicado e criado por Arthur Wynne, um jornalista de Liverpool. Foi publicado pela primeira vez como um quebra-cabeça "cruzado de palavras" no New York World.

A 16a emenda, a 16a emenda foi (aparentemente) ratificada em 3 de fevereiro de 1913, e disse que o Congresso tinha recebido o poder de coletar impostos sobre a renda sem levar em conta um censo ou enumeração. Curiosamente, a Suprema Corte declarou o rateio inconstitucional em 1894. 'Nenhuma tributação sem representação'

A 17ª Emenda, A 17ª Emenda entra em vigor mudando os senadores dos EUA escolhidos pelo Legislativo para eleições envolvendo eleitores comuns.

Webb Alien Land-Holding Bill, O Webb Alien Land-Holding Bill foi sancionado pelo governador da Califórnia, Hiram W. Johnson, que proíbe cidadãos japoneses de possuir terras na Califórnia.

Ford apresenta linha de montagem, The Ford Motor Company introduziu a linha de montagem de movimento contínuo que pode produzir um carro completo a cada dois minutos e meio. Esta mudança é uma das mudanças mais significativas na produção de automóveis e permitiu à Ford vender carros mais baratos do que qualquer outro fabricante, o que forçou os outros a também mudarem para linhas de produção automatizadas.

Mona Lisa recuperada, A Mona Lisa foi recuperada dois anos após seu roubo do Museu do Louvre em Paris. Foi encontrado em Florença, no quarto de hotel do garçom italiano Vincenzo Peruggia.

Primeiro em aço inoxidável, Harry Brearley estava pesquisando maneiras de impedir o desgaste excessivo dos canos dos rifles para o exército britânico quando descobriu que, ao adicionar cromo a uma mistura de ferro-carbono, ele acabava com um acabamento de superfície brilhante que se tornou aço inoxidável. O aço inoxidável contém cerca de 10% de cromo e 8% de níquel.

Rite of Spring Debuts O balé de vanguarda “The Rite of Spring”, criado por Igor Stravinsky, estreou em Paris, França em 29 de maio. Na época de sua estreia, a obra foi considerada escandalosa devido ao contexto da história. retratou um sacrifício pagão, sua coreografia incomum e os trajes extravagantes apresentados no balé. A música também gerou polêmica, pois foi fortemente influenciada por temas folk europeus e contou com sons dissonantes. O público, assistindo a companhia de balé de Sergei Diaghilev dançar a coreografia de Vaslav Nijinsky, ficou tão perturbado com a apresentação moderna que quase se revoltou.

Federal Trade Commission, A Federal Trade Commission foi organizada seguindo o Federal Trade Commission Act em 1914. Sua missão principal é a promoção da "proteção ao consumidor" e a eliminação e prevenção do que os reguladores percebem como práticas comerciais "anticompetitivas". Uma de suas funções é fazer cumprir as leis antitruste.

Home Rule irlandês, O Parlamento britânico aprova o Home Rule irlandês, mas o início da Primeira Guerra Mundial impede que tenha qualquer efeito. Fora feito para submeter um certo grau de autonomia àquele país específico dentro dos limites do Império Britânico. O desejo de um governo interno começou em 1870 com a Home Government Association ou Home Rule League, que era liderada pelos não-irlandeses Isaac Butt e Charles Parnell. Seus pedidos de reforma agrária e um sistema de educação denominacional foram obstruídos, e a lei não foi aprovada até 18 de setembro de 1914.

Início da Primeira Guerra Mundial, foram as alianças de 1914 que criaram as razões para a Grande Guerra, com a Alemanha, a Áustria-Hungria e a Tríplice Aliança da Itália e a Franco-Rússia e a Entente Cordiale sendo bastante contraditórias aos impérios em expansão de outros países. A situação de Dardanelos estava em andamento, e a crise dos Bálcãs fez a Áustria-Hungria redefinir as fronteiras de seus territórios. Foi durante a visita do arquiduque Franz Ferdinand a Sarajevo que a faísca foi acesa, quando ele e sua esposa foram mortos por um membro da 'Jovem Bósnia'. Embora infundados, os austro-húngaros acusaram a Sérvia de cumplicidade nos assassinatos e exigiram o desmembramento do Estado. Embora tenha havido uma série de ações diplomáticas e arbitragem, a Áustria-Hungria declarou guerra à Sérvia em 28 de julho. Isso levou à mobilização das forças aliadas.

O encouraçado naval USS Oklahoma foi lançado em março. Foi construído pela New York Shipbuilding Corporation após ter sido encomendado pela Marinha dos Estados Unidos em 1911. Em 1916, foi comissionado pela Marinha dos Estados Unidos e usado para proteger os comboios aliados que cruzavam o Atlântico durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial. Foi o primeiro couraçado dos Estados Unidos aquele era um navio de guerra a óleo em vez de um navio a carvão. Após o fim da Primeira Guerra Mundial, o navio foi modernizado e enviado para se juntar à frota do Pacífico. Em 1941, o USS Oklahoma foi afundado pelos japoneses durante o ataque a Pearl Harbor. Foi recuperado em 1943, mas muito danificado para ser usado novamente e vendido para sucata em 1946.

