Notícia

Por que o Mayflower saiu tão tarde no ano?

Por que o Mayflower saiu tão tarde no ano?

De acordo com a Wikipedia, o Mayflower começou sua viagem em julho de 1620, foi atrasado enquanto esperava pelo Speedwell e, finalmente, partiu para a América em setembro.

Isso os colocou na América no início de novembro e deixou os peregrinos muito vulneráveis ​​às condições do inverno na América, sem abrigo e suprimentos adequados.

Entendo que o atraso causado pelo Speedwell não poderia ter sido previsto, mas mesmo contando isso, por que planejar sair em meados do verão e não na primavera, para que chegassem em melhores condições?


Resposta curta:
O processo prematuro para receber a permissão real para o assentamento proposto (três anos) e a incerteza que o acompanhou é provavelmente o maior fator na partida tardia dos peregrinos em julho de 1620. Isso deu partida no relógio e todos os atrasos que se seguiram exasperaram o problema. Depois que a permissão foi concedida, os peregrinos tiveram uma série de tarefas formidáveis ​​a cumprir. Alinhe o apoio financeiro. Recrute trabalhadores qualificados para aumentar sua força de trabalho. Aluguer e provisão de navios. Tudo isso não poderia ocorrer até que o rei desse permissão para os peregrinos se estabelecerem na parte norte da Virgínia. Como você aludiu também. Problemas com o Speedwell que no final das contas não fez a viagem, atrasou-os em setembro de 1620, e então os erros de navegação e a procura de uma localização mais ideal custaram-lhes meses adicionais. Na verdade, eles não começaram a trabalhar em suas moradias de inverno em Plymouth logo após o final do Natal Dezembro de 1620.

Resposta detalhada:
Os peregrinos (separatistas) eram um grupo de protestantes que se opunham à Igreja da Inglaterra por ser muito semelhante à Igreja Católica e, portanto, tentavam buscar uma vida onde fossem livres para adorar independentemente de outras religiões. O primeiro refúgio em seu desejo de liberdade para praticar sua religião como bem entendessem foi a Holanda. Eles ficaram na Holanda por 10 anos. No final das contas, a Holanda teve algumas desvantagens. Tinha uma grande variedade de estruturas de crenças religiosas e cosmopolitas concorrentes, pelas quais as crianças dos Peregrinos também foram atraídas. O sistema secular de ofício de comércio proibia os peregrinos imigrantes de praticar suas vocações escolhidas e, portanto, os peregrinos foram relegados a empregos de baixa remuneração e tiveram dificuldade em ganhar a vida. Nesta base por 1617 a congregação de peregrinos (separatistas) começou a planejar um assentamento norte-americano que proporcionaria liberdade religiosa e econômica que eles buscavam. Jamestown havia sido estabelecido no território da Virgínia em 1607 e era uma preocupação constante. Jamestown era seu modelo e, como Jamestown, Virginia era seu alvo de assentamento.

  • 1617 Os peregrinos decidem deixar a Holanda e no modelo de Jamestown se estabelecem no território da Virgínia do Norte a fim de encontrar liberdade religiosa e econômica. Jamestown ficava no sul da Virgínia.

  • Demorou 3 anos para negociar com a Inglaterra (King James) pelo direito de se estabelecer na Virgínia. Este período envolveu longos períodos de espera e várias partidas falsas. Quando eles finalmente receberam a permissão para prosseguir, considerou-se que eles deveriam partir o mais rápido possível ou correr o risco de ver a permissão rescindida como tinha acontecido em ocasiões anteriores durante o período de 3 anos.

  • Demorou mais tempo para negociar os termos com seus patrocinadores financeiros "The London Adventurers". "Os Aventureiros de Londres" pagariam pelo transporte e suprimentos dos Peregrinos em troca de produtos que seriam exportados da nova colônia assim que ela fosse estabelecida. Quantas horas por semana os peregrinos na América do Norte trabalhariam para seus financiadores e que porcentagem da produção esses apoiadores exigiriam tudo tinha que ser negociado. Além disso, quais suprimentos seriam necessários e quando essas exportações teriam início foram temas controversos para as negociações.

  • Os 35 imigrantes religiosos tiveram que recrutar 50 trabalhadores vocacionais qualificados para ajudar na construção do assentamento.

  • Em maio de 1620 negociaram o transporte com o capitão e quartel-proprietário do navio mercante Mayflower, Christopher Jones. O navio teve que navegar de Londres a Plymouth, na Inglaterra, para ser abastecido.

História de Massachusetts
Em maio de 1620, separatistas religiosos conhecidos como peregrinos contrataram Jones e seu navio para levá-los à foz do rio Hudson na América do Norte, onde receberam permissão para construir uma colônia.

  • Julho de 1620 Os peregrinos partiram para a Virgínia. Por duas vezes, eles tiveram que retornar à Inglaterra porque um dos dois navios que estavam empregando (o Speedwell) estava entrando na água e, por fim, foi considerado estruturalmente inadequado para a viagem. O Mayflower finalmente saiu sem o Speedwell, Setembro de 1620.

  • Dia 9 de novembro, Terra foi avistada, terminando 66 dias no mar.

  • 11 de novembro, O contrato social, o Pacto Mayflower foi escrito e assinado.

  • 8 de dezembro, após escaramuças com os índios locais, os peregrinos decidiram retornar ao Mayflower e procurar um local melhor para o assentamento.

Mayflower sai da Inglaterra
- Sobre 21 de dezembro o Mayflower ancorou no que se tornaria o porto de Plymouth. Logo após o Natal de 1620, os peregrinos começaram a trabalhar nas moradias que os abrigariam durante seu difícil primeiro inverno na América.

Fontes


A resposta de JMS atinge os melhores motivos, esta resposta é principalmente destinada como um suplemento à dele.

Não tenho 100% de certeza se os primeiros peregrinos realmente sabiam como o clima do Novo Mundo seria implacável. Grande parte do norte da Europa e especialmente a Grã-Bretanha se beneficiam muito de um sistema conhecido como Corrente do Atlântico Norte (ou Deriva do Atlântico Norte). Este padrão faz com que as águas quentes fluam do Caribe para o norte da Europa, o que contribui muito para regular o clima. Mesmo as épocas mais frias do inverno são relativamente amenas e a temperatura raramente cai abaixo de -10 Celsius (geralmente ficando acima de 0 na maior parte do ano).

O mês mais frio de Londres é aparentemente janeiro, com uma média de 5 graus decentes ... e é importante notar que Londres fica em torno de 51,5 graus ao norte.

O Nordeste da América do Norte realmente vê a outra extremidade desse sistema, uma corrente fria do Ártico fluindo para o sul. Nova York, situada a cerca de 40 graus ao norte e uma distância significativa ao sul de Londres, vê seu mês mais frio de janeiro em cerca de 2 graus Celsius em média. St.John's Newfoundland (Canadá) fica a cerca de 47,5 graus ao norte (ainda ao sul de Londres) e suas temperaturas médias no inverno caem para -8 facilmente em janeiro (com períodos de temperaturas muito mais severas). Eu também arriscaria supor que o padrão agora conhecido como Nor'Easter é completamente desconhecido para os peregrinos do Mayflower.

Portanto, eu sugeriria, além da postagem de JMS, que os peregrinos provavelmente não sabiam como um inverno rigoroso da Nova Inglaterra poderia ser comparado aos invernos amenos do norte da Europa e, como tal, colocam menos estresse ao chegar no verão do que deveriam. .


The Mayflower Voyage

Kate Waters, autora de livros infantis e especialista em Mayflower e a vida em Plimoth, respondeu a uma seleção de perguntas para crianças.

Como foram construídos os barcos e as casas?
Os barcos e as casas foram construídos manualmente. Os troncos das árvores foram cortados em madeira. Os pregos foram forjados em metal. As velas eram feitas de linho grosso tecido à mão. O alcatrão foi usado para impermeabilizar os navios. Feno e lama foram misturados para preencher as rachaduras nas casas. Fazer coisas demorava muito no século XVII. Quando o Mayflower II foi construído, levou dois anos para ser concluído.

