Hapkido ( REINO UNIDO: / ˌ h æ p k iː ˈ d oʊ / HAP -kee- DOH ,  NÓS: / h ɑː p ˈ k iː d oʊ / hahp- KEE -doh,  também escrito Hap ki fazer ou Hapki-do de coreano Hapgido [hap̚.ki.do]) é uma arte marcial coreana híbrida. É uma forma de autodefesa que emprega travas nas articulações, agarrões, técnicas de arremesso, chutes, socos e outros ataques de golpe. Também ensina o uso de armas tradicionais, incluindo faca, espada, corda, nunchaku (ssang juhl bong), bengala (ji pang ee), bastão curto (dan bong) e bastão de comprimento médio (joong bong), arma (análogo para o japonês jō) e bō (japonês), que variam em ênfase dependendo da tradição específica examinada.
|Também conhecido como||Hapkido, Hap Ki Do, Hapki-Do|
|Foco||Manipulação da articulação, arremesso, queda, golpe, chute, bloqueio|
|País de origem||Coréia|
|O Criador||Nenhum esforço colaborativo de um único criador dos primeiros alunos de Choi Yong-Sool.   |
|Paternidade||Artes marciais japonesas|
|Artes ancestrais||Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, Judo, Taekkyeon, Tang Soo Do, artes marciais chinesas|
|Artes descendentes||Sin Moo Hapkido,|
World JunTong Moosul Hapkido,
Huek Choo Kwan Hapkido,
Hwa Rang Do,
Kuk Sul Won,
|FJ80R / L||3F-E 4.0 L gasolina I6||112 kW (152 PS 150 hp) a 4.000 rpm||290 N⋅m (214 lb⋅ft) a 3.000 rpm||Austrália, América do Norte|
|FZJ80R / L||1FZ-FE 4,5 L gasolina I6||158 kW (215 PS 212 hp) a 4.600 rpm||373 N⋅m (275 lb⋅ft) a 3.200 rpm||Austrália, Estados do Conselho de Cooperação do Golfo, Norte da África, América do Norte|
|HDJ80R||1HD-T 4,2 L turbodiesel I6||115 kW (156 PS 154 hp) a 3.600 rpm||357 N⋅m (263 lb⋅ft) a 1.800 rpm||Austrália|
|HZJ80R||1HZ 4.2 L diesel I6||96 kW (131 PS 129 cv) a 4.000 rpm||271 N⋅m (200 lb⋅ft) a 2.000 rpm||Austrália|
J100 (1998) Editar
Em janeiro de 1998, o Land Cruiser série 100 foi introduzido para substituir o série 80 de 8 anos. A série 100 foi apresentada em outubro de 1997 como o "Grand Cruiser" no 32º Salão Automóvel de Tóquio. O desenvolvimento começou em 1991 sob o codinome 404T, com o projeto final sendo congelado em meados de 1994.  
Existem duas versões distintas da série 100, o 100 e a 105. As duas versões parecem muito semelhantes, mas existem diferenças significativas sob a carroceria. Apesar dessas diferenças e dos nomes dos modelos oficiais, tanto o 100 quanto o 105 são conhecidos coletivamente como o 100 series.
o 105 transportou a maior parte de seu chassi e trem de força da série 80 com eixos sólidos suspensos por bobina dianteiro e traseiro, e motores a gasolina e diesel 6 em linha reta. Esses modelos foram vendidos apenas nos mercados da África, Austrália, Rússia e América do Sul.
Em 1998, um sistema de suspensão combinando Active Height Control (AHC) e Skyhook TEMS Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension no Land Cruiser J100 foi introduzido. 
Em 2002, a Toyota introduziu Visão noturna, a primeira produção em série mundial ativo sistema automotivo de visão noturna, no Toyota Land Cruiser Cygnus ou Lexus LX470. Este sistema usa os projetores de faróis que emitem luz infravermelha próxima dos faróis de farol alto do carro e uma câmera CCD captura a radiação refletida. Esse sinal é então processado por um computador que produz uma imagem em preto e branco que é projetada na seção inferior do pára-brisa.  Foi também o primeiro veículo Toyota com sensor de capotamento e lógica de controle 
o 100 os modelos foram equipados com um chassi um pouco mais largo,  suspensão dianteira independente (IFS) e dois novos motores. A mudança para o IFS foi a primeira para um Land Cruiser e foi feita (em combinação com direção de pinhão e cremalheira) para melhorar o manuseio na estrada. No entanto, também limitou a capacidade e durabilidade off-road do veículo, daí a decisão de oferecer os modelos de eixo sólido 105 junto com os modelos IFS 100 em alguns mercados. A tabela abaixo identifica a gama de modelos 100 e 105 e sua disponibilidade mundial.