The Empress of Ireland Sinks, The Empress of Ireland e um cargueiro de carvão norueguês, o Storstad, caem no rio St. Lawrence em meio a uma névoa espessa, causando a morte de 1.073 passageiros e tripulantes, este foi um dos piores acidentes marítimos da história.

Primeiro Imposto de Renda dos EUA, o Congresso aprova a Lei de Receitas que exige o primeiro imposto sobre rendas acima de US $ 3.000.

Egito sob a proteção da Coroa, a Grã-Bretanha colocou o Egito sob a proteção da Coroa. O Gabinete de Imprensa oficial leu: "A suserania da Turquia sobre o Egito está assim terminada, e o governo de Sua Majestade adotará todas as medidas necessárias para a defesa do Egito e a proteção de seus habitantes e interesses."

Ford anunciou seu programa de $ 5 por dia, Henry Ford aumenta o salário mínimo diário de $ 2,34 para $ 5 para trabalhadores qualificados. Trabalhadores de automóveis de outras fábricas faziam fila para empregos e as mudanças que ele fez no pagamento e nas horas de trabalho deram a Ford a menor rotatividade de mão de obra em suas fábricas. Henry Ford não acreditava em sindicatos e a empresa Ford foi a última montadora de Detroit a reconhecer o sindicato United Auto Workers (UAW).

O Canal do Panamá é aberto, o Canal do Panamá, que levou 34 anos para ser construído de 1880 a 1914 (e custou a vida de mais de 27.000 trabalhadores), fornecia uma conexão para o transporte marítimo do Atlântico ao Pacífico e foi inaugurado em 1914.

Trégua de Natal da Primeira Guerra Mundial. Os soldados da Alemanha, Rússia, França e Grã-Bretanha fazem uma trégua de Natal com soldados cruzando a área de terra de ninguém gritando "Feliz Natal" nas línguas nativas de seus inimigos.

Moda dos anos 20

Vestidos femininos da década

Parte de nossa coleção de roupas infantis da década

Brinquedos infantis da década de 1920

Música dos anos 1920

Os ataques dos zepelins da Primeira Guerra Mundial, os ataques dos zepelins começaram na Inglaterra, os zepelins e eram capazes de voar a uma altitude maior do que os aviões dos defensores. Eles foram desenvolvidos pelo conde Ferdinand von Zeppelin e foram usados ​​pelos militares alemães desde 1909. Os balões do exército alemão sofreram fogo terrestre, mas foram usados ​​na Inglaterra: alvejando as cidades costeiras de Yarmouth e King's Lynn em Janeiro, antes de partir para o ataque a Londres em maio. Demorou um pouco até que os pilotos britânicos tivessem as habilidades e os meios para derrotar com sucesso os ataques que se aproximavam.

Uso de gás venenoso na Primeira Guerra Mundial, a guerra de trincheiras estava vendo o uso de gás venenoso. Um tipo de gás não letal foi usado pelos alemães no final de 1914, mas um tipo mais prejudicial foi colocado na Frente Oriental em janeiro de 1915 (em Bolimov), onde congelou. Os alemães desenvolveram o gás cloro usado em Ypres em abril. Ele havia sido dispersado pelo ar e pelo fogo de artilharia. A Força Expedicionária Britânica (B.E.F.) foi capaz de conter o uso de gás com suas próprias variantes.

A Guarda Costeira dos EUA, o Congresso estabeleceu o Serviço da Guarda Costeira dos EUA combinando o Serviço de Corte de Receitas (1790) e o Serviço de Salvamento de Vidas dos Estados Unidos (1848).

Movimento pelo sufrágio, como parte do movimento pelo sufrágio feminino, 25.000 mulheres marcham pela Quinta Avenida na cidade de Nova York exigindo o direito de voto.

Primeira chamada telefônica transcontinental, primeira chamada telefônica de longa distância de costa a costa dos Estados Unidos, facilitada por um amplificador valvulado recém-inventado, foi inaugurada cerimoniosamente por AG Bell na cidade de Nova York e seu ex-assistente Thomas Augustus Watson em San Francisco, Califórnia .

Lusitânia afundado por torpedo em 7 de maio, um torpedo alemão afunda o transatlântico britânico Lusitânia na costa irlandesa, matando cerca de 1.200 pessoas.

Primeira Guerra Mundial, o navio de guerra britânico Formidable é atingido em 1º de janeiro pelo U-42, um submarino alemão que afunda nas águas do Canal da Mancha, e 547 vidas foram perdidas.

Dinamarca Mulheres Direitos de Voto Durante junho, direitos de voto foram concedidos a mulheres na Dinamarca. Os direitos também foram estendidos às mulheres que viviam na Islândia, já que a nação-ilha ainda fazia parte do reino dinamarquês na época. Em 1886, a Associação do Progresso das Mulheres foi criada e começou a estabelecer uma voz feminina em importantes questões sociais dinamarquesas e, em 1889, a Associação do Sufrágio Feminino foi criada com o único objetivo de estabelecer o direito de voto para as mulheres na Dinamarca. In the early 1900s steps were made towards the enfranchisement of women in Denmark as various groups were allowed to vote in local elections. By 1915, a new Danish constitution was passed which included full voting rights for women as well as other reforms to the Danish government system.