O que aconteceu com o outro navio que partiu da Inglaterra carregando peregrinos?
o Speedwell é o nome do segundo navio. Ele desenvolveu vazamentos e teve que voltar. Tanto o Mayflower e a Speedwell voltou, e a maior parte do Speedwell & # 39s passageiros aglomerados no Mayflower para a viagem à América do Norte. É por isso que Mayflower estava tão lotado e uma das razões pelas quais a viagem foi tão difícil.

Era a vida no Mayflower fácil para qualquer um?
Não sabemos ao certo, mas acho que ninguém fez uma boa travessia. Até o comandante, Christopher Jones, que era o chefe e co-proprietário do navio, deve ter se preocupado com o bem-estar das pessoas a bordo. E as tempestades mantinham todos no navio acordados por muitas horas seguidas.

Fiz o Mayflower cheiro?
Sim o Mayflower cheirava. O convés estava lotado de pessoas, muitas das quais ficaram enjoadas. As pessoas não podiam tomar banho no navio. Quando as tempestades vieram, os passageiros não puderam jogar fora seus penicos. E, na época, muitas pessoas pensavam que muito ar fresco era ruim para você. Que alívio deve ter sido chegar ao porto.

Do que eram feitas as velas do navio?
As velas eram feitas de tecido pesado. Na época, todas as roupas eram feitas à mão. As velas dos navios eram muito caras.

Como o navio se perdeu?
Durante uma tempestade, o céu fica escuro e nublado. Não é possível usar as estrelas para navegar, nem é possível dirigir muito bem. o Mayflower avistaram terras mais ao norte do que pretendiam. Como era inverno e o vento estava forte, eles não podiam contornar a ponta de Cape Cod e ir para o sul, para a Virgínia, então tiveram que ficar onde estavam.

Qual o tamanho das cabines no Mayflower? Onde as pessoas dormem?
Os passageiros não possuíam cabines privativas no navio. Eles tiveram que viver em um grande espaço e entre decks. Eles usaram cortinas para criar alguma privacidade. Alguns dos passageiros dormiam em estrados de madeira presos às paredes, outros faziam redes de tecido e alguns dormiam no chão ou na cabeceira. A chalupa era o pequeno barco usado para levar as pessoas à terra. o Mayflower não pude navegar direto até a praia porque a água lá é muito rasa.

Fiz o Mayflower fazer mais viagens?
Não. Quando o Mayflower voltou para a Inglaterra, o navio estava muito degradado. Provavelmente foi desmontado e seu equipamento vendido. Outros navios fizeram a viagem através do Atlântico, trazendo mais colonos, suprimentos e cartas. Logo, havia navios cruzando o Oceano Atlântico regularmente.

As crianças tinham animais de estimação no Mayflower?
Sabemos que dois cães viajaram na Mayflower, um spaniel e um mastim. Mastiffs são cães muito grandes! Pode ter havido gatos a bordo também para pegar camundongos e ratos. Ratos e ratos eram freqüentemente encontrados em navios porque gostavam de comer os grãos que os navios carregavam.

Quanta comida os peregrinos levaram com eles no Mayflower?
Os passageiros trouxeram carne seca e peixe, grãos e farinha, frutas secas, queijo, biscoitos duros e outros alimentos com eles. Eles tiveram que comer a comida que trouxeram até que pudessem plantar e colher uma horta. Mas, eles pegaram e comeram peixes e caça selvagem assim que desembarcaram na América do Norte.

Por que o navio foi chamado de Mayflower?
o Mayflower, também chamada de flor do espinheiro, era uma flor popular na Inglaterra. Achamos que o navio tinha um mayflower esculpido em sua popa. Os navios eram pintados com cores vivas para que as pessoas pudessem reconhecê-los à distância. Se você olhar no Mayflower, você verá como o navio é colorido. É pintado para se parecer com o navio original.

Como as pessoas foram ao banheiro no navio?
As pessoas usaram um penico. É uma tigela que guardamos debaixo da cama à noite. As pessoas também usavam penicos em terra. Não havia água corrente ou autoclismos no século XVII.

As crianças tiveram aulas na escola no Mayflower?
Não sabemos ao certo, mas é provável que as crianças leiam livros e joguem a bordo do navio até que o tempo fique realmente ruim. Muitos dos jogos que as crianças jogavam no século XVII eram educacionais, como jogos do alfabeto e jogos com números.

Muitas pessoas no Mayflower ficar doente?
Sim, muitas pessoas adoeceram. Algumas pessoas morreram. Algumas pessoas ficaram enjoadas. Outras pessoas adoeceram porque não havia comida boa para comer. Como a viagem demorou mais do que eles pensaram, os passageiros e os marinheiros ficaram sem comida boa.

O que eles fizeram no Mayflower quando a tempestade realmente forte veio?
Não havia muito que os passageiros pudessem fazer quando a tempestade viesse. Eles tiveram que ficar abaixo do convés para ficar fora do caminho dos marinheiros. Eles não podiam acender fogueiras para cozinhar sua comida. Eles provavelmente tentaram amarrar seus pertences. O navio estava balançando para frente e para trás e rodando terrivelmente. Muitas pessoas ficaram enjoadas.

Com que frequência os peregrinos voltaram para casa e viram sua família?
o Mayflower os passageiros não viram suas famílias novamente, a menos que um membro da família viajasse para a América do Norte em um dos muitos navios que chegaram após o Mayflower. A viagem pelo oceano era cara.

Que oceano os peregrinos cruzaram?
o Mayflower cruzou o oceano Atlântico da Inglaterra para a América do Norte. Foi a primeira vez que o navio cruzou o oceano.

As crianças foram capazes de ir no Mayflower sozinho?
Algumas das crianças no Mayflower não estavam viajando com suas famílias. Alguns eram órfãos e foram com outras famílias.

Quanto tempo demorou para construir o Mayflower?
Não sabemos ao certo quanto tempo levou para construir o Mayflower. Mas, sabemos que demorou mais de dois anos para construir a réplica do Mayflower, a Mayflower II. Os construtores fizeram a réplica manualmente. Eles usaram as mesmas técnicas que foram usadas no século XVII. Você pode visitar o Mayflower II em Plimoth Plantation em Massachusetts.

Quantas roupas as crianças podiam trazer na viagem?
É importante lembrar que a maioria das crianças e adultos que viviam na Inglaterra em 1620 não tinha muitas mudas de roupa. Os europeus que chamamos de Peregrinos partiram da Inglaterra e não esperavam retornar. Eles levaram consigo tudo o que sentiram que precisavam para começar uma nova vida. Eles provavelmente levaram todas as suas roupas resistentes e alguns brinquedos favoritos.

Você conhece alguém que trabalhou no Mayflower?
Não no barco original, mas conheci muitas pessoas que trabalham no Mayflower II. Alguns são intérpretes que se fantasiam todos os dias e contam aos visitantes sobre o navio e a viagem. Outros são carpinteiros e fabricantes de velas que mantêm o navio em perfeitas condições.

Você foi no Mayflower II? Faz o Mayflower II realmente velejar?
Eu estive a bordo do Mayflower II e você também pode visitá-lo. É uma exposição na Plimoth Plantation em Massachusetts. O navio está atracado no porto de Plymouth. o Mayflower II foi construído na Inglaterra. Foi feito à mão, da mesma forma que pensamos que o original Mayflower foi construído. Ele cruzou o Atlântico até Massachusetts. Normalmente, o navio só sai do cais duas vezes por ano, uma vez quando é virado para que resista uniformemente em cada lado e depois quando é retirado da água para ser consertado. Mas, durante o verão de 1997, o Mayflower II navegou de Plymouth, Massachusetts, para Provincetown, Massachusetts. Foi quando Russ tirou as fotos que estão em No Mayflower.

O que fizeram os cachorros no Mayflower comer e onde eles foram ao banheiro?
Nos dois relatos existentes da viagem do Mayflower, não há menção a cães. É certamente provável que cães e outros animais tenham chegado em navios posteriores. É importante lembrar que muitos navios cruzaram o Oceano Atlântico até a América do Norte. Mas o Mayflower foi o primeiro a trazer colonos permanentes para o estado de Massachusetts atual.