Apesar dos 100 e 105 corpos serem muito semelhantes, existem algumas indicações visuais externas entre os dois modelos. The most obvious is the front end of the vehicle often appearing lower than the rear on the 100 models, due to the IFS. The other indicator is the design of the wheels. The 100 models have almost flat wheel designs, while the 105 models have dished wheels. This difference allows both versions to retain similar wheel tracks, despite the 100 having a relatively wider axle track to allow for the IFS system.
The introduction of a V8 engine was also a first for a Land Cruiser, and was specifically intended to improve sales in the North-American market, where it was the only engine available. In Australia, the 100 V8 was initially only available in the range-topping GXV model, while entry and mid-range models were the 105 powered by the 1FZ-FE I6 petrol, or 1HZ diesel engines. The new 1HD-FTE turbo-diesel 100 was added to the Australian range in October 2000 after being available in Europe and the UK since the vehicle's launch in 1998. The automotive press in Australia were critical of Toyota's decision to offer the acclaimed 1HD-FTE engine only in combination with IFS. Australian 4WD Monthly magazine stated "We will never forgive Toyota for going independent at the front with the mighty 4.2 turbo-diesel".
The 100 series formed the basis for the Lexus LX 470, which was also sold in Japan as the Toyota Cygnus.
The 100 series was called the Toyota Land Cruiser Amazon in the UK and Ireland from 1998 to 2007.
In 2000, Toyota celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Land Cruiser with commemorative models offered in several countries. Total global production to date was 3.72 million vehicles.
The 100 series remained in production until late 2007, with several minor facelifts such as headlights, taillights, front grille, rear spoiler and specification changes introduced over the years.
|HZJ105||1HZ 4.2 L diesel I6||96 kW (131 PS 129 hp) at 3,800 rpm||271 N⋅m (200 lb⋅ft) at 2,200 rpm||Africa, Asia, Australia, Middle East, South America|
|FZJ105||1FZ-FE 4.5 L petrol I6||180 kW (245 PS 241 hp) at 4,600 rpm||410 N⋅m (302 lb⋅ft) at 3,600 rpm||Africa, Asia, Australia, Middle East, South America|
|FZJ100||1FZ-FE 4.5 L petrol I6||180 kW (245 PS 241 hp) at 4,600 rpm||410 N⋅m (302 lb⋅ft) at 3,600 rpm||Middle East, China|
|UZJ100||2UZ-FE 4.7 L petrol V8||170 kW (231 PS 228 hp) at 4,800 rpm||410 N⋅m (302 lb⋅ft) at 3,400 rpm||Africa, Asia, Australia, China, Europe, Japan, Middle East, North America, UK|
|HDJ100 1||1HD-T 4.2 L turbodiesel I6||123 kW (167 PS 165 hp) at 3,600 rpm||352 N⋅m (260 lb⋅ft) at 2,000 rpm||Africa, South America|
|HDJ100 2||1HD-FTE 4.2 L turbodiesel I6||150 kW (204 PS 201 hp) at 3,400 rpm||430 N⋅m (317 lb⋅ft) at 1,400 rpm||Australia*, Europe, Japan, Middle East, New Zealand, UK|
*This engine was not introduced in Australia until 2000.
The 100-series is generally considered a durable and reliable vehicle, however there have been three known issues identified, generally for vehicles operating in harsh conditions:
The majority of the South Korean tourist industry is supported by domestic tourism. Thanks to the country's extensive network of trains and buses, most of the country lies within a day's round trip of any major city. International tourists come primarily from nearby countries in Asia. Japan, China, Hong Kong and Taiwan together account for roughly 75% of the total number of international tourists.  In addition, the Korean Wave has brought increasing numbers of tourists from Southeast Asia and India. The Korea Tourism Organization (KTO) is targeting 100,000 arrivals from India in 2013. 
The number of Korean domestic tourists has increased since 2010. The number of people who participated in domestic travel (which includes one-day trips) was about 238.3 million (in 2015). It increased by 4.9% compared to 2014 (227.1 million).  In 2014, Korean's domestic tourism expenditure was ₩14.4 trillion. 
Also, Korean oversea tourists keep increasing since 2010. From 2012 to 2014, the number of people travelling overseas has risen by about 8.2% on average. In 2014, number of Korean oversea tourists was about 16.1 million. And Korean oversea tourism expenditure was $19,469.9 million. 
In the past, South Koreans were not likely to travel overseas, due to the Korean War and subsequent economic difficulties, as well as government restrictions on overseas travel, with passports issued only for a narrow range of reasons, such as traveling abroad on government businesses, for technical training, and so on. Since the 1960s, overseas travel restrictions and regulations have been continuously reviewed to prevent foreign currency waste from traveling abroad. However, during the 1980s, the liberalization of international travel has begun to take place in catering to the globalization of the South Korea society. Since then, South Koreans have been able to travel freely abroad. 