Allied Attack in Dardanelles During March the British and French Allied forces launch a naval attack against Turkish forces in the Dardanelles. The Allied forces aimed at taking control of a key strait that connected Europe to Asia. The campaign was not successful and was a huge loss for the Allied forces. Hundreds of thousands of men perished on both sides and the Allies lost several important battleships to mines in the water. The Allies had hoped a victory would garner more support for their side from some of the states that had remained neutral like Bulgaria, Greece, and Romania. The fight continued as the Allies landed in Gallipoli in April and the battles did not end until the beginning of the following year when the Allies abandoned the campaigns.

Pancho Villa Attacks Columbus New Mexico , Several hundred Mexican guerrillas under the command of Francisco "Pancho" Villa cross the U.S.-Mexican border and attack the small border town of Columbus, New Mexico. Additionally, the center of the town was burned. Villa was also influential in various attacks made during the Mexican Revolution. Following his massacre of 16 U.S. citizens at Santa Isabel in Northern Mexico and 17 American Citizens in Columbus, New Mexico President Wilson had sent US forces into Mexico with orders to capture Villa dead or alive. US forces are sent to capture Villa dead or alive but give up searching for the Mexican revolutionary after nearly one year.

Rasputin Murdered , Rasputin, the monk who had wielded powerful influence over the Russian royal family, was murdered by a group of noblemen led by Prince Felix Yusupov and the Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich.

Thompson submachine gun , General John T. Thompson invents the Thompson submachine gun (Tommy Gun) and started the Auto-Ordnance Company in 1916. Prior to World War II, it gained notoriety in the hands of Gangsters/Mobsters during the Prohibition era, but in World War II the Thompson submachine gun was adopted by the U.S. military, British and Canadian Commando units, as well as U.S. paratrooper and Ranger battalions.

The Battle of Jutland , A German naval fleet consisting of 24 battleships, five battle cruisers, 11 light cruisers and 63 destroyers that were just off the Jutland Peninsula, were attacked by a British fleet of 28 battleships, nine battle cruisers, 34 light cruisers and 80 destroyers on on May 31st in one of the greatest sea battles in History known as The Battle of Jutland or the Battle of the Skagerrak, a total of 100,000 men aboard 250 ships were involved in the battle.

World War I Battle Of The Somme (1916 - 1918) , One of the most costly battles in modern wartime is fought near the Somme Region over 2 years when this small area of countryside saw the deaths of over 1 million men from both sides of the war. The first day of the Somme resulted in the loss of 19,240 dead and 57,470 men wounded on the British side, and an estimated 4,000 dead on the German's. The main reasons for the losses being so high are put down to machine-gun fire and shelling. The eight day bombardment of the German trenches had not broken them and there are regarded as having been too few artillery pieces and too light. The battle went on for nearly one hundred and forty days, and did not act as a support for the French troops at Verdun. The successive and futile attacks went on to be known as a single battle and the B.E.F's reserves were severely diminished.

In Flanders fields the poppies blow

Between the crosses, row on row,

That mark our place and in the sky

The larks, still bravely singing, fly

Scarce heard amid the guns below.

We are the Dead. Short days ago

We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow.

Loved, and were loved, and now we lie

Take up our quarrel with the foe:

To you from failing hands we throw

The torch be yours to hold it high.

If ye break faith with us who die

We shall not sleep, though poppies grow

Easter uprising Ireland , The Easter uprising began when some 1,600 militant Irish republicans who were members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood seize several key sites in Dublin hoping to win independence from British rule. British forces suppressed the uprising after six days, and its leaders were court-Marshalled and executed.

Battle of Verdun , The Battle of Verdun comes to an end during World War I in December. It was one of the largest and longest battles of the war and was fought between France and Germany on the Western Font. The battle began in February and it featured heavy use of artillery. By the end, there were over 500,000 casualties, over 300,000 lives lost, and 9 French towns were left in complete ruin. France claimed victory, but despite this, neither side was able to gain much from the battle and the war would continue until 1918.

Russian Revolution , The beginning of the Russian Revolution (Often Called The February Revolution) against Czarist Rule. It began in February 1917 following the lack of food in Petrograd and lead to the abdication by Nicholas II in March 1917 and the beginning of the Communist Party rule in Russia. After 300 years of rule by the Romanov Dynasty, Czar Nicholas II is forced to abdicate following declining popularity due to the "Bloody Sunday" massacre when palace guards shot and killed defenseless demonstrators marching on the Winter Palace.

British Royal Family Name Change , During the first World War as sentiment against Germany by the British People worsened, King George V ordered the British royal family to end using the German-sounding surname, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and to take on the name Royal House of Windsor.

Boys Town Founded , Father Edward Flanagan founds Boys Town dedicated to the care of at-risk children, with national headquarters in the village of Boys Town, Nebraska.

Puerto Rico Citizens given US Citizenship , The Jones-Shafroth Act granted U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans - a status they still hold today.