Quantas pessoas estavam no Mayflower? Como eles se banharam e o que comeram?
Havia 102 passageiros a bordo e cerca de 30 tripulantes e marinheiros. O convés, onde os passageiros moraram por 66 dias, estava muito lotado. Não havia privacidade para tomar banho. Enquanto durasse a água potável, as pessoas provavelmente lavavam o rosto e as mãos e escovavam os dentes para mantê-la o mais limpa possível. Os passageiros e a tripulação comeram coisas diferentes em diferentes estágios da viagem. No início, quando havia comida fresca e mar calmo, provavelmente comiam ensopados de carne e vegetais. Quando as tempestades vieram, ninguém conseguiu acender fogueiras para cozinhar. Em seguida, as pessoas comeram biscoitos duros, carne seca e peixe, e beberam cerveja ou água, se sobrou alguma. Como a viagem foi mais longa do que o esperado, os suprimentos de comida estavam muito baixos quando o navio ancorou. Durante os meses em que os passageiros moraram no navio enquanto construíam suas casas, muitas pessoas morreram de desnutrição.

Os peregrinos pescaram do Mayflower, e em caso afirmativo, eles usaram anzol e linhas ou redes?
Não sabemos com certeza. Os marinheiros e a tripulação provavelmente pescavam quando tinham tempo livre, mas não havia muito tempo livre. Velejar um navio como o Mayflower leva muitas mãos ao redor do relógio.

Sobre quantas pessoas morreram e de quê?
Apenas uma pessoa morreu enquanto o navio estava navegando. Seu nome era William Burton. Ele era um servo do diácono Samuel Fuller. A propósito, uma criança nasceu na viagem. Ele foi nomeado Oceanus Hopkins.

Fiz o Mayflower navegar pela água gelada?
o Mayflower navegou através do Oceano Atlântico no outono e início do inverno. A água certamente estava muito fria, mas não havia icebergs.

Quem foi a primeira criança peregrina nascida após o Mayflower chegado?
Peregrine White foi a primeira criança nascida após o Mayflower ancorou no porto de Plymouth. Ele era filho de William e Susanna White. Nasceu um bebê enquanto o navio estava no mar. Ele foi nomeado Oceanus Hopkins.

O que aconteceu com o Mayflower depois que os peregrinos chegaram?
O navio ficou no porto por cinco meses enquanto os colonos construíam suas casas. Os colonos viviam no navio naquela época. Em 5 de abril de 1621, o Mayflower zarpou para a Inglaterra. Ele não navegou para a América do Norte novamente.

O que eles usaram como luz a bordo do navio?
Lanternas movidas a óleo e velas.

Foi difícil dormir à noite no Mayflower?
Só posso imaginar como o navio era barulhento. Acho que houve sons de rangidos, sons de acessórios de metal batendo uns contra os outros, vozes de membros da tripulação dando ordens e reportando a seus supervisores e, claro, o som do mar. Quase nunca é silencioso no oceano. Além disso, lembre-se de que os passageiros provavelmente estavam muito, muito cansados ​​o tempo todo. Como costumava ser difícil saber que horas eram, talvez as pessoas dormissem sempre que podiam.


Por que o Mayflower saiu tão tarde no ano? - História

Os peregrinos eram um grupo de ingleses que vieram para a América em busca de liberdade religiosa durante o reinado do rei Jaime I. Após duas tentativas de deixar a Inglaterra e se mudar para a Holanda, um grupo separatista foi finalmente transferido para Amsterdã, onde permaneceram por cerca de um ano. De lá, o grupo mudou-se para a cidade de Leiden, Holanda, onde permaneceram por cerca de dez anos, podendo adorar como desejassem sob a leniente lei holandesa.

Temendo que seus filhos estivessem perdendo sua herança inglesa e crenças religiosas, a retomada da guerra e sua incapacidade como não cidadãos de encontrar empregos decentes, um pequeno grupo da igreja de Leiden fez planos para se estabelecer na Virgínia do Norte - como a Nova Inglaterra era conhecida no Tempo. Em agosto de 1620, o grupo partiu para Southampton, na Inglaterra, onde outros colonos ingleses que esperavam construir uma nova vida na América os encontraram.

Eles planejavam fazer a travessia para a América em dois navios, o Speedwell e Mayflower. No entanto, depois de muitos problemas, o Speedwell foi forçado a voltar para a Inglaterra, onde o grupo foi reorganizado. Em sua segunda tentativa de cruzar o Atlântico, eles embarcaram no Mayflower em setembro de 1620 com destino ao Novo Mundo. Eles chegaram quando o inverno estava chegando e enfrentaram dificuldades significativas enquanto lutavam para estabelecer uma colônia de sucesso em Plymouth.

Com o tempo, sua colônia floresceu e abriu caminho para o estabelecimento da liberdade religiosa e a criação das bases da democracia que os americanos desfrutam hoje. A celebração do primeiro Dia de Ação de Graças tornou-se um feriado nacional festivo.

Nós encorajamos você a aprender mais sobre os peregrinos e sua vida. Visite nossos amigos em:

Plimoth Plantation, um museu de história viva do século 17.

Pilgrim Hall, o museu em operação contínua mais antigo da América com a maior e mais significativa coleção de posses do século 17, seus testamentos e inventários de propriedades, de propriedade dos peregrinos e outros residentes da colônia de Plymouth.

Pilgrim Fathers Origins, um site que celebra as origens dos Pilgrim Fathers.


Mayflower Compact

Nossos editores irão revisar o que você enviou e determinar se o artigo deve ser revisado.

Mayflower Compact, documento assinado no navio inglês Mayflower em 21 de novembro [11 de novembro, Estilo Antigo] de 1620, antes de seu desembarque em Plymouth, Massachusetts. Foi a primeira estrutura de governo escrita e promulgada no território que hoje é os Estados Unidos da América.

Mares agitados e tempestades impediram o Mayflower de alcançar seu destino pretendido na área do rio Hudson, e o navio foi direcionado para Cape Cod. Por causa da mudança de curso, os passageiros não estavam mais sob a jurisdição do fretamento concedido a eles na Inglaterra pela Virginia Company. Dentro desta situação legalmente incerta, o atrito surgiu entre os separatistas ingleses (os peregrinos) e o resto dos viajantes, com alguns deles ameaçando deixar o grupo e se estabelecer por conta própria.

Para acabar com o conflito e preservar a unidade, os líderes da Pilgrim (entre eles William Bradford e William Brewster) redigiram o Pacto do Mayflower antes de desembarcar. O breve documento (cerca de 200 palavras) vinculou seus signatários a um corpo político com o propósito de formar um governo e os prometeu cumprir todas as leis e regulamentos que mais tarde seriam estabelecidos "para o bem geral da colônia". O pacto foi assinado por quase todos os MayflowerPassageiros adultos do sexo masculino (41 de um total de 102 passageiros) enquanto o navio estava ancorado no porto de Provincetown. Sua autoridade foi imediatamente exercida quando John Carver, que ajudara a organizar a expedição, foi escolhido como governador da nova colônia.

O Mayflower Compact não foi uma constituição, mas sim uma adaptação de uma aliança da igreja puritana a uma situação civil. Além disso, como medida provisória adotada exclusivamente pelos colonos, o documento não solucionou a questão dos questionáveis ​​direitos legais sobre as terras que ocuparam. (Uma patente foi finalmente obtida do Conselho da Nova Inglaterra em junho de 1621.) Ainda assim, o Pacto do Mayflower tornou-se a base do governo de Plymouth e permaneceu em vigor até que a colônia foi absorvida pela Colônia da Baía de Massachusetts em 1691. Embora na prática muito de o poder em Plymouth era guardado pelos fundadores da Pilgrim, o pacto, com seus princípios fundamentais de autogoverno e consentimento comum, foi interpretado como um passo importante na evolução do governo democrático na América.

Como a versão original do Mayflower Compact foi perdida, a fonte mais antiga conhecida na qual o texto do documento (fornecido abaixo) pode ser encontrado é Relação de Mourt (1622), um relato do acordo de Plymouth escrito por Edward Winslow e William Bradford.