The busy lifestyle of modern South Koreans, leading to difficulties in mediating vacations with family or friends, and the increase in one-person households, have contributed to the growing number of South Koreans traveling alone. Therefore, the popularity of destinations close to South Korea, where South Koreans can go for short vacations alone, are increasing. According to the results of a plane ticket analysis in 2016, the top foreign destination for South Koreans is Osaka, followed by Bangkok and Tokyo. Moreover, Osaka, Tokyo, and Shanghai have high re-visit rates for South Koreans. However European destinations such as London, Paris, and Rome have fallen in re-visit rating, due to geographical distances, expensive air fares and high costs. 
International tourists typically enter the country through Incheon International Airport, near Seoul, which was found to be the world's best airport in 2006.  Also international airports in Busan and Jeju are frequently used.
In 2013, travel and tourism (domestic and international) directly contributed KRW26.7 trillion to South Korean GDP and directly supported 617,500 jobs in the country. 
In 2018, travel and tourism based on international expenditure directly contributed KRW 16.7 trillion to the South Korean GDP and directly supported 1.4 million jobs, this represented 5.3% of the total employment in the country (OECD).
In 2019, the contribution of travel and tourism to the Korean GDP was up 4.2% of the total economy (KRW 81.4 billion). Which accounted for 4.8% of total employment (1.3%). The impact of international visitors accounted for KRW 26.5 billion (World Travel and Tourism Council). 
Spending habits include Leisure spending 82% vs. Business spending 18% Domestic spending 55% vs. International spending 45%
According to the numbers in the graph, leisure spending is 64% higher than business spending while domestic spending is only 10% higher than international spending. 
Visitors arriving to South Korea for tourism by nationality: 
|Ano||Number of international visitor |
arriving in S. Korea
|% change from|
China has been South Korea's largest tourism source for years. In 2016, visitors from China made up 46.8% of tourists in South Korea. However China imposed the group tour ban after the US military started to deploy the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system in South Korea. From April 2017, Chinese tourists plummeted by more than 60% compared to the previous year.   In recent years, the South Korean tourism industry has made it a long term goal to reduce dependency on Chinese tourists. 
Since Lee Myung-bak's visit to the Liancourt Rocks and his demand for an apology from the Emperor of Japan over Japanese colonialism in Korea in 2012, the Japanese public's image of South Korea deteriorated significantly. Japanese tourists to South Korea declined by half from 3.5 million in 2012 to 1.8 million in 2015, while South Korean tourists to Japan doubled from 2 million in 2012 to 4 million in 2015.   
Attack on titan is set in the future not the past
the first episode of snk is titled "to you 2000 years in the future". Most read this as to you who are 2000 years in the future, but from the beginning i read it as to you. 2000 years from where you are now. A lot of people seem to believe that attack on titan is set in the past, which is fair considering the technology and architecture the ambiguously written title of the first episode. I couldn't find proof, or anything that would validate my idea in any way beyond "well this is how it could be read", but recently, I was rewatching the series and I got onto the scene where Hanji is naming her captured titans. She goes into a story about cannibals who once roamed some mountains, and other things not so important. While listening to this I actually got curious about the story and decided to google it. Hanji Zoe said " a long time ago" and went into a story based off real life events that occurred in the fifteen hundreds, meaning it is impossible for the events of AoT to be set 2000 years before modern day, being that would set AoT behind the events of Hanjis story
EDIT- it's nice to see interest in this topic. this theory would suggest attack on titan is set in an alternate timeline within our universe in which around the 1500s titans appeared and humans growth has stunted for at least two thousand years, leaving you with the technology you see in the series the Fallout franchise is a mirror of this idea(but in that series the point of divergence from irl events technology prospers)
After Kenny kills her mother and attempted to kill her when she still a child due her noble status, Rod Reiss (her father) intercepted their efforts by offering an alternative arrangement: that if, she were to disappear from the Reiss household, assume a new name and identity before enlisting as a soldier, that would mean they would not need to kill her. The soldiers agreed with this, and Rod Reiss then gave her the new name and identity of "Krista Lenz"
As Krista Lenz, She is a very useful and kind girl, who enjoys helping other people. She is highly charismatic, often making people see her as a goddess. She also seems to be somewhat shy and doesn't know how to react in certain situations. However, as noted in later chapters, her desire to perform good acts partly stems from a desire to gain honor through them. She seems to want this honor and glory because of her dark past. But changes on the journey. Ymir notes that Historia's urge to show kindness to others stems not only from a desire to gain their esteem, but also that of the people around her: to be seen as a good person.