America enters World War I , Following the interception of a note (the Zimmermann Note) from the German Foreign Minister to a Mexican Diplomat promising the return of territories lost to the United States if Mexico joined Germany in attack against the US, US President Wilson appeared before Congress and called for a declaration of war against Germany. The sinking of the British Liner RMS Lusitania which carried 128 US passengers by a German U-boat in 1915, and the sinking of several US merchant ships also contributed to the declaration. On April 6th the United States formally declared war on Germany and entered the First World War.

World War I Jerusalem Captured , Major Vivian Gilbert of the British army revealed the inside story of how Jerusalem fell during the First World War. He said that an army cook was out looking for eggs and was presented with the keys to the city by the mayor. The British won the Holy Land back from the Turks.

Iraq British Take Control From Turkish Troops , British troops take control of Baghdad forcing the Turkish troops to evacuate.

Mexican Constitution , Mexican President Venustiano Carranza proclaims the establishment of the modern-day Mexican constitution. This constitution consisted of promises made that are similar to the ones outlined by the American constitution. For instance, the constitution of Mexico makes provisions for returning land to native people, and separation of church and state. This constitution also included plans for economic and educational reform.

New Immigration Act , Congress passes a new Immigration Act which required a literacy test for immigrants and barred Asiatic laborers, except for those from countries with special treaties or agreements with the United States, such as the Philippines.

Pulitzer Prizes Started , Pulitzer Prizes is started for outstanding work in Journalism, writing fiction and non-fiction.

Earthquake Long Beach California , A deadly earthquake magnitude of 6.3 hi6 Long Beach, California, and killed an estimated 140 people.

Mata Hari , The exotic dancer Mata Hari is sentenced to execution by firing squad by a French court for spying on Germany's behalf during World War I.

US Declares War On Germany and Sends Troops , Congress makes a declaration of war on Germany and sends U.S. troops into battle against Germany in World War I.

King Constantine I , King Constantine I of Greece abdicates his throne in the face of pressure from Britain and France and internal opponents.

Lenin Speech , Lenin makes his first appearance before the Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks hold a 60% majority. announcing "We shall now proceed to the construction of the socialist order."

Battle of Langemarck , The Battle of Langemarck takes place during August. Located in the Flanders region of Belgium, the Battle of Langemarck was one of the battles that was a part of the larger Battle of Passchendaele which took place from July to November of 1917. British and French Allied troops fought against the Germans for several days, ending in a narrow Allied victory. There were heavy casualties on both sides and in the end the gains were small compared to the cost of the battle.

Third Battle of Ypres , The Third Battle of Ypres, also known as the Battle of Passchendaele, began during July. The allied forces of the British Empire, Belgium, and France fought against the German Empire along the edge of the city of Ypres in Belgium. The battle consisted of several smaller battles over the course of three months. Muddy regions exacerbated the difficulty of the battle with troops, vehicles, and artillery getting stuck often. This battle is often cited as an example of the futility of trench warfare in World War I. Both sides marked the battle as somewhat of a failure with heavy losses estimated at 300,000 casualties for the British side and 250,000 casualties for the German side. The British claimed victory after capturing the village of Passchendaele.

Espionage Act , The Espionage Act of 1917 becomes law after it was passed by the United States Congress in June. The law made it a crime to share information about national defense that would harm the country and help its enemies. Punishments for violating the law included a 20 year prison sentence and fines up to $10,000.00. The law was supported by the Sedition Act that was passed during the following year. The Espionage Act was declared constitutional in the 1919 Supreme Court case Schenck v. United States, with the ruling stating that it did not violate the First Amendment, but it has been continuously challenged in court since its inception.

Second Battle of Ramadi , The Second Battle of Ramadi takes place in September during World War I. British troops fought against the Ottoman Empire. The town of Ramadi, in central Iraq, was a strategically important location for the British who had previously tried to capture it during July of 1917. The First Battle of Ramadi was a failure that resulted in many casualties. During the second battle in September, the British were successful in capturing the town. The battle ended with relatively low casualties and most of the Turkish troops were captured as prisoners of war.

The Second Russian Revolution , also known as the October Revolution (called October Revolution due to Russia following the Julian calendar until 1918), took place during November 7th and November 8th of 1917. A group of Bolshevik revolutionaries, led by Vladimir Lenin, launched a coup against the provisional government that had been established in March after the February Revolution. At the end of the October Revolution, Lenin became the dictator of the world’s first communist nation and the Russian Civil War began. The civil war ended in 1923 with Soviet victory.

Brest-Litovsk and the Armistice , The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ended Russia's part in the First World War, and the previous year's October Revolution had started what would become the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Bolsheviks had promised that they would not intervene on foreign soil, and the Russian Civil War was looming. Trotsky had been made foreign minister. The fighting of the War to End All Wars had ended in the Armistice on the eleventh hour of of the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918. With the Romanian army joining the Allies in 1916 the Armistice had meant that Hungary was required to give Transylvania to Romania.

Czar Nicholas II , Czar Nicholas II and his family are executed by the Bolsheviks, bringing an end to the three-century-old Romanov dynasty.

Royal Air Force is Founded , The Royal Air force is founded in England, this is truly an amazing piece of History as the first flight was only made 8 years before by Wilbur and Wright and for countries around the World to set up a separate arms of the Forces shows how important politicians believed the aircraft would become as a part of the military. The aircraft in use in 1918 when the RAF started included the Sopwith Pup, Bristol F2B Fighters, Sopwith Camels and Royal Aircraft Factory SE5's.