Em nome de Deus, amém. Nós, cujos nomes são subscritos, os súditos leais de nosso temível senhor soberano, o Rei James, pela graça de Deus, da Grã-Bretanha, França e Irlanda, Rei, Defensor da Fé, etc.

Tendo empreendido, para a glória de Deus, e o avanço da fé cristã, e honra de nosso rei e país, uma viagem para plantar a primeira colônia nas partes do norte da Virgínia, faça por estes presentes solenemente e mutuamente na presença de Deus e um do outro, pactuar e nos combinar em um corpo político civil, para nosso melhor ordenamento e preservação, e promoção dos fins acima mencionados e, em virtude deste instrumento, promulgar, constituir e enquadrar tais leis, ordenanças, atos justos e iguais , constituições, ofícios de tempos em tempos, conforme se julgue mais adequado e conveniente para o bem geral da colônia: aos quais prometemos toda a devida submissão e obediência. Em testemunho do que, a seguir, subscrevemos nossos nomes Cape Cod, em 11 de novembro, no ano do reinado de nosso soberano senhor Rei James, da Inglaterra, França e Irlanda décimo oitavo e da Escócia quinquagésimo quarto, Anno Domini 1620.


Recontando a história da chegada do Mayflower, 400 anos depois

Apenas um mês antes de quatro séculos atrás, um navio com a esperança de um novo futuro chegou às costas de Plymouth, Massachusetts.

A bordo do Mayflower II, o historiador-chefe do Museu Plimoth Patuxet, Richard Pickering, mostrou à correspondente Nancy Chen a reprodução recém-restaurada do navio, que tinha em seu casco escuro 102 passageiros em busca de liberdade religiosa e uma vida melhor.

Após uma jornada de 66 dias, eles chegaram a Plymouth no final de dezembro de 1620, lançando as bases para o início da democracia americana.

O Mayflower Compact foi o primeiro documento a estabelecer o autogoverno representativo na América Colonial.

"Certamente moldou os primórdios do nosso país", disse Michele Pecoraro, diretora executiva da Plymouth 400, parte de uma comemoração do legado dos peregrinos, com um colaborador anteriormente ausente em eventos de aniversário anteriores.

Pela primeira vez, os indígenas foram incluídos como parceiros. “Temos membros do conselho Wampanoag, temos um comitê consultivo Wampanoag formado por povos nativos”, disse Pecoraro. "Portanto, é a primeira tentativa real de ter uma comemoração historicamente precisa e culturalmente abrangente."

Notícias populares

Membro da tribo Mashpee Wampanoag, Steve Peters criou uma exposição para o Plymouth 400 sobre a chegada dos peregrinos, chamada "Nossa" História: 400 Anos de História Wampanoag.

Chen perguntou: "Isso é algo que não poderia ter acontecido mesmo uma geração atrás?"

“Sim, não acho que isso poderia ter acontecido há 20 anos”, disse Peters.

Solicitado a caracterizar os eventos de 400 anos atrás, Peters disse: "Isso marca o começo do fim para meu pessoal aqui. É importante que as pessoas entendam isso para que possam começar a ser um pouco mais humanos e compassivos com nossos pessoas e a posição em que estamos hoje. "

Existem cerca de 3.000 membros da Tribo Mashpee Wampanoag hoje. O povo Wampanoag como nação havia se estabelecido no que é hoje Plymouth por cerca de 14.000 anos.

"Estamos literalmente sentados no terreno que seria a vila de Patuxet em, digamos, 1614", disse Peters. "Eles estavam vivendo, eu gostaria de pensar, uma vida bastante idílica."

Isso foi até que uma pandemia pouco antes da chegada dos peregrinos matou cerca de 90% da população Wampanoag. As doenças foram trazidas por europeus anteriores. Era conhecido como a "Grande Morte".

A historiadora Donna Curtin, diretora executiva do Pilgrim Hall Museum, disse: "Essa é a história de Plymouth e a vila de Patuxet foi totalmente destruída."

O povo Wampanoag sofreu pesadas perdas, tornando-os mais receptivos a novas alianças.

Os dois grupos se reuniram para um banquete de gratidão após a colheita daquele outono, o que agora chamamos de Ação de Graças, e viveram lado a lado por 50 anos, antes que a guerra devastasse enormemente a população e o modo de vida Wampanoag.

A história do que aconteceu depois é freqüentemente esquecida na história do Dia de Ação de Graças.

"Na verdade, muita coisa ficou de fora da história", disse Pecoraro. "Só porque está escrito não significa que seja, a) completamente verdadeiro, eb) a única forma de expressá-lo."

Um objetivo do Plymouth 400 é contar essa história mais abrangente. Mas, por causa da pandemia, os organizadores adiaram muitos eventos até 2021, ao mesmo tempo que virtualizaram algumas exposições e conferências.

A parceria abrange oceanos, uma colaboração de quatro nações: Inglaterra, Holanda, América e terras natais Wampanoag.

Mayflower 400 no Reino Unido marca o início da jornada dos peregrinos, quando os perseguidos peregrinos partiram de Plymouth, na Inglaterra, antes de viverem por 12 anos na atual Holanda. Leiden 400 desenvolveu um programa com o nome da cidade onde os peregrinos viviam.

Todos os parceiros estão enfatizando uma história mais inclusiva.

O legado do Mayflower perdura até hoje. Cerca de 25 milhões de americanos descendem dos peregrinos a bordo, incluindo pelo menos nove presidentes dos EUA.

“Isso é algo de que muitas pessoas podem se orgulhar”, disse Curtin. "Isso é parte de seu passado, parte de sua história, parte de sua própria história. Mas não reflete a história de todos."

Os organizadores do evento têm o cuidado de chamar isso de comemoração ao invés de celebração. Mesmo assim, há membros Wampanoag preocupados com a parceria.

Este Dia de Ação de Graças também marca o 50º aniversário do Dia Nacional do Luto, quando os povos indígenas se reúnem em Plymouth para homenagear seus ancestrais e lamentar suas lutas contínuas.

Peters começará seu dia lá, antes de festejar naquela noite, como tantos outros americanos expressando gratidão.

"Se você olhasse para o nosso jantar de Ação de Graças, provavelmente se pareceria com o jantar de Ação de Graças de todos os outros", disse Peters. "Mas o que você ouviria de diferente é o que agradecemos. E assim, agradecemos pela capacidade de nossos ancestrais de perseverar, apesar de cada obstáculo que foi [colocado] diante deles nos últimos 400 anos, desde o chegada e colonização deste país. Então, é por isso que damos graças ”.


Quem foi o primeiro afro-americano?

Como muitos de vocês, sempre me disseram que os primeiros africanos a chegarem ao que hoje são os Estados Unidos foram os "20 e ímpares" africanos que chegaram como escravos a Jamestown, Virgínia, do que hoje é o país de Angola, em 1619. Mas isso não é verdade. Na verdade, os africanos chegaram à América do Norte mais de um século antes que o Mayflower pousasse em Plymouth Rock e antes que esses angolanos chegassem à Virgínia. Além do mais, sabemos até a identidade do primeiro africano documentado a chegar. Seu nome era Juan Garrido e, o que é mais surpreendente, ele não era nem mesmo um escravo. No próximo ano será o 500º aniversário de sua chegada à Flórida, e o estado planeja comemorar esse evento notável.

Juan Garrido nasceu na África Ocidental por volta de 1480. De acordo com os historiadores Ricardo Alegria e Jane Landers, Garrido & # x27s notarized & quotprobanza& quot (seu curriculum vitae, mais ou menos), datado de 1538, diz que se mudou da África para Lisboa, Portugal, por sua própria vontade como um homem livre, ficou na Espanha por sete anos, e então, em busca de sua fortuna e talvez um pouco de fama, ele juntou os primeiros conquistadores ao Novo Mundo. Todas as testemunhas juramentadas deste documento afirmam que Garrido foi & quothorro, & quot ou grátis, quando chegou à Espanha. Partindo de Sevilha por volta de 1508, ele chegou à ilha de La Española, que hoje é chamada de Hispaniola, a ilha onde residem a República Dominicana e o Haiti. Mais tarde, ele se estabeleceu em San Juan, Porto Rico.