After being abandoned by Ymir, who leave her along with Reiner and Bertolt, Historia become very pessimistic, revealing her true name and her true personality, and claim no longer to be "Krista Lenz" that people always know to be so kind and shy, while herself is a vacant person. Although Eren Yeager tells her that she seems more genuine and "less creepy" now, she continues to regard herself as lacking any true nature or identity. During uprising arc, Historia slowly got her process in the story and slowly gain her own strength and her own identity. When her father tries to manipulate her by making her the next "Founding Titan" and eat Eren Yeager, she decides against his will and frees Eren and bravely kills him.
When she become a queen, she gains a more calm, mature, and charismatic nature. Like Krista persona, she still has kind side especially towards orphans inside the wall.
Abandoned as a child, Elsa grew up on the streets of the Holy Kingdom of Gusteko, Γ] the northernmost of the world's four great nations that was known for its freezing weather and spiritualism. She stole from and hurt people in order to survive, although her way of life didn't allow for any happiness or sense of fulfilment. One day, while stealing from a store in a blizzard, the owner of the shop caught Elsa and tried to have his way with her. Without hesitation, Elsa grasped a shard of glass from a bottle of Granhiert and slit her assailant's belly open. The warmth of the man's entrails made Elsa forget the coldness that enveloped her life, and for the first time she felt truly alive. As a result, she developed a gruesome fetish for gutting people and fighting with her life on the line against opponents doing the same. She earned recognition as the "Bowel Hunter," who was feared across the world for her gruesome fetish. After being experimented on, she gained regenerative capabilities that allowed her to fight recklessly.
Eventually, she was approached by a Black Dragon who introduced herself as a mysterious figure known only as Mother, and after morphing into a small girl with gold-coloured hair and scarlet-red eyes, recognised Elsa as one of her daughters.
As an assassin, Elsa was one sent after Meili, who was currently living with the Demon Beasts as a feral child in a forest. As instructed, she killed all the Demon Beasts and brought the child back. At that time, Meili was in a state where she couldn't speak, so her manner of speech and such was greatly influenced by Elsa. Δ] Elsa found a partner in the young teenage girl Meili Portroute, who had the power to control Demon Beasts. Elsa and Meili became as close as sisters overtime.
At one point, the Bowel Hunter was tasked with killing an important figure from the Sacred Empire of Vollachia, a meritocratic nation located to the far south of the Holy Kingdom of Gusteko. Although she was able to kill her target, she was confronted by Vollachia's Blue Lightning, who was acting as the person's bodyguard. Barely escaping with her life, the event would be forever engraved in Elsa's memory.
پس از مرگ تیمور، ترکان عثمانی و آل جلایر و ترکمانان قراقویونلو، برخی سرزمینهایی را که تیمور گرفته بود تصرف کردند. با این همه، فرزندان تیمور موفق شدند که شمال ایران را در مدت یک سده تحت فرمانروایی خود نگاهدارند؛ ولی آنان اغلب با یکدیگر در کشمکش بودند. سرانجام شاهرخ موفق شد که مناقشات اقوام خود را تا حدی رفع و قدرت و اعتبار کشور را نگهداری کند؛ ولی پس از مرگ او منطقه تحت فرمانش به قسمتهای کوچکتر مجزا شد و صفویان توانستند آنها را به حکومت خود پیوست کنند.
با این حال خاندان تیموری از میان نرفت و نوادگان تیمور به سرکردگی بابر چندی پستر فرمانروایی خود را به هندوستان بردند و دولت سلسلهٔ بابری را بنیاد گذاردند که اروپائیان آن را مغول کبیر مینامند.
دوران شکوه امپراتوری گورکانی یا مغول کبیر تا اواسط پادشاهی اورنگزیب عالمگیر بود پس از وی یعنی در دوران مغول صغیر از قدرت این امپراتوری به شدت کاسته شد و کشور هند که در روزگار اکبرشاه و شاهجهان و اورنگزیب سیر تمدن و ترقی را آغاز کرده بود رو به ضعف نهاد. بهادرشاه دوم آخرین فرمانروای گورکانی بود که در سال ۱۸۵۷ میلادی تاج و تخت را به انگلیسیها واگذار کرد.
پس از حملهٔ نادرشاه گورکانیان ضعیف شدند در جنوب پادشاهی ماراتا که قدرتی تازه و دشمنی خطرناک از هر لحاظ حتی فرهنگی بهشمار میآمد مناطق جنوبی را تصرف کرد. دین رسمی حکومت ماراتا هندو بود در حالی که گورکانیان یک دولت مسلمان بودند. به این ترتیب گورکانیان ضعیف شدند تا اینکه در سال ۱۸۵۷ میلادی بدست کمپانی هند شرقی بریتانیا نابود شدند.