Influenza Epidemic , The first cases of one of the worst influenza epidemic in history were reported at Fort Riley, Kansas. It would eventually kill more than 1/2 million Americans and more than 20 million people worldwide. In the world's worst flu epidemic (Spanish Flu called because the first major outbreak causing multiple deaths was in Spain) in history an estimated 30 million people died worldwide.

First Use Of Aircraft By US In war , The first use of air combat by the US when Eight Curtiss "Jenny" planes of the First Aero Squadron are used in support for the 7,000 U.S. troops who invaded Mexico to capture Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa.

"The Red Baron" German Fighter Ace Killed , Baron Manfred von Richthofen, the German ace known as the "Red Baron," credited with 80 confirmed air combat victories was killed in action during World War I.

Lawrence of Arabia , Arab and British forces commanded by Lawrence of Arabia capture Damascus from Turkish forces

Germany signs armistice , Germany facing invasion from the allies and with poor supplies of food and weapons signs armistice agreement with the allies bringing to an end World War I.

The Second Battle of the Marne takes place during July in World War I. The battle marked the final offensive push of the Germans prior to the end of the war that November. The battle lasted several days before ending in a large Allied victory. The Germans were defeated by a combination of French, British, Italian, and American forces. Their defeat gave an advantage to the Allies in the Western Front who used the opportunity to advance by launching a massive counter-offensive, hastening the end of the war. Both sides suffered tens of thousands of casualties.

World War I - Armistice of Mudros The Ottoman Empire and the Allies sign the Armistice of Mudros on October 30th. It was signed by Rauf Bey who was the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs and British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe who represented the Allies. The signing took place on board the HMS Agamemnon in the Port of Mudros on the Greek island of Lemnos. Terms of the agreement included letting the Allies take control of the Straits of the Dardenelles and the Bosporus and having the Ottoman Empire surrender control of all garrisons outside of the Anatolia region of modern day Turkey. This agreement effectively put an end to the fighting in the Middle East during World War I.

UK Women Voting Rights The United Kingdom begins granting voting rights to some women with the passage of the Representation of the People Act in February. The law granted limited voting rights for women, allowing women over the age of 30 who were property owners or married to property owners the right to vote. It was also known as the Fourth Reform Act and it also expanded voting rights for men, removing property restrictions. The law tripled the size of the British electorate from about 7 million people to about 21 million people. Full voting rights for women were not achieved in England until 1928 when Parliament passed the Equal Franchise Bill.

The United States Congress passes the Standard Time Act , also known as the Calder Act, during March of 1918. The law defined Standard Time and Daylight Saving Time within the United States and gave the Interstate Commerce Commission the authority to set each time zone. Congress soon repealed the unpopular Daylight Saving Time portion of the law in 1919, overriding President Wilson’s veto. Daylight Saving Time was re-instated again in the United States during World War II.

Hindenburg Line Broken Allied forces break through Germany’s last line of defense on the Western Front during September, near the end of World War I. The “Hindenburg Line,” or “Siegfried Line” as it was also known, was a 6,000-yard-deep, heavily fortified and well-defended series of zones built by German forces to strategically guard their side of the Western Front. As the war neared its end, Allied forces coordinated a series of offensive moves, including a 56-hour-long marathon bombardment, to break the line and were successful in breaching the line, hastening the end of the war. Both sides suffered heavy casualties in the battles.

Iceland - Independence from Denmark 1. Iceland becomes independent on December 1st after Iceland and Denmark sign the Danish-Icelandic Act of Union.

2. With the agreement, Iceland became a sovereign and fully independent state.

3. Part of the agreement allowed Iceland to maintain a union with the monarchy of Denmark and be represented by Denmark in matters of foreign affairs while still being fully in control of their own policies and government.

4. After the agreement was made Iceland created its own coat of arms and flag and declared its neutrality.

US Airmail Service The United States Post Office Department officially begins its first regularly scheduled air mail service on May 15th. The first route was a 218 mile route flown between Washington D.C., Philadelphia, and New York City. The first pilots for the inaugural flights of the service were US Army Lieutenants Howard Culver, Stephen Bonsal, George Boyle, Torrey Webb, Walter Miller, and James Edgerton. The original rate for airmail delivery was priced at 24 cents per ounce of mail but it was later reduced throughout the first year of service to just 16 cents and then again to 6 cents.

The American Legion , The American Legion has it's first meeting in Paris with about 1,000 officers and enlisted men attended to decide the organizations name. The next meeting takes place in St. Louis, Missouri two months later. The Legion served as a supportive group, a social club and a type of extended family for former service men and women and was also instrumental in creating the U.S. Veterans' Bureau, now known as the Department of Veterans Affairs.

Battle of Belleau Wood , The Battle of Belleau Wood took place in June during World War I. The battle was near the Marne River in France and was fought between American, British Empire, and French troops against the German Empire. It was one of the first major battles fought with American troops after they joined the war and U.S. Marines played an enormous role in securing the Allied victory after nearly a month of fighting. The Allied forces were under the command of U.S. General John J. Pershing. There were heavy casualties reported on the Allied side, but it was unclear how many casualties were sustained on the German side.