Garrido é o primeiro negro documentado a chegar a este país e também o primeiro conquistador negro. E como os outros conquistadores, Garrido logo sucumbiu à atração da riqueza e da fama no Novo Mundo. Ele se juntou a Diego Velazquez de Cuéllar e o lendário Juan Ponce de León nas colonizações de Cuba e Porto Rico, respectivamente. Então, em 1513, ele se juntou à conhecida expedição de León & # x27 à Flórida em busca da Fonte da Juventude, quando se tornou o primeiro africano conhecido a chegar a este país.

Em seu & quotprobanza, & quot e em um gesto digno da tradição significativa que se seguiria, Garrido afirmou ter sido & quotthe primeiro a plantar e colher trigo & quot no Novo Mundo. Lest we are tempted to romanticize him, it is important to remember that Garrido, like the other conquistadors, was no saint: He also participated in Hernando Cortes' destruction of the Aztec empire, along with 100,000 Tlaxcalan allies. He settled in Mexico City in 1524 for four years, and then began a gold mining operation with slave labor. He joined Cortes in the 1530s for still another expedition into lower California, in search of the mythic Black Amazons. He was rewarded for his services to Cortes with land and paid positions.


A look back at Colts' move 30 years later

INDIANAPOLIS — Looking back three decades, it all happened so fast.

Rick Russell was having lunch at the Indianapolis Athletic Club on March 28, 1984, when a phone was brought to his table. It was Johnny B. Smith, Mayflower CEO and chairman. Russell, president of Mayflower's moving operations, had to return to the office immediately.

Fourteen tractor-trailer trucks were dispatched to the Baltimore Colts facility in Owings Mills, Md. Drivers weren't told their destination until the next day: The soon-to-be-famous 600-mile trek to Indianapolis.

"It's probably the most famous sporting move ever," said Russell, 68 and retired in Longboat Key, Fla.

David Frick, then Indianapolis Deputy Mayor, waited with Mayor Bill Hudnut for word that the Mayflowers were on the move.

"It's been a blur," said Frick, 69, a semi-retired lawyer for Faegre Baker Daniels. "It's hard to imagine it was 30 years ago because so many of the events, I can still re-live."

Hudnut and Smith were next-door neighbors. They waited out much of the move together.

"You know, Bill, I feel just like Dwight D. Eisenhower on D-Day," Smith said to Hudnut according to a 2009 story in The Indianapolis Star. "I know my troops are out there. I just don't know where they are."

"I was a nervous wreck," Frick said.

"I always say Baltimore lost the Colts," Hudnut said in a 2004 interview with A estrela. "We didn't steal them."

Before Rick Hite became Indianapolis Police Chief in 2012, he was a Baltimore cop for 31½years, 12½of those on protection detail for Baltimore Mayor William Donald Schaefer, who later became Maryland governor. It was Hite who phoned Schaefer in the wee hours of March 29 to deliver the bad news.

"I felt like I was the Grim Reaper on this one," Hite said Thursday.

Not all the men involved or affected by Indianapolis landing an NFL team can share their thoughts on the 30-year anniversary of the Mayflower move. Colts owner Bob Irsay, Smith and Schaefer have died. Current Colts owner Jim Irsay was unavailable after checking into an out-of-state health care facility for treatment following his arrest on preliminary charges of driving while impaired and four counts of possession of a controlled substance.

But there are enough people who experienced what happened — from the months leading up to the Mayflower trucks' arrival at the Baltimore Colts complex on March 28, 1984 to when they were unloaded at Fall Creek Elementary School on the 4900 block of Kessler Boulevard East Drive two days later — to provide a detailed account.

Those who experienced the 1984 NFL move from Baltimore share their memories from 30 years ago this weekend. (Phillip B. Wilson / The Star)

In the fall of 1983, Russell remembered Smith first broaching the subject of Indianapolis possibly landing the Colts.

Russell: Johnny B. told me he had gotten together with the guys that were putting together an offer for the Colts Mayor Bill Hudnut, the Capital Improvement Board and all the leaders in town. They were going to offer all these things to the Colts in order to get them to move to Indy.

He said, "I just thought you ought to know, I threw in a free move of all their equipment, training center and offices and all." At that time, the Colts were negotiating with other cities, including Phoenix. I asked, "Can you give me a contact so I can start to learn something about what needs to be done if we do get the team?" He gave me (Bob Irsay attorney Michael) Chernoff's name. Chernoff said, "Oh, no, no, no. We can't have any moving companies there." I said, "Well, give me as much notice as you can if it's going to happen. It's a big move." I talked a little to him about what would need to be done, so I had some expectation. Then I kind of forgot about it."

Frick handled the city's negotiations with Chernoff on finalizing the deal. But the lawyer recalls another date of importance, Feb. 23, 1984, when he brought Bob Irsay to the Hoosier Dome for the first time.

Frick: He wanted to see the stadium and obviously we wanted to show him the stadium, that we were pretty serious. I took him over to the Hoosier Dome. We were about three or four months from having the project completed. It was sufficient that he could see the place he was going to play.

We walked through the vomitory out on the field and he was silent. It struck me as a little bit of an odd situation because he was so talkative most of the time. I asked him, "Mr. Irsay, are you OK?" There was a long pause. He said, "You know, these are the Colts colors." The silver in the seats, the white roof and the dark blue seats were all Colts colors. He said, "You know, this just might be meant to be." It struck me. I then realized we had moved up in his thinking from just being a bargaining chip in his dealings with Baltimore to a true, viable alternative to locate his franchise.

Mark Herrmann (former Purdue quarterback who joined the Colts in 1983): That whole season, we had heard rumblings something was going to happen. Mr. Irsay was not happy. There was not a smooth relationship between he and the city of Baltimore. The fan support was not great by any means. It was not a fun season. I had just come from Denver, where everybody was just so rabid about the Broncos. It was such a shock to me to have to go into a half-empty stadium and not have that support from a tremendously traditional franchise that had been behind that team forever.As players, we put those distractions on the back burner, but it was always being brought up and talked about.

I think a lot of those fans were living back in those Johnny Unitas days, Artie Donovan, Tom Matte, the late-'50s and early-'60s. We were kind of underachievers and those guys still lived there, so it was always there, and there was always that comparison. That gave you an empty feeling. This is our team, but we're not there to support you really. We're kind of living in the past and you guys aren't living up to our view of what the Colts are in our minds."

Hite, who grew up in Baltimore: My first football was a Colts football. You have to remember, back in those days, this was before the multi-million dollar contract. It was not unheard of that the Colts players lived in the community where they played. They worked part-time in the off-season. They sold cars, some owned car dealerships. Some worked in the liquor business, they owned bars and restaurants. … People knew who these guys were.

Speculation was rampant about what Bob Irsay might do next. The owner was dissatisfied with outdated Memorial Stadium, where attendance had steadily declined. The Colts averaged 38,336 fans in the 52,860-seat venue. The last game drew 20,418.

Pete Ward (now the Colts chief operating officer, an administrative assistant in 1984): Bob Irsay had discussions with the governor of Arizona. We came really this close (holds fingers close together) to moving to Phoenix in late January of '84. That fell through. There was talk about Memphis, and that kind of dissipated. In March, the talk turned toward Indianapolis. We had to plan for minicamps, the draft, certainly training camp . the schedule is about to come out. By late March, we never expected that we would actually move. We kind of thought it was a negotiating ploy to get a better deal with the city of Baltimore.

Irsay's much-publicized visits to other cities to gauge interest in the franchise upset Baltimore city officials and fans. On March 27, Maryland's State Legislature started the process to seize the Colts through eminent domain, a law that allows government to claim private property for public use. Hello, Indianapolis.

Frick: The Colts left Baltimore because they had a terrible stadium, they weren't drawing crowds and, most importantly, the city of Baltimore and Maryland Legislature sought to take the Colts away from Bob Irsay by using eminent domain. That really called the question for Mr. Irsay. He had to get out of Maryland or they were going to take the franchise away from him.

The city of Baltimore had promised not to use eminent domain, then they broke that promise by trying to get a bill through the legislature in expedited form in a timetable so they could take it away from him.

Chernoff said to A estrela in 2004: They had put a gun to our head and cocked it. We couldn't wait to find out if it was loaded.

Chernoff, 78 and living in Glencoe, Ill., was asked about his memorable comment last year: That was absolutely accurate. I said it, and I meant it. We just didn't give the mayor (Schaefer) a chance to pull the trigger.Schaefer, however, insisted in a 2004 interview with The Star that he wouldn't have resorted to using eminent domain to keep the Colts in Baltimore.

Schaefer (in 2004): That's a bunch of bull. There was some talk of that, but I never would have allowed it. That was never in the picture because I trusted (Irsay). Irsay just downright fooled me. He kept telling me he wasn't leaving. He kept negotiating with us, and all the time he had already made the deal with Indianapolis.

Equipment manager Jon Scott, who is still with the Colts, received a call from general manager Jim Irsay in the early morning of March 28.

"Hey, I've just talked to my dad," Scott recalled Jim saying. "We're mo-o-o-ving."

After a long pause, Jim Irsay said, "No-o-o. Indy-y-y."

Scott: I thought, "Oh my God. I'm going to a city that I've never been to before. It's about to be our longest road trip ever." It woke me up, for sure. Instructions were to get as many boxes as I could. Don't tell anyone. Don't tell anyone in the building. Don't tell your parents. Don't tell your friends. You had to be very secretive. Sure enough, I was able to get a whole bunch of boxes, as many as I could put in my van. We closed the doors (at the complex) early that morning and I started packing football equipment all day and all night.

Russell: I was having lunch at the Athletic Club and the maître d' brought the telephone to my table. In those days, we didn't have cell phones. It was Johnny B.

"Rick, you better get back to the office quick," Russell recalled Smith saying.

"What's the matter?" Russell asked.

"We've got to move the Colts," Smith said.

"Good, good, that means we're going to get 'em," Russell said.

"I think so, but we've got to move 'em," Smith said.

"Well, I've got time to work on that, don't I?" Russell said.

"No, we've got to move them tonight," Smith said.

So I jumped in the car and headed back to the office and spent a little bit of time with Johnny and then went to work pulling together all the people and the resources that we were going to need to get it done that night. It was some quick planning.

Chernoff used the Irsay jet to stop by Indianapolis and pick up a Mayflower contact to oversee the move in Baltimore. They flew to Washington, D.C.

Russell: They landed in Washington rather than Baltimore, thinking they didn't want to be seen by the media when they landed. Everybody was on point on this thing, looking for the jet. The word got out that they had landed in Washington. Media guys were following them downtown from Dulles. They were going to cut through the city, but they couldn't lose these media people. They pulled into the front lobby of the hotel, and the two people jumped out and went in like they were going to check in, then went out the back door and caught a cab and took that to Alexandria, Va., where our Washington office was located.

We had already talked to Washington and they were busy putting together a crew. I think they got 30-some men to help load and pack everything. We had a bus to run them out to the training center.

Ward: Jim called me down to his office (later that afternoon). He said, "Ten o'clock tonight, you need to be here. My dad says we're moving to Indianapolis. There's going to be a lot of Mayflower vans moving in. You need to be here to maintain some semblance of order."

Colts assistant cinematographer Marty Heckscher: It was kind of a queasy feeling. It was kind of open-ended. I was a young man, my wife and I had a baby on Feb. 13th. There were a lot of changes going on in my life then and now the Colts are moving to Indianapolis? What's Indianapolis? What am I getting myself into? Then you get yourself busy and you don't think about it. You're focused on moving everything. You're a professional. The emotion, you set aside.

Russell: We had guys in our traffic department in Indianapolis searching for empty tractor-trailer units starting out within 100 miles of the Baltimore training facility. We probably had 3,000 trucks then (but) they had to get there quickly. We widened the circle to 200, 300 miles before we came up with 14 empty ones that were available to handle the job.

We didn't tell the drivers what they were going to be doing. We just gave them a location to head towards. They went to our Alexandria office and then gradually were sent out one at a time to the Baltimore facility in Owings Mills. I think the first tractor trailer was there in the 7 p.m. range, not long after dark. Then we just kind of sent them in one at a time. There wasn't room to have all 14 there. The media was onto it by 8 or 9 p.m. They started showing up, knew we were there and what we were doing. We had enough people on the scene to do the job fairly quickly.

Heckscher: The first thing they loaded when the trucks got to the complex were the business records. That first truck went north, the shortest distance to the state line. They wanted to get the records out of state as soon as possible. They took the long way to Indianapolis.

A bus also arrived at the complex.

Ward: I couldn't figure out what the bus was for. So I went up and got the door open and I went into the bus and there were about 40 Hell's Angels staring me in the face. They said, "Is this an embassy, man?" They thought it was an embassy moving, which happens in the middle of the night. They didn't know where they were, which was part of the plan really. They were the packers.

Scott: I had heard a rumor that these guys came from Washington, D.C. I'm in the other room, then I come back in and I'm noticing a lot of these workers have underneath their jackets Baltimore Colts T-shirts on. I'm thinking, "Wait a minute. They're from D.C. Aren't they Redskins fans? We might be getting ripped off here a little bit."

The packers were given 10 minutes to return anything taken while Scott and others left the room.

Scott: We went back in there and there was a pile of stuff. Hats. T-shirts. Sweatshirts.

Heckscher: The trucks were leaving as they were loaded. It was a snowy night. It was kind of yucky. It was kind of like seeing a UFO. Is this really happening? Am I dreaming?

Heckscher, 58, retired in St. Augustine, Fla., with his wife Stephanie, says many Colts employees lived in the adjacent Morningside Heights apartments.

Heckscher: We were all young and mobile. In that kind of realm, it made the nucleus of this organization very tight. We did a lot together. That made the move easier, to be with people you're comfortable with. They're like family.

Ward: I was young and I was single. I thought, "OK, I can't believe it, but here we go." There was a lot going through your head at the time. We're uprooting on a very, very, very, very short notice. You're moving and you don't know what the situation is going to be like in Indy where the offices are going to be, where your life is headed, but I went along with it and the rest is history.

Scott: I worked all night until about 4 a.m., went back to my apartment, which was fortunately right next to the complex. Got about an hour's sleep. Then back to work the next day.

Russell: The last truck left at about 4 a.m. on March 29th. The drivers were instructed to scatter. We didn't want them to be in a caravan. We didn't want them hanging out together so as to draw attention to them. We told them to drive 100 miles or so and find a place to get some sleep, then call in the next morning and we would give them their next instructions.

Hite, who got the news of the move about the time the last truck departed and woke up Schaefer with a phone call: I remember it was a cold, blustery day, a little snow. There was some activity at the Colts complex. We had off-duty police working there at the time. … I've had to call the mayor on other occasions. We had the sinking of the clipper ship, Pride I (in 1986). I had to wake him to tell him the ship had sunk in the Caribbean.

Hite was amused when told how officials were wary of the trucks being stopped before they could leave the state, hence the secretive instructions.

Hite: The fear of the owner and the mayor of Indianapolis (was) that State Police may stop the vehicles and seize the Colts memorabilia. That was part of the discussion (afterward), the folklore.

Herrmann: I was actually back in Denver. It wasn't a good season. Just like the rest of the country, we saw the trucks moving along (on TV) and headed for Indianapolis. Needless to say, we were thrilled a chance to come back home where I grew up (in Carmel) and we left the city of Baltimore, where really I didn't have any relationship or feeling for the city. I had played some, was hurt some. It was just a tough, tough year. Nothing against the city, it just didn't feel right. The whole season was not what I expected.

This (move) is good. This is really good. You've got a willing city, an excited city. Granted, it was kind a novel approach and novel thing for this city to get pro football, but still, there was an excitement. We want you. We're excited to have you. It was the total opposite of what we had just come from in Baltimore.

Ward, who stayed at the complex after the final Mayflower left: I fell asleep on the floor in my empty office. When I woke up, there were employees arriving for work. They didn't know what else to do, so they came in. It was 8:30 in the morning. I lifted my head off of the floor and here were my fellow employees staring at me. That was an emotional moment. They were all pretty broken up about it. They had no idea what was going on, what the future held for them. We had a company meeting and basically said who was going and who was not. I wasn't in charge of that, but that's how it went down.