World War I - Allies Sign Armistice Ending War The Allies sign an armistice with Germany on November 11, 1918, putting an end to the fighting of World War I. It was written by the Allied Supreme Commander Marshal Ferdinand Foch and signed inside of a railroad car near Compiégne, France. The terms of the armistice mandated the withdrawal of German forces behind the Rhine, the release of Allied prisoners of war, the future negotiation of reparations, and the continued Allied occupation of the Rhineland, and more. The official end to the war did not come until the next year with the Treaty of Versailles in June of 1919.

Creation Of The Italian National Fascist Party , Benito Mussolini establishes the Fascist Party in 1919.

Treaty of Versailles , The First World War only ended in the series of conferences that took place in the Palace of Versailles from January 1919 to January 1920. Fifty-five countries were represented there and the League of Nations was formed. Britain and France took control of several of the Turkish Empire's territories, which included Palestine, Lebanon and Syria. The U.S. Congress did not ratify the Treaty, and it was rather Eurocentric.

League of Nations , The League of Nations is created and it is the predecessor to the United Nations.

Lady Astor , Lady Astor an American by birth is sworn in as the first female member of the British Parliament. A little known fact is that the first woman elected to the British Parliament was Constance Markiewicz, but she did not take up her seat because of her Irish nationalist views.

Rotary Dial Telephones Invented , Rotary Dial Telephones were invented. Before this every call made had to go through an operator but this invention allowed people to dial the number themselves.

Grand Canyon National Park , Congress established Grand Canyon National Park which includes the Grand Canyon, a gorge of the Colorado River, considered to be one of the major natural wonders of the world in Arizona. This is considered by many to be one of the earliest successes the environmental conservation movement.

Franklin D. Roosevelt marries , Franklin D. Roosevelt marries his distant cousin, Eleanor Roosevelt, in New York City. The wedding was attended by President Theodore Roosevelt, FDR's fifth cousin, who gave his niece away.

Daylight Saving Time , The US Congress approves daylight-saving time. Germany started the use of DST in 1916 and other countries followed suit. Daylight saving time or British summer time is the practice of adjusting clocks forward one hour near the start of spring so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less, and adjusting them backwards in the Autumn by 1 hour. It is not used universally world wide but is common in Europe and North America.

Lease Acquired For Guantanamo Bay , The United States signed a leasing agreement between the US and Cuba, acquiring Guantanamo Bay as a naval station at the southeastern end in Cuba.

The Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 is signed by the United Kingdom and Afghanistan. It was also known as the Treaty of Rawalpindi, during August. The treaty established Afghanistan’s independence. It was signed as a result of the Third Anglo-Afghan War which had begun in May of the same year and it effectively ended the conflict. The treaty also modified the Durand Line, which served as a border demarcation between Afghanistan and Pakistan. The two countries had been in various states of conflict for nearly 80 years, with two other Anglo-Afghan wars fought from 1839 to 1842 and 1878 to 1880.

First Pop Up Toaster , Charles Strite invents the Pop-Up Toaster which used heated electrical coils to toast bread, the problem back then all bread was cut by hand so was different thicknesses, but after over ten years when bread slicing machines are gaining in popularity so would the Electric Pop Up Toaster.

Jailed for Advocating Birth Control , Emma Goldman who worked as a nurse and midwife among the poor in New York was also a crusader for women’s rights and social justice. She was arrested in New York City for lecturing and distributing materials about birth control. She was accused of violating the Comstock Act of 1873 , which made it a federal offense to disseminate contraceptive devices and information through the mail or across state lines.

US President Woodrow Wilson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in December. He was given the prestigious honor for his work on ending the First World War and the creation of the League of Nations. Wilson began his work towards preventing future international conflicts in early 1918 with his “Fourteen Points” peace plan, laying the groundwork for the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations. He was unable to attend the ceremony which was held in 1920 as he was still recovering from a stroke he suffered in October of 1919. He was represented at the ceremony by the U.S. Ambassador to Norway, Albert Schmedeman.

18th Amendment / Prohibition , Prohibition had been ratified on January 29th, 1919, and came into force with the 18th Amendment, which states that:

Seção 1 - After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

Seção 2 - The Congress and several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Seção 3 - This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution , The 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, guaranteeing women the right to vote, is passed by Congress on June 4th and sent to the states for ratification.

Save the Children Established The children’s rights and relief organization “Save the Children” was established in April. It was created by Eglantyne Jebb and Dorothy Buxton in Great Britain near the end of World War I. Its original mission was to provide starvation relief to children in Austria-Hungary and Germany where the devastation of World War I and an Allied blockage of Germany had created a famine. The non-governmental fund soon expanded to about 30 total national locations. The group is notable for its involvement in the establishment of children’s rights during the 1920s and its participation in famine relief efforts and other charity work around the globe since its creation.

Paris Peace Conference The Paris Peace Conference opens on January 18th. The gathering, also known as the Versailles Peace Conference, followed the conclusion of the First World War and was controlled by the victorious Allied Powers (France, Britain, Japan, Italy, and the United States). The Allies used the conference to set the terms of defeat for the Central Powers. The primary outcome of the meeting was the Treaty of Versailles which ended the war with Germany and required the nation to accept responsibility for the war. Another four treaties were negotiated, ending the war with Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire. The Paris Peace conference was also notable for the establishment of the League of Nations.