Scott: As soon as we landed in Indianapolis, we got out of the Irsay jet and I couldn't believe all the photographers and all of the cameras. And they followed us all day long. We went to the Hoosier Dome. We went to Fall Creek Elementary School we were supposed to set up camp (there) and make it an NFL complex. They followed us right over to where we stayed that night. They followed us into the hotel lobby, all the cameras, always on us, right into the elevator. I thought the guys were actually going to get into the elevator with us, but they didn't. Cameras on us. The doors shut. I had to look over at Jim and say, "I wonder if this is how The Beatles felt back in 1964, coming over from Liverpool (England)."

Russell: At about 11 p.m. (on March 28), I went home to get some sleep and then came back to the office at 8 the next morning. I came up the side door to my office on the second floor and my secretary met me at my door and said, "Have you been down to the lobby? There are two television crews from Baltimore down there who want to talk to you." I said, "Oh, great. I can't tell them anything, but I'll be glad to go down and meet with them." I went down and explained to them that we were just instructed to load everything up and they would let us know where it's going. They didn't like that answer, but they accepted it.

Later that day, the announcement was made (by Hudnut) that they were coming to Indianapolis. We had already told the drivers of the trucks to begin to head toward Indianapolis. We started giving that order to the drivers at about 9 in the morning. Most of them arrived later that day or that night. They were all there within 24 hours after we gave them that instruction. They parked out back at our Mayflower office on Michigan Avenue.

It was Friday when we moved them out to their temporary training center (at Fall Creek Elementary). The helicopters were flying over. We didn't tell anybody where they were going until the day we delivered at the temporary training center. We had them all come to our facility first and park back near the garage. They went by caravan to their place. That's when Hudnut was out there waving the trucks on, from in front of our facility, when they made the turn to go South on Michigan Avenue. All of our employees were out in front cheering on the drivers as they pulled out to take everything down to the training center.

Ward: When we got here, it was even more exhausting. It was like starting a franchise, really, from scratch, except that you already had your players and your coaches. We didn't have a telephone. We didn't know what our address was. We didn't have stationery. We didn't have a copier. We didn't have anybody to answer telephones. Worst of all, we had a hundred boxes piled up on the floor with no labels on them. So before we could ever start to work on planning for the upcoming season, we had to unload boxes and figure out where everything went. That was a real nightmare. There was not enough time in each day for months. You could have worked 24 hours a day for five months straight and still not get everything done.

Scott: As the first trucks pulled up, we would actually take all the boxes and put them in the gymnasium in a large pile, eight boxes high, and literally open each box, try to figure out what it was and then whose department it belonged to and then put it in the corner of the gymnasium. That took us many, many days.

Ward: My first meal in Indianapolis, Jim called me and he actually had one of the first cell phones, he was going through a Burger King or McDonald's (drivethru) and he called me and asked if I wanted something.

Frick and Chernoff struck a 20-year deal with two five-year options. The city guaranteed the Colts $7 million in annual revenue. Annual rent was $250,000. The Colts and city shared suite license revenue, the team receiving the initial $500,000 and the city getting the rest. Concessions as well as videoboard and signage revenue were shared. The city kept parking proceeds. Game-day operating expenses were the city's responsibility. Chicago's Merchant Bank loaned Bob Irsay $15 million to pay off a debt to a Baltimore bank. The city would help subsidize the interest payments. Frick estimates Indianapolis profited at least $2 million per year initially from the Colts coming to town.

Baltimore tried unsuccessfully to sue Smith, Hudnut and Frick in Baltimore City Court. The case got moved to Federal Court and a settlement was eventually reached on Dec. 10, 1985, that included returning Johnny Unitas memorabilia.

Hudnut, Indianapolis mayor from 1976 to 1992, now lives in Chevy Chase, Md. He has said the six-week period of attracting and landing the Colts was his favorite time as mayor. While considered the driving influence in the city's sports boom and Downtown revitalization, Hudnut has downplayed his role and credited predecessor Richard Lugar for getting the proverbial ball rolling.

Hudnut in 2012: We, as a city, had begun to think bigger under Mayor Lugar. So when I came into office, we started talking about what more we could do to make a mark, to enhance our economy and, to use a phrase, become a major league city. I don't care what the economists say about the inability of a team to enhance a city's economic base. It sure seems to me that in this case it did. The city has so much more vitality and there has been so much revitalization Downtown. To me, it's all paid off.

Frick: I've got to confess, every March I think about (the move). Not many people have an opportunity to make such an impact on their community. I was very fortunate to have that opportunity, so I can't put it out of my mind.

The impact is so profound. It's the visual image of going to a game on a Sunday afternoon and seeing solid blue throughout the stadium, or the streets filled and the bars filled or you look at the number of people working at the game. The economic impact has been incredible, but the impact on the national scene was even more. It communicated to the entire country that Indianapolis is a great place.

I had a unique experience (last) week. My wife had finally got me to do some touch-up painting at our house. I went in to buy a gallon of paint and the guy recognized me. It was only because the guy was 58 years old.

Russell: The day after the move out, I got calls from our agents in Baltimore. They were really mad at me for Mayflower handling the move of their team. "Do you know what's going to happen to my business this year? It's just going to go to hell. Nobody is going to call me." I said, "Hold on, you know what they say about PR. There's no such thing as bad PR. Let's follow up and talk again as the year goes by." E nós fizemos. That year, they had a 20 percent increase in his business. It didn't affect him negatively at all. The agent apologized later for giving me such a hard time about it.

My boss, Johnny B., is the one that donated (the move). He gets the credit for that because it turned out to be a great PR vehicle for the company over the years. When the Colts and Baltimore play and they show that tape of the van pulling out in the snowy night, it's just getting Mayflower back on TV. Thirty years, it's been happening like that.

Last week, I had a policeman visit to verify the ID numbers on my vehicles so I could register them in Florida. About halfway through our conversation, I mentioned that I used to work for Mayflower. He said, "Oh really, I was a cop in Baltimore for 25 years." So here we go through the story again. It happens all the time. People remember it.

Russell and his family are still diehard Colts fans.

Russell: That's one thing we got out of the move. Bob let us go pick our season ticket seats and I've still got them. We've been to almost every game since. My four kids are Colts fans, they use the tickets more than I do, but yeah, I'm still a Colts fan.

Hite: As long as I don't say that in Baltimore, I'm fine.

The move's 30-year anniversary opens an old wound for Baltimore Colts fans, many of whom will never forgive nor forget. They blame Bob Irsay for everything. It doesn't matter that the city eventually landed another team, the Ravens, and that franchise has since won two Super Bowls.

Ward: I think it's worked out for both cities. They've won some Super Bowls. You still have people who are bitter about the Dodgers' move from Brooklyn and the (Oakland) Raiders' move. It's not unprecedented. There's always going to be some sensitive feelings.

You can't put the cause or the blame on any one person. It was a perfect storm, it came together, a lot of different factors. For me, it was kind of a surreal night. You certainly don't want to go through something like that twice in your life. It certainly was a stressful time. We've been in Indy for 30 years, we'll be here forever and we're so happy to be here.

Herrmann, 55, eventually retired in his hometown. He works at St. Vincent Sports Performance Center and is a Colts radio analyst.

Herrmann on heartbroken Baltimore fans: There's part of me that thinks, "Yeah, move on, get over it." But then, families have grown up cheering for the horseshoe. To see that horseshoe move to Indianapolis, it probably would have been easier for the fans if they would have changed the (Colts) mascot and left that there. That would have eased the pain a little bit. Generations grew up with the Colts. There was that relationship, that feeling that this is our team and you took our team away. As pathetic as it is for those folks to hold this venom against the city of Indianapolis, there's a part down deep that appreciates the loyalty.

Let's face it, this was a basketball city, a basketball state. To think of pro football in Indianapolis, yeah, that was kind of outside the realm of your thinking. Everything was so new and kind of exciting but people didn't know how to react to that team. And to think what it is 30 years later: Super Bowl championship, Super Bowl appearance, Peyton Manning has been through here, now you've got Andrew Luck, the fan base is as good as there is in the country. To think we would morph into that back then, I would have thought, "No chance." But now I think it's a big league city. It's fun to think back 30 years ago to what it was and to think about what it is now. Surpreendente.


How Many People Were on the Mayflower?

According to Edward Winslow in his book, Mourt’s Relations, and William Bradford in his manuscript, Of Plymouth Plantation, there were 102 passengers on the Mayflower voyage in 1620.

Even though one passenger, William Butten, died during the voyage, another passenger, Oceanus Hopkins, was born during the voyage, which kept the number of passengers at 102.

The Mayflower, illustration published in A School History of the United States, circa 1897

After the Mayflower reached Cape Cod and the colonists signed the Mayflower Compact on November 11, 1620, both Bradford and Winslow created lists of the names of the passengers at that time.

The lists don’t include William Butten, who died about a week earlier, nor do they include Peregrine White, who wasn’t born until a couple of weeks later, but they do include Oceanus Hopkins, who was born before the colonists reached Cape Cod.

That lists also include five of the Mayflower crewmen who either stayed as colonists or were hired to be laborers in the colony for one year: John Alden, John Allerton, Thomas English, William Trevore and a crewman by the name of Ely whose last name is unknown.

Out of the 102 passengers, around half were separatists, aka the pilgrims, and the other half were non-separatists, servants and the five crewmen. About 74 of these passengers were males and 28 were females.


Conteúdo

The Pilgrims had originally hoped to reach America in early October using two ships, but delays and complications meant they could use only one, the Mayflower. Their intended destination had been the Colony of Virginia, with the journey financed by the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London. Storms forced them to anchor at the hook of Cape Cod in Massachusetts, however, as it was unwise to continue with provisions running short. This inspired some of the non-Puritan passengers (whom the Puritans referred to as 'Strangers') to proclaim that they "would use their own liberty for none had power to command them" since they would not be settling in the agreed-upon Virginia territory. [5] To prevent this, the Pilgrims determined to establish their own government, while still affirming their allegiance to the Crown of England. Thus, the Mayflower Compact was based simultaneously upon a majoritarian model and the settlers' allegiance to the king. It was in essence a social contract in which the settlers consented to follow the community's rules and regulations for the sake of order and survival. [6]

The Pilgrims had lived for some years in Leiden, a city in the Dutch Republic. Historian Nathaniel Philbrick states, "Just as a spiritual covenant had marked the beginning of their congregation in Leiden, a civil covenant would provide the basis for a secular government in America." [7]

The original document has been lost, [8] but three versions exist from the 17th century: printed in Mourt's Relation (1622), [9] [10] which was reprinted in Purchas his Pilgrimes (1625) [11] hand-written by William Bradford in his journal Of Plimoth Plantation (1646) [12] and printed by Bradford's nephew Nathaniel Morton in New-Englands Memorial (1669). [8] The three versions differ slightly in wording and significantly in spelling, capitalization, and punctuation. [10] William Bradford wrote the first part of Mourt's Relation, including its version of the compact, so he wrote two of the three versions. The wording of those two versions is quite similar, unlike that of Morton. Bradford's handwritten manuscript is kept in a vault at the State Library of Massachusetts. [13]

IN THE NAME OF GOD, AMEN. We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, França, e Irlanda, King, Defensor da fé, &c. Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and Advancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and Country, a Voyage to plant the first Colony in the northern Parts of Virgínia Do by these Presents, solemnly and mutually, in the Presence of God and one another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid: And by Virtue hereof do enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions, and Offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general Good of the Colony unto which we promise all due Submission and Obedience. IN WITNESS whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape-Cod the eleventh of November, in the Reign of our Sovereign Lord King James, of Inglaterra, França, e Irlanda, the eighteenth, and of Escócia the fifty-fourth, Anno Domini 1620. [14]

The document was signed on November 21 [O.S. November 11]. [1]

A list of 41 male passengers who signed the document was supplied by Bradford's nephew Nathaniel Morton in his 1669 New England's Memorial. Thomas Prince first numbered the names in his 1736 A Chronological History of New-England in the form of Annals. [2] The original document has been lost, so Morton is the sole source for the signers. He probably had access to the original document, but he could not have known the actual order in which it was signed simply by inspecting it. Morton's arrangement of names might not have been the arrangement on the original document, and the names on the original may not have been arranged in any orderly fashion. Prince's numbers are based solely on Morton, as he himself stated. [8]

Morton's list of names was unnumbered and untitled in all six editions (1669–1855), although their order changed with successive editions. In his original 1669 edition, the names were placed on two successive pages forming six short columns, three per page. [8] In subsequent editions, these six short columns were combined into three long columns on a single page in two different ways, producing two different orders in unnumbered lists of signers. The second (1721) and third (1772) editions changed the order of the first edition by combining the first and fourth columns into the first long column, and similarly for the other columns. The fifth (1826) and sixth (1855) editions returned the names to their original first edition order by combining the first and second short columns into the first long column, and similarly for the other columns. Prince numbered the names in their original 1669 Morton order. He added titles (Mr. or Capt.) to 11 names that were given those titles by William Bradford in the list of passengers at the end of his manuscript. [2] [12]

The following list of signers is organized into the six short columns of Morton (1669) with the numbers and titles of Prince. The names are given their modern spelling according to Morison. [15] Use the numbers for the order used by genealogists and half of unnumbered lists (Samuel Fuller will be the eighth name), but merge the half columns vertically into full columns for the order used by the other half of unnumbered lists (John Turner will be the eighth name).

During the 300th anniversary of the Mayflower landing, Governor Calvin Coolidge, who became President a few years later, stated the following in an address:

The compact which they signed was an event of the greatest importance. It was the foundation of liberty based on law and order, and that tradition has been steadily upheld. They drew up a form of government which has been designated as the first real constitution of modern times. It was democratic, an acknowledgment of liberty under law and order and the giving to each person the right to participate in the government, while they promised to be obedient to the laws.

But the really wonderful thing was that they had the power and strength of character to abide by it and live by it from that day to this. Some governments are better than others. But any form of government is better than anarchy, and any attempt to tear down government is an attempt to wreck civilization. [16]


Richard Warren

NASCIMENTO: Probably around 1585 in co. Hertford, England.
CASADO: Elizabeth Walker, 14 April 1610 at Great Amwell, co. Hertford, England, daughter of Augustine Walker.
CRIANÇAS: Mary, Ann, Sarah, Elizabeth, Abigail, Nathaniel and Joseph.
MORTE: 1628 at Plymouth.
yDNA HAPLOGROUP: E-M35

Richard Warren's English origins and ancestry have been the subject of much speculation, and countless different ancestries have been published for him, without a shred of evidence to support them. Luckily in December 2002, Edward Davies discovered the missing piece of the puzzle. Researchers had long known of the marriage of Richard Warren to Elizabeth Walker on 14 April 1610 at Great Amwell, Hertford. Since we know the Mayflower passenger had a wife named Elizabeth, and a first child born about 1610, this was a promising record. But no children were found for this couple in the parish registers, and no further evidence beyond the names and timing, until the will of Augustine Walker was discovered. In the will of Augustine Walker, dated April 1613, he mentions "my daughter Elizabeth Warren wife of Richard Warren", and "her three children Mary, Ann and Sarah." We know that the Mayflower passenger's first three children were named Mary, Ann, and Sarah (in that birth order).

Very little is known about Richard Warren's life in America. He came alone on the Mayflower in 1620, leaving behind his wife and five daughters. They came to him on the ship Anne in 1623, and Richard and Elizabeth subsequently had sons Nathaniel and Joseph at Plymouth. He received his acres in the Division of Land in 1623, and his family shared in the 1627 Division of Cattle. But he died a year later in 1628. The only record of his death is found in Nathaniel Morton's 1669 book New England's Memorial, in which he writes: "This year [1628] died Mr. Richard Warren, who was an useful instrument and during his life bare a deep share in the difficulties and troubles of the first settlement of the Plantation of New Plymouth."

All of Richard Warren's children survived to adulthood, married, and had large families: making Richard Warren one of the most common Mayflower passengers to be descended from. Richard Warren's descendants include such notables as Civil War general and President Ulysses S. Grant President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Alan B. Shepard, Jr. the first American in space and the fifth person to walk on the moon.


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