Volstead Act Passed Creating Prohibition The United States Congress overrides President Woodrow Wilson’s veto of the Volstead Act, officially beginning the era of prohibition. The 18th Amendment had been ratified on January 29th, banning the creation, sale, or transportation of alcohol, but the means to enforce the amendment had not yet been decided until the Volstead Act was made into law on October 28th. The act outlined how the United States government would enact prohibition in by banning the production and distribution of alcohol meant for consumption. The act did not come into force until January of 1920 along with the 18th amendment. Prohibition remained the law of the land until 1933 when the 21st amendment to the US Constitution repealed prohibition in the country.

Comintern Founded , The Comintern, also known as the Communist International or Third International, organization was founded during March. The association was created by Vladimir Lenin as a means for the Soviets to control the directives Communist parties on a more global scale. Lenin hoped the organization would guide a Soviet world order towards complete communism through the establishment and support of Communist political parties around the world. The group held seven congresses between 1919 and 1935. It was formally dissolved in 1943 by Joseph Stalin during World War II but he later created a similar group in 1947 known as the Cominform.


RESPONSES

As Russia and Japan were both influential railway powers in Manchuria, responding effectively to the plague dictated cooperation between their authorities and China.[19] In November, Chinese and Russian doctors visited the Chinese district of Harbin, or Fujiadian, to assess the situation.[20] With no cure available, preventing the spread of the plague required isolating ‘plague patients, suspected cases and persons who have been in contact with plague cases’ in train carriages – if no symptoms were noted for five days, those quarantined were released.[21] Indeed, Chinese magistrates had to request more Chinese Eastern Railway wagons from railway authorities in order to accommodate the growing number of infected persons.[22]

Moreover, Wu Lien-Teh (Wu Liande) – the Chinese doctor in charge of the response – received Qing imperial permission to burn the dead bodies of victims, thus thousands of bodies were safely disposed of.[23] Similarly, Russian C.E.R. authorities organised sanitary zones, monitored the population and burned lodgings that had been in contact with plague.[24] As a result of these preventative measures and the end of the cold winter, the epidemic was over by the end of April 1911.[25]


R. L. Polk & Co.'s Sherman City Directory, 1910-1911

The directory for Sherman, Texas includes address listings for businesses and individuals as well as advertisements from local businesses. According to the title page, the directory contains "a complete alphabetical list of business firms and private citizens of Sherman. A miscellaneous directory of city and county officials, churches, public and private schools, banks, asylums, hospitals and homes, commercial, bodies, secret societies, street and avenue guide, etc., etc., etc. Also a Complete Classified Business Directory and Numerical Street Directory." Indexes to content are on page 10 index to advertisers is on page 12.

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Esse book is part of the collection entitled: City Directories and was provided by the Austin College to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 2662 times, with 78 in the last month. More information about this book can be viewed below.

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Austin College

Founded in 1849, this private liberal arts college first opened its doors in Huntsville and is the oldest institution of higher education in Texas still operating under its original name and charter. The college moved to Sherman following three yellow fever epidemics, the Civil War, and financial troubles.

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Descrição

The directory for Sherman, Texas includes address listings for businesses and individuals as well as advertisements from local businesses. According to the title page, the directory contains "a complete alphabetical list of business firms and private citizens of Sherman. A miscellaneous directory of city and county officials, churches, public and private schools, banks, asylums, hospitals and homes, commercial, bodies, secret societies, street and avenue guide, etc., etc., etc. Also a Complete Classified Business Directory and Numerical Street Directory." Indexes to content are on page 10 index to advertisers is on page 12.


Now You Know: When Did People Start Saying That the Year Was 'A.D.'?

Ironically, considering the system is used to describe precise calendar years, it’s impossible to say exactly when the “A.D.” calendar designation first came into being, says Lynn Hunt, author of Measuring Time, Making History and professor of history at UCLA.

Though there are a few frequently cited inflection points in that history&mdashrecorded instances of particular books using one system or another&mdashthe things that happened in the middle, and how and when new systems of dating were adopted, remain uncertain.

Systems of dating before B.C./A.D. was fully adopted were often based on significant events, political leaders and a well-kept chronology of the order in which they ruled. For example, the Romans generally described years based on who was consul, or by counting from the founding of the city of Rome. Some might also count based on what year of an emperor’s reign it was. Egyptians also used a variation on this system, counting years based on years of a king’s rule (so, an event might be dated to the 5th year of someone’s rule) and then keeping a list of those kings.

But how did we get from that event-based organization to sticking with just one primary moment?

“The history is very vague, because it takes a long time” to adopt this sort of dating, Hunt says. “A.D. is very easy for people to cope with because the life of Jesus is obviously incredibly important in Christian Europe. Então Anno Domini, the year of our Lord, is a very easy transition to make, as opposed to dating the year an emperor had reigned in Rome.” Still, even if there’s logic to counting from a single incredibly important event (and dating like this was also the basis for the Islamic calendar), it took hundreds of years to catch on.

“Christians wanted to get away from the Roman chronology, so they begin to develop a Christian chronology. In Christian Europe Jesus is the obvious point of departure,” explains Hunt. One of the early writers to date this way was Dionysius Exiguus, a monk who, in 525 A.D., was intent on working out when exactly Easter would occur in the coming years. Given the importance of calculating when significant religious occasions should be observed, he formulated a new table of when the holiday would fall, starting from a year he called �.” He wrote that this method of counting “with years from the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ” would replace a system based on the Roman Emperor Diocletian’s rule which he termed “the memory of an impious persecutor of Christians.” But just because he used this dating didn’t mean it was popular or caught on immediately, or that he was necessarily the first to or only one to do so.

Practical use of A.D., on papers like charters or church documents, began to catch on in eighth and ninth century England, as Hunt describes in her book, and from there expanded to France and Italy by the late ninth century. But, even as it grew, people continued to use other systems like the Roman calendar.

Starting with Christ’s birth as a single defining moment&mdashrather than using a succession of rulers one after another, or trying to count from the very beginning of creation&mdashleads inevitably to the fact that lots of stuff happened antes. But, Hunt says, B.C. was much harder to implement. Terms referring to this “before” varied all the way through the 18th century.

Some mention Bede, an Anglo-Saxon historian and monk, as an early instance of writing about “before” Christ. He used the same dating system as Exiguus throughout his history of England in 731, which he started with Caesar&rsquos raids (55-54 B.C.) and so mentions years “before the incarnation of our Lord.” Another religious writer, this one a French Jesuit named Dionysius Petavius (a.k.a. Denis Petau), used the idea of ante Christum in his 1627 work De doctrina temporum. New editions continued to be published throughout the rest of the century and it was translated into English, where the abbreviations of A.C. or Ant. Chri. were used. Another option was to use the Julian Period system invented in the 16th century by Joseph Scaliger, who combined several other calendars to come up with a master calendar that stretched nearly 5,000 years back before the year one.

A century or so after Petavius’ work, Isaac Newton wrote a chronology in which he used Petavius’ system&mdashbut with a slight change in the wording, using “before” rather than the Latin “ante.” “The times are set down in years before Christ,” Newton wrote, but he didn&rsquot use abbreviations.

“The hinge idea, that there’s before Jesus and after Jesus really only takes root in the 17th and 18th century,” Hunt says.

Newton’s chronology was part of a growing interest in figuring out concordances&mdashlinks between historical events and biblical events&mdashduring the 18th and 19th centuries. Even as some explored these connections, scientists wondered if the geological and fossil evidence they were discovering made sense with the age of the earth supposed by the Bible. Those doubts were possible to explore because the B.C. dating system can reach infinitely far into the past. “It’s becoming increasingly difficult for them to believe that the earth is only 6,000 years old and that gives much more importance to the A.D./B.C. [system],” Hunt says, “Previously it was not that long of a period before Jesus, and now all of a sudden that’s exploding and becoming a potentially huge amount of time.”

And, though it took centuries for A.D. and B.C. to catch on, they stuck. Aas some people stripped the terms of some of their religious connotations by using BCE (“before the common era”) and C.E. (“common era”) instead of B.C. and A.D.&mdashespecially in the past 30 years&mdashcounting from the birth of Christ endures. But even these newly popular terms have a history. When the language of how to refer to the system hadn’t yet crystallized, people used a variety of terms including “common era”as early as 1708, and the Encyclopedia Britannica used common era to refer to dates, alongside &ldquoChristian era,&rdquo in its 1797 edition.

A significant portion of this system&rsquos staying power is due to Western colonial expansion and dominance, Hunt says, adding that part of the reason we still use this system is because it’s so hard to change.

“You get used to a certain way of doing things,” she says. “It’s quite similar to the problem of the metric system, which is invented in the 18th century and took a very long time before it could be taken up even in France. Now almost everybody in the world uses it.”


The Art of americano Anúncio

&ldquoAdvertising is a distinct art, as much so as the art of coal mining or of engine building,&rdquo noted copywriter and author Nathaniel C. Fowler wrote in 1889. 1 Fowler was referring to modern American advertising that burst onto the economic and cultural landscape after the Civil War. By the 1860s, the railroad industry had created a national network for the manufacture and distribution of industrial and consumer goods and, with it, the need for eye-catching, widespread advertising. Capitalizing on the growing industries of advertising and printing, companies with products to sell reached wholesalers, retailers, and home consumers through media of all shapes, sizes, colors, and imagery&mdashfrom trade catalogs and trade cards to broadsides and posters to souvenir publications and novelty items. The emerging advertising profession after the Civil War represents a marketing revolution in which technology, creativity, and art were marshaled together to serve commercial ends. Drawing from Baker Library&rsquos Historical Collections, The Art of American Advertising, 1865&mdash1910 explores the role these burgeoning and extraordinarily inventive forms of advertising played in marketing mass-produced products to the evolving American consumer culture.

1 Nathaniel Clark Fowler, About Advertising and Printing. A Concise, Practical, and Original Manual on the Art of Local Advertising. Boston: A. M. Thayer & Co., 1889, p. 5